Book Cover Blankr Book Cover

Outline of "Monumental Beauty: Peace
Monuments and Museums Around the World"

12 Time Periods = 12 Chapter Titles
& 12 Featured Images
Key Peace Events
Blue = Key Individuals
Representative Peace Monuments
Green = Page.Position of 416 Published Images | Red = 12 Featured Images | Blue = Key Individuals
Museums for Peace

Chapter 1

Before 1900:
Allegories & Angels

Pages 1-6

40 Selected Monuments
(including no museum)

Infinite Time (Before 1900)

13 Countries
Av 3.1 Monuments/Country

1803-1806 War of the Third Coalition
1812-1815 War of 1812
1848 European Revolutions of 1848
1853-1856 Crimean War
1861-1864 Civil War (USA)
1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War

1865 (4/15) Assassination of President Lincoln, Ford's Theater, Washington, DC

Laws & Treaties
1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France)
1789 Bill of Rights = 10 Constitutional Amendments (USA)
1807 Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade (UK)
1863 Emancipation Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln (USA)
1872 Settlement of the Alabama Claims in Geneva
1893 Electoral Bill for women's suffrage (New Zealand)
1899 Convention on Laws & Customs of War on Land

1784 Pennsylvania Abolition Society
1785 New York Manumission Society
1816 (6/14) London Peace Society
1863 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
1891 International Peace Bureau (IPB)
1899 Permanent Court of Arbitration (now in Peace Palace)

1848 "Declaration of Rights & Sentiments," Seneca Falls, NY
1848 (Sep) First World Peace Congress, Brussels, Belgium
1864 First Geneva Convention
1895 First Lake Mohawk Conference on International Arbitration (USA)
1899 First Hague Peace Conference, Netherlands

Speeches, Books & Films
1517 "The Complaint of Peace" by Desiderius Erasmus
1796 Farewell address by George Washington
1848 "Civil Disobedience" by Henry David Thoreau
1854 "Walden" by Henry David Thoreau
1862 "Memory of Solferino" by Henry Dunant
1863 (11/19) Gettysburg Address by President Abraham Lincoln
1865 (3/4) Second Inaugural Address by President Abraham Lincoln
1869 "War and Peace" by Leo Tolstoy
1887 First book of Esperanto by Ludwik Zamenhof
1889 "Die Waffen nieder/Lay Down Your Arms!" by Bertha von Suttner
1893 (9/11) Address by Swami Vivekananda Parliament of the World's Religions
1894 "The Kingdom of God Is Within You" by Leo Tolstoy
1896 Last will & testament of Alfred Nobel creates the Nobel Prizes
1898 "La Guerre Future/Is War Now Impossible?" by Jan Bloch

Peace Art
c2500 BCE Page 2.1 Peace Panel on Standard of Ur, British Museum, London, England
1339 Page 2.6 "Pax" (female peace) by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Sala della Pace, Siena, Italy
1483 "Venus & Mars" by Sandro Botticelli, National Gallery, London, England
c1602 ''Allegorie des Friedens und des Uberflusses" by Hans von Aachen, St Petersburg, Russia
1628 "Reconcilation of King Henry III & Henry of Navarre" by Peter Paul Rubens, Univ of Rochester, NY
1629 "Allegory on the blessings of peace" by Peter Paul Rubens, National Gallery, London, England
1630 Page 3.1 "Blessings of Peace" by Peter Paul Rubens, National Gallery, London
1648 Page 3.3 "Ratification of the Treaty of Munster" by Gerard Ter Borch, National Gallery, London
1654 Page 3.4 "Peace & Justice Embracing" by Laurent de La Hyre, Toledo, OH
1716 "Peace & Liberty Triumphing Over Tyranny" by James Thornhill, "The Painted Hall," Greenwich
1770 ''Mars & Venus: Allegory of Peace" by Louis Jean François Lagrenée, Getty Ctr, Los Angeles, CA
1780 Page 3.6 "Peace Bringing Back Abundance" by Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Le Brun, Louvre, Paris
c1783 "Peace of Paris, 1783" (unfinished) by Benjamin West, Dip Reception Rms, Dept of State, Wash, DC
1810-1820 "Los Desastres de la Guerra/The Disasters of War" by Francisco Goya, in various collections
1814 "El tres de mayo de 1808 en Madrid" by Francisco Goya, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain
c1815 "Peace" (Allegory of the Treaty of Ghent) by John Rubens Smith, Library of Congress, Washington
1827 "Fame & Peace Crowning George Washington" by Antonio Capellano, US Capitol, Washington, DC
1855 "Reconcilation of Montagues & Capulets" by Frederic Lord Leighton, Yale Univ , New Haven, CT
1871 Page 5.5 "Apotheosis of War" by Vasily Vasilyevich, Moscow, Russia

Statues of Dead Peacemakers
1622 Page 2.8 Statue of Erasmus [1466-1536], Rotterdam, Netherlands
1840 Page 4.4 Statue of William Wilberforce [1759-1833], Westminster Abbey, London, England
1868 Page 5.3 Statue of Richard Cobden [1804-1865], Camden High Street, London, England
1876 Page 5.7 Emancipation Memorial (Lincoln & freed slave) by Thomas Ball, Washington, DC
1893 Page 6.4 Statue of "Apostle of Peace" Henry Richard [1812-1888], Tregaron, Cardiganshire, Wales

Other Peace Statues
c370 BCE Page 2.2 Irene (Greek Goddess of Peace), Munich, Germany
23 BCE Page 2.3 Ara Pacis/Altar of Peace of Caesar Augustus, Rome, Italy
c1735 Statue of Pax (Roman godess of peace), Garden of Pavlovsk Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia
1793 Page 3.7 Goddess of Peace, Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, Germany
1858 Statue of Peace, East front portico (to the right of the Columbus doors), US Capitol, Washington, DC
1862 Page 4.8 "Allégorie de la Paix" by Yves de Coëtlogon, Parc Richelieu, Calais, France
1866 Page 5.2 Statue de la Paix (with olive branch), Verviers, Belgium
1870 Page 5.4 Peace Memorial Fountain, Smithfield, London, England
1877 Page 6.1 "Peace & Vigilence," by Daniel Chester French, Old Post Office, St. Louis, MO
1886 Statue of Liberty by Frédéric Bartholdi, New York Harbor, NY
1895 Page 6.5 Bourgeois de Calais by Auguste Rodin, Calais, France
1899 Page 6.8 Fridensengel/Angel of Peace, Munich, Germany

Peace Buildings
75 CE Page 2.4 Templum Pacis/Temple of Peace, Forum of Vespasian, Rome, Italy
13th Century Cathedral (early use of lion & lamb theme), Atri, Abruzzo, Italy)
1648 Page 3.2 Friedenssall/Peace Hall, Rathaus, Münster, Germany (unintentional monument)
1648 Friedenssall/Peace Hall, Rathaus/City Hall, Osnabrück, Germany (unintentional monument)
1813 Ahu'ena Heiau (temple dedicated to god of peace & prosperity), Kailua-Kona, Big Island, HI
1820 Temple de l'Amite et de la Paix by Count Jean-Jaques de Sellon, UN, Geneva, Switzerland
1848 Page 4.5 Friedenskirche/Church of Peace, Sanssouci Park, Potsdam, Germany
1850 Page 4.6 Paulskirche (3rd Intl Peace Congress), Paulsplatz, Frankfurt (unintentional monument)
1865 (4/15) Ford's Theater, Washington, DC (unintentional monumnet)
1883-1929 Carnegie Libraries by Andrew Carnegie, USA & other countries

Monuments with Doves of Peace:
c500 AD Page 2.5 "Bincentia in Pace," San Sebastiano Catacomb, Rome, Italy
6th century Umbraculum (shell & dove mosaic), Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy
1181 "Noah Receiving the Dove," Augustinian Monastery, Vindobona, near Vienna, Austria
1660 "Dove of the Holy Spirit" by Gianlorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

1682 Page 3.5 Treaty Elm of William Penn, Philadelphia, PA
c1833 Page 4.1 "Peaceable Kingdom" by Edward Hicks, various galleries in USA
1872 Page 5.6 George Fox Memorial, Fenny Drayton, England

1835 Page 4.2 William Wilberforce Monument, Queen's Gardens, Hull, England
1840 Page 4.4 Statue of William Wilberforce [1759-1833], Westminster Abbey, London, England
1840 Page 4.3 "Slave Trade" by Auguste Francois Biard, Nat Underground RR Museum, Cincinnati, OH
1852 Grave of Frances Wright, Spring Grove Cemetery & Arboretum, Cincinnati, OH
1865 Page 5.1 Buxton Memorial Fountain (for end of slavery), Westminster, London, England
1876 Page 5.7 Emancipation Memorial (Lincoln & freed slave) by Thomas Ball, Washington, DC

Following Wars
1806 Page 3.8 Tripoli Peace Monument made in Italy by Charles Micali, US Naval Acdy, Annapolis, MD
1878 Page 6.2 Naval Peace Monument, National Mall, Washington, DC (for US Civil War)
1897 Page 6.6 Handshake of Generals Lee & Grant, Grant's Tomb, New York City, NY (for US Civil War)
1898 Page 6.7 Arbol de la Paz/Tree of Peace, Havana, Cuba (for War of 1898)

From Expositions in USA
1876 Page 5.8 Charrue de la Paix/Peace Plow (from US Centennial Expo), City Hall, Geneva
1893 Peace Plow by Univ Peace Union, Parliament of World's Religions, Chicago, IL (where now?)
1893-1940's Japanese Pavilion, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, IL (destroyed by arson?)

Other Peace Monuments
Classical symbols of peace: Angel, dove, laurel branch
823 CE Tang-Tubo Alliance Monument, Jokhang Temple, Barkhor Square, Lhasa, Tibet
c1100 Olive trees, Garden of Gethsemane, Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem
1593 Page 2.7 Friendship Bridge, Noa An, Vietnam
1793 Page 3.7 Goddess of Peace, Brandenburger Tor/Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, Germany
1838 Arco della Pace/Arch of Peace, Parco Sempione, Milan, Italy
1851 Page 4.7 Friendship Park on international border, San Diego/Tijuana, USA/Mexico (now fenced)
1873 Cloche de Shinagawa/Shinagawa Bell (from Japan), Ariana Museum, Geneva, Switzerland
1879/1885 Page 6.3 Robert Owen & Reformers Mems by Joseph Corfield, Kensel Green Cem, London
1896 "Peace & War" mural, Library of Congress, Washington, DC
1898 Peace Cross dedicated by President McKinley, Cleveland Park,, Washington, DC


Chapter 2

Turn of the
20th Century

Pages 7-10

24 Selected Monuments
(including 2 museums)

14 Years (1900-1913)
Av 1.7 Monuments/Year

13 Countries
Av 1.8 Monuments/Country

1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War ("first great war of the 20th century")

Early Peace Institutions
1901 First Nobel Peace Prize (endowed by Alfred Nobel)
1907 2nd Hague Peace Conf = Convention on Laws of War on Land
1909 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
1910 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace by Andrew Carnegie

Speeches, Books & Films
1906 (9/11) Gandhi's Satygraha speech in Johannesburg, South Africa
1908 "Scouting for Boys' by Lord Baden-Powell

US Civil War
1903 Page 8.2 "Goddess of Victory" (Sherman Monument) by Augustus St. Gaudens, New York City, NY
1907 Page 8.8 Statue of Peace, Vicksburg National Military Park, Vicksburg, MS
1910 Page 9.5 New York Peace Monument, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, TN
1911 Old Guard Peace Monument, Prospect Park, Atlanta, GA
1913 Page 10.4 Peace Monument & Tribute to Women by Charles T. Mulligan, Courthouse, Decatur, IN

King Edward VII
1904 Page 8.3 Christo Redentor de los Andes for King Edward VII, Argentina/Chile
1910 Page 9.4 "Bringer of Peace" for King Edward VII, Friary Park, London, England
1912 Page 9.7 Peace Statue for King Edward VII, Brighton-Hove, England

Andrew Carnegie
1908 Page 9.1 Andrew Carnegie Birthplace Museum, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland (unintentional monument)
1910 Page 9.3 Peace Tree, Pan American Union building by Andrew Carnegie, Washington, DC
1910-1911 Corte de Justica Centroamerican by Andrew Carnegie, Cartago, Costa Rica (destroyed)
1913 Page 10.5 Vredespaleis/Peace Palace by Andrew Carnegie, The Hague, Netherlands
1913 Page 10.6 Peace Palace Gardens, surrounding Vredespaleis/Peace Palace, The Hague, Netherlands
1913 Page 10.7 Peace Palace Fountain, Vredespaleis/Peace Palace, The Hague, Netherlands
1929 Page 10.8 Peace Palace Fountain (replica), Amsterdam Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

c1905 Page 8.4 Horfield Quaker Meeting House, Gloucester Road, Bristol, England

Other Angels
1906 Page 8.6 "Peace" on monument for President McKinley, Columbus, OH
1907 Page 8.7 "Blessed Are the Peacemakers" window, Arlington Street Church, Boston, MA
1910 Ángel de la Independencia (El Ángel ), Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City, Mexico
1912 Page 8.8 Angel of Peace on Chariot of War, Wellington Arch, London, England

Other Peace Monuments
c1908 Peace Park by John C. Latham, Hopkinsville, KY (world's first peace park?)
1909 Page 9.2 Weltpostdenkmal/World Postal Union Monument, Bern, Switzerland
1910 Japanese Garden of Peace, London, England (world's first peace garden?)
1910 Grave of Henry Dunant, Friedhof Sihlfeld, Zurich, Switzerland
1911 Page 8.6 Sino-Korean Friendship Bridge, Yalu River, China/North Korea
1912 Page 10.1 Cairn of Peace & Museum Brnenska (Austerlitz), Prace, Czech Republic
1913 Page 10.2 "Bourgeois de Calais" by Auguste Rodin, Victoria Gardens, London, England
1913 Page 10.3 National Women’s Monument, Bloemfontein, South Africa (for Boer War)
Women appear in monuments

Peace/Anti-War Museums (1 museum)
1902 Page 8.1 International Museum of War & Peace of Jan Bloch, Luzerne, Switzerland
(world's first peace museum)

Holocaust Museums (none)

Civil & Human Rights Museums (none)

Some Other Museums for Peace (1 museum)
1907 Page 8.5 Wilburforce House Museum, Hull, England

Chapter 3

War & Peace

Pages 11-14

24 Selected Monuments
(including 4 museums)

17 Years (1914-1930)
Av 1.4 Monuments/Year

14 Countries
Av 1.7 Monuments/Country

World War I
1914 (6/28) Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Sarajevo
1914-1919 World War I
1915 (12/25) Christmas Truce
1918 (11/11) Armistice
1919-1920 Paris Peace Conference
1919 (6/28) Treaty of Versailles

1914 Church Peace Union by Andrew Carnegie
1915 Fellowhsip of Reconciliation (FOR)
1917 American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
1919 Women's International League for Peace & Freedom (WILPF)
1921 War Resisters International (WRI)/Paco
1923 War Resisters League (WRL) (USA)
1930 Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Laws & Treaties
1920 (8/20) One Tennessee legislator permits 19th Amendment, thus giving vote to all US women
1925 (7/21) Scopes trial ends in Dayton, Tennessee, after debating evolution
1928 Briand-Kellogg Pact renounces war

1914 Death of Bertha von Suttner
1915 Mahatma Gandhi returns to India from South Africa
1915-1916 Henry Ford's Peace Expedition to Europe
1922 Permanent Court of International Justice (in Peace Palace)
1923 British Mandate for Palestine
1930 Salt March to Dandi by Gandhi

Speeches, Books & Films
1914 "Die Waffen nieder/Lay Down Your Arms!" by Holger Madsen & Carl Theodor Dreyer
1918 President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
1929 "Farewell to Arms" by Ernest Hemmingway
1929 "All is Quiet on the Western Front" by Erich Maria Remarque

US Civil War
1914 Page 12.2 Confederate Monument (w/peace symbols), Arlington National Cemetery, VA
1927 Page 14.1 Peace Monument by Giuseppe Moretti, Nashville, TN (also for WW-I)

World War I
1919 Page 12.3 Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles, France (unintentional monument)
1919 Page 12.4 Peace Memorial Hall, George Town, Cayman Islands
(Other Peace Memorials in many Commonwealth countries)
1919 World War I Memorial, West Main & South Gilbert Streets, Danville, IL
1920 Page 12.5 Edith Cavell Memorial, Trafalger Square, London, England
(Other Edith Cavell monuments in Belgium, Canada, France & USA)
1920 Page 12.6 Peace Arch, Wellington, New Zealand (FOR ww-I) (temporary)
1921 Page 12.8 "Victory With Peace" statue by Pietro Montana, Freedom Sq, Brooklyn, NY
1924 Page 13.1 Goddess of Peace, The Bund, Shanghai, China WW-I (no longer exists)
1924 Maria Dolens/Grieving Virgin Mary Bell, Rovereto, Italy
1925 Page 13.5 Liberty Memorial, Kansas City, MO
1925 Page 13.8 Peace Cross, US Highway 1, Bladensburg, MD (under criticism)
1927 Page 14.5 Tower of Peace & Victory by Jean Omer Marchand, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada

Canada & USA
1921 Page 12.7 International Peace Arch by Sam Hill, Blaine, WA/Douglas, BC, USA/Canada
1922 Fountain of Time by Larado Taft, Cottage Grove Avenue, Washington Park, Chicago, IL
1925 Page 13.4 Harding International Good Will Memorial, Stanley Park, Vancouver, BC, Canada
1927 Page 14.2 Canadian Cross of Sacrifice by Sir Reginald Bloomfield, Arlington National Cem, VA
1927 Page 14.4 Peace Bridge, Niagara River, Buffalo/Fort Erie, USA/Canada
1930 Page 14.6 Shrine Peace Memorial, Exposition Park, Toronto, ON, Canada
1930 Page 14.7 Plaque by Jonathan M. Swanson, Ambassador Bridge, Detroit/Windsor, USA/Canada

Other Peace Monuments
1914 Page 12.1 Fredsmonument by Lars Johan Lehming, Morokulien, Norway/Sweden
1914 Merrill House, Church Peace Union of Andrew Carnegie, New York City, NY
1915 "Peace" by Benny Bufano, near Lake Merced, San Francisco, CA
1922 "Emancipation of a Race" & "Unification" murals by Jules Guerin, Lincoln Mem, Washington, DC
1924 Page 13.2 Pax Mal/Peace Monument by Karl Bickel, Walenstadtberg, Switzerland
1925 Page 13.3 Frank A. Miller Testimonial Peace Tower, Mount Rubidoux, Riverside, CA
1927 Page 14.3 "La Délivrance" by Emile Guillaume , Finchley, London, England
1928 Arbol de la Fraternidad Americana, Parque de la Fraternidad Americana, Havana, Cuba
1929 Page 10.8 Fountain (replica from Peace Palace in The Hague), Toronto, ON, Canada
1929 Bok Tower & Gardens by Edward Bok, Historic Bok Sanctuary, Lake Wales, FL
1930 Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst, Victoria Tower Gardens, London, England

Peace/Anti-War Museums (3 museums)
1925 Page 13.6 Peace Memorial Museum, Zanzibar Island, Tanzania (still open?)
1925-1933 1982 Page 13.7 Anti-Kriegs-Museum of Ernest Friedrich, Berlin (closed & reopened)
1930 Page 14.8 IJzertoren Museum of War, Peace & Flemish Emancipation, Belgium

Holocaust Museums (None)

Civil & Human Rights Museums (1 museum)
1929 Sewall-Belmont Musuem, Washington, DC

Some Other Museums for Peace
1924-1938 Nicholas Roerich Museum, New York City, NY (closed)
1926 Page 13.5 National World War I Museum, Kansas City, MO
1927 Esperantomuseum/Esperanto Museum, Vienna, Austria

Chapter 4

Parks & Bombs

Pages 15-18

24 Selected Monuments
(including 1 museum)

9 Years (1931-1939)
Av 2.7 Monuments/Year

12 Countries
Av 2.0 Monuments/Country

1936-1939 Spanish Civil War
1937 Aerial bombing of Guernica, Spain
1939 (9/1) Germany invades Poland

1932 (11/8-9) Beer Hall Putsch (Hitler fails to seize power) Munich, Germany
1933 (1/30) Hitler named Chancellor of Germany
1938 (11/9-10) Krystallnacht in Germany & Austria

1938 (9/30) Munich Agreement with Hitler

Laws & Treaties
1935 International Pact for Protection of Artistic & Scientific Institutions
& Historic Sites (Roerich Pact), White House, Washington, DC

Speeches, Books & Films
1933 Einstein & Freud correspondence ("Why war?")
1939 (8/2) Einstein–Szilárd letter to President warning that Nazi Germany may discover atomic bomb

World War I
1932 "Grieving Parents" sculpture by Kathe Kollwitz, Vladslo German War Cemetery, Belgium
1933 "Hungary Mourns Her Lost Children" sculpture by Emile Guillaume, Debrecen, Hungary
1936 Statue of Peace, Canadian National Vimy Memorial, Vimy, France
1938-1942 Page 18.4 "Monument à la gloire des Américains," Pointe de Grave, Le Verdon, France (destroyed by Nazis)

Canada & USA
1931 Page 16.1 Perry's Victory & Intl Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, S. Bass Island, OH (for War of 1812)
1932 Page 16.3 Waterton/Glacier International Peace Park, Montana/Alberta, USA/Canada
1932 Page 16.4 International Peace Garden, Manitoba/North Dakota, USA/Canada
1935 Rush/Bagot Memorial Tablet, Washington, DC
c1937 Page 17.4 Kiwanis "Unfortified Boundary" monuments, USA/Canada

Holt & Pankhurst
1934 "Walk of Fame" by Hamilton Holt, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL
1936 Page 17.1 Anti-War Memorial (Stone Bomb) by Sylvia Pankurst, Woodford Green, Essex, England
1938 Page 17.6 Anti-war monument ("Pause, passer by") by Hamilton Holt, Rollins Col, Winter Park, FL

League of Nations
1930-1940's Peace Lighthouse, Summit of Mount Lycabettus, Athens, Greece (destroyed by Nazis)
1938 Page 18.3 Palais des Nations/Palace of Nations, Ariana Park, Geneva, Switzerland
1939 "Armillary Sphere" by Paul Manship, Palais des Nations/Palace of Nations, Ariana Park, Geneva

Nazi Germany
1930-1940's Peace Lighthouse, Summit of Mount Lycabettus, Athens, Greece (destroyed by Nazis)
1936 Page 16.8 Olympic Stadium & Cauldron, Berlin, Nazi Germany
1937 Page 17.2 "Guernica" painting by Pablo Picasso, Paris, France (now in Madrid, Spain)
1938-1942 Page 18.4 "Monument à la gloire des Américains," Pointe de Grave, Le Verdon, France (destroyed by Nazis)

Other Peace Monuments
1931 Page 16.2 Place L. Zamenhof/L. Zamenhof Square, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
1931 Pax Cultura & Banner of Peace by Nicholas Roerich
1931 Dresselhuys Peace Monument, Carnegielaan/Carnegie Avenue, The Hague, Netherlands

1933 Page 16.5 Pan American World Airways Globe, Miami, FL
1933-1934 "Man at the Crossroads..." mural by Diego Rivera, Rockefeller Center, New York City, NY
1935 "Vision of Peace," by Carl Milles (American Indian), City Hall, St. Paul, MN

1936 Page 16.6 International Friendship Gardens, Michigan City, IN
1936 Page 16.7 Jardin de la Paz/International Peace Garden, La Plata, Argentina
1937 Page 17.3 Pax (dedicated to Aristide Briand), National Assembly, Paris, France

1938 Page 17.5 Peace Table by Constantin Brancusi, Tg-Jiu, Gorj, Romania
1938 Page 17.7 Peace Cairn, Empire Exposition, Glasgow, Scotland
1938 Page 17.8 "Blessed Are the Peacemakers," Mount of Beatitudes, Galilee, Israel
1938 Page 18.1 Peace Light Memorial, Gettysburg Battlefield, PA (for 75th anniversary of Civil War)
1938 Page 18.2 Welsh National Temple of Peace & Health, Cardiff, Wales

1939 Page 18.5 NY State Peace Memorial to Isaac Jogues, Lake George, NY
1939 Page 18.6 American Legion Peace Gardens, Cleveland Cultural Gardens, Cleveland, OH
1939 Page 18.7 Peacemakers Mural, California World's Fair, San Francisco, CA
1939 Page 18.8 Laxminarayan Temple/Birla Mandir by Baldeo Das Birla & Gandhi, New Delhi, India


Chapter 5

War & Hiroshima

Pages 19-23

32 Selected Monuments
(including 1 museum)

20 Years (1940-1959)
Av 1.6 Monuments/Year

9 Countries
Av 3.6 Monuments/Country

World War II
1939 (9/1) Germany invades Poland
1941 (8/14) Atlantic Charter (FRD & Churchill), Newfoundland
1941 (12/7) Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
1945 (7/17-8/2) Potsdam Conference, Germany
1945 (8/6 & 8/9) Atomic bombs, Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japan

Other Wars
1947-1949 Israeli "War of Independence," 1st of Israel's 7 wars
1949 Armistice of Israel & its neighbors. Green Line established
1950-1953 Korean War
1953 Korean Armistice
1954-1962 Algerian War of Independence
1954 (5/7) French loose Siege of Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam
1955-1975 Vietnam War fought by USA
1956 (Oct) Sinai War with Egypt, 2nd of Israel's 7 wars
1956 (10/29-11/7) Suez Crisis defused by Canadian Lester Pearson
1959 (1/8) Fidel Castro leads revolutionary army into Havana, Cuba

1944 World Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, NH
1949 Geneva Conventions
1955 Bandung Conference of nonaligned nations
1957 (July) First Pugwash Conference hosted by Cyrus Eaton in Pugwash, NS

1942 Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) (USA)
1944 Pax Christi (France)
1945 (6/26) Charter of the United Nations, San Francisco, CA
1945 International Court of Justice (in Peace Palace)
1946 UNESCO, Paris, France
1947 Marshall Plan
1948 World Health Organization (WHO)
1948 First peace studies program, Manchester College, IN
1959 International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway

Laws & Treaties
1948 (12/10) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Paris
1950 European Convention on Human Rights
1954 Brown v. Board of Education (USA)

1951-1952 Defiance Campaign of African National Congress (South Africa)
1955 Bus Boycott by Rosa Parks & others, Montgomery, AL
1958 First Aldermaston March (UK)
1958 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament & CND peace symbol
1959 Song "We Shall Overcome" popularized

1948 (1/30) Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, New Delhi, India
1948 First deployment of UN peacekeepers (Palestine)
1948 (12/11) UNGA Resolution 194 provides for Palestinian "right of return"
1950 Nobel Peace Prize to Ralph Bunche
1954 "Lucky Dragon" fishing boat exposed to nuclear radiation
1955 (8/28) Murder of Emmett Till at Bryant's Grocery & Meat Market, Money, MS

Speeches, Books & Films
1941 "Four Freedoms" speech by President Roosevelt
1945 Photo from Buchenwald by Margaret Bourke-White, Life Magazine
1946 "Hiroshima" by John Hersey
1946 (3/5) "Iron Curtain Speech" by Winston Churchill at Westminster College in Fulton, MO
1953 (12/8) "Atoms for Peace" speech to UNGA by President Eisenhower
1955 (7/9) Russell-Einstein Manifesto, London (leading to Pugwash conferences)

Pre-War Peace Monuments
1940 Page 20.2 Peace Monument (for Coprosperity Sphere), Miyazaki, Kyushu, Japan
1940 Page 20.1 Peace Carillon, Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, MI (visible from Windsor, ON)

1945 Page 20.6 Genbaku/Atomic Bomb Dome, Hiroshima, Japan (unintentional monument)
1948 Page 21.4 E=MC² Monument to Victims at Girls HS, Hiroshima, Japan
1949 Page 21.5 Bell of Peace, Tamon-in Temple, Hiroshima, Japan (1st peace bell?)
1950 Bell of Banzai for Absolute Peace by Chiyoji Nakagawa, Ehime, Shikoku Island, Japan
1952 Page 21.2 Cenotaph for A-Bomb Victims, Hiroshima, Japan
1952 Nishi-Heiwa-Ohashi/West Peace Bridge by Isamu Noguchi, Honkawa River, Hiroshima, Japan
1954 Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan
1954 Memorial Cathedral for World Peace by Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle, Naka-ku, Hiroshima, Japan
1955 Statue of Shinran Shonin (from Hiroshima), 331 Riverside Drive, New York City, NY
1958 Children's Peace Monument (Sadako Sasaki), Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan

1945 Urakami Cathedral, Urakami, Nagasaki, Japan (unintentional monument)
1955 Nagasaki Peace Park, Matsuyama-machi, Nagasaki, Japan
1955 Page 23.1 Prayer Monument for Peace by Seibo Kitamura, Nagasaki Peace Park, Nagasaki, Japan
1956 Hypocenter Cenotaph, Nagasaki, Japan
1959 Urakami Cathedral (restoration), Urakami, Nagasaki, Japan

Other World War II
1943 Page 20.3 Four Fredoms Memorial of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Madison, FL
1944 Oradour-sur-Glane (destroyed 6/10 by Waffen-SS), Haute-Vienne, France (unintentional monument)
1945 Amache Japanese Internment Camp, Granada, CO (unintentional monument)
1948 Page 22.3 Warsaw Ghetto Memorial by Nathan Rapoport, Warsaw, Poland
1955 Page 23.2 "Goddess of Peace" by Ivar Johnson, Great Square, Karlstad, Sweden

United Nations
1944 Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC (venue of "Conversations on Intl Peace & Security Organization")
1945 War Memorial Building, now on United Nations Plaza, San Francisco, CA (venue for charter signing)
1946 Methodist Central Hall, Westminster, London, England (venue of 1st General Assembly meeting)
1948 UN Hq, Alar Street (extension of Haas Promenade), Jerusalem (1st UN peacekeeping operation)
1950 Page 22.1 United Nations Headquarters Building by Le Corbusier, New York City, NY
1952 Peace & Freedom Tapestry by Per Krohg, Security Council Room, UN Headquarters, NY City, NY
1953 "Mankind's Struggle for a Lasting Peace" by Jose Vela Zanetti, Conf Building, UN Hq, NY City, NY
1954 Page 22.5 Japanese Peace Bell by Chiyoji Nakagawa, UN Headquarters, New York City, NY
1958 Page 23.6 Jardin Japonais de la Paix by Isamu Noguchi, UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France
1959 Page 23.7 "Let Us Beat Swords Into Plowshares" by Evgeniy Vuchetich, UN Headquarters, NY City

Gandhi Monuments
1948 Birla House, New Delhi, India (unintentional monument)
1948 Raj Ghat (Gandhi's cremation site), near Red Fort, New Delhi, India
1950 Page 21.7 Gandhi World Peace Memorial (ashes), Self-Realization Fellowship, Pacific Pallisades, CA
1955 Mani Bhavan (Ghandi Sangaralaya), 19 Laburnum Road, Gamdevi, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Palestine & Israel
1948 Deir Yassin (now Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center), West Jerusalem, Israel (unintentional monument)
1948 Mosque, Al-Ghabisiyya (Palestinian Village), near Nahariya, Israel (unintentional monument)
1948 UN Hq, Alar Street (extension of Haas Promenade), Jerusalem (1st UN peacekeeping operation)

Other Peace Monuments
1945 Page 20.5 Housmans Bookshop (Peace House) by George Housman, London, England
1947 Page 21.1 "Peace on Earth" Statue, American Garden, Intl Peace Gdns, Jordan Park, Salt Lake City, UT
1951 Page 22.8 "Pummerin" Bell (made from canons), Stephansdom/St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, Austria
1952 Peace Memorial by Marshall Fredericks, Shain Park, Birmingham, near Detroit, MI
1954 World Peace Pagoda (Kabar Aye Pagoda) by U Nu, Yangôn/Rangoon, Myanmar/Burma
1955 Peace Poles by Masahisa Goi, Japan (1st of thousands worldwide)
1955 Bryant's Grocery & Meat Market, Money, MS (unintentional monument)
1956 Peace Cross, Pine Hill, Waterbury, CT

Peace/Anti-War Museums (2 museums, 0.1/year)
1955 Page 22.7 Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima, Japan
1955 Atomic Bomb Museum, Nagasaki, Japan

Holocaust Museums (4 museums, 0.2/year)
1947 Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland (historic site)
1949 Beit Lohamei Haghetaot, W.Galilee, Israel (1st Holocaust museum)
1951 Holocaust Museum, Kibbutz Yad Mordechai, Israel
1953 Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial, Jerusalem, Israel

Civil & Human Rights Museums (none)

Some Other Museums for Peace
1946 Susan B. Anthony Museum, Rochester, NY
1946 League of Nations Museum, Geneva, Switzerland
1948 Museum of the Cherokee Indian, Cherokee, NC
1955 Mani Bhavan (Ghandi Sangaralaya), Mumbai, India (historic site)

Chapter 6

United Nations
& Genocide

Pages 24-28

32 Selected Monuments
(including 2 museums)

20 Years (1960-1979)
Av 1.6 Monuments/Year

16 Countries
Av 2.0 Monuments/Country

Palestine & Israel
1967 (6/5-10) Six-Day War, 3rd of Israel's 7 wars
1968 Yasir Arafat becomes head of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
1968-1970 War of Attrition, 4th of Israel's 7 wars
1970 Jordan expels PLO to Lebanon
1972 (Sept) Terrrors kill 11 Israelis at Olympics in Munich
1973 (Oct) Yom Kippur War = Arab-Israeli War, 5th of Israel's 7 wars
1973 Israel withdraws from Sinai Peninsula. UN Emergency Force in Egypt
1973 Yom Kippur War
1974 UNGA recognizes PLO as "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people
1975-1990 Lebanese Civil War
1976 (7/4) IDF rescues Jewish hostages at Entebbe Airport, Uganda
1977 (11/19) Egyptian President Anwar Sadat of visits Israel
1978 (4/1) "Peace Now" (Israel)
1978 (12/10) Camp David Accords by Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat & Menachem Begin
1979 (3/26) Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty signed in Washington, DC

Vietnam War
1967 (10/21) Large anti-war demonstration at Lincoln Memorial & Pentagon
1968 (Jan) Tet Offensive
1968 (3/16) My Lai Massacre by US Army
1970 US Incursion into Cambodia (followed by Kent State Massacre)
1973 (8/15) US military involvement ends as a result of Case–Church Amendment
1975 (4/30) Fall of Saigon. Last helicopters lift off of US Embassy roof.

1963 (6/12) Assassination of Medgar Evers, Jackson, MS
1963 (11/23) Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Dallas, TX
1968 (4/4) Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Memphis, TN
1968 (6/6) Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Los Angeles, CA

Other Deaths
1961 (1/17) Patrice Lamumba is executed in Elizabethville, Katanta, with Belgian help
1961 (9/18) Airplace crash kills UN SecGen Dag Hammarskjöld in Africa
1962 (5/31) Former SS officer Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel
1967 (10/9) Argentine Che Guevara is executed in Vallegrande, Bolivia

1969 Torture (Brazil)
1975 Operation Condor campaign of political repression & terror (Chile)
1976-1983 "Dirty War" during which 10-30,000 people disappeared (Argentina)

1961 Belgrade Summit of nonaligned nations
1972 Strategic Arms Limitarion Talks (SALT)
1979 SALT II

1961 Peace Corps br Robert F. Kennedy (USA)
1961 Amnesty International (AI)
1964 Group of 77 created by nonalligned nations
1966 National Organization of Women (NOW) (USA)
1971 World Economic Forum (first annual meeting in Davos, Switzerland)
1973 UN peacekeeping codified
1978 Green Party (Germany)

Laws & Treaties
1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty
1967 Treaty of Tlateloco makes Latin America nuclear free
1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
1973 Paris peace accords for Vietnam
1974 (11/24) Communiqué on SALT treaty signed in Vladivostok by Gerald Ford & Leonid Brezhnev

1961 Freedom Rides (USA)
1965 (3/7) "Bloody Sunday" voting rights protest in Selma, AL
1963 Freedom Summer, Mississippi (USA)
1965 First demonstrations against war in Vietnam (USA)
1968 Student rebellions in France, Germany, USA, UK, Mexico, Japan, etc.
1969 First Earth Day
1969 "Bed-ins" by John Lennon & Yoko Ono "Give Peace a Chance"
1970 Feminist movement march on Fifth Avenue (on 50th anniversary of women's suffrage)
1970 271 separate anti-draft "occurances" in 1970 alone
1971 First voyage of a Greenpeace ship (Canada to Amchitka, Alaska)

1963 (6/26) President John F Kennedy visits Berlin Wall
1972 Surprize visit to China by US president Richard Nixon
1978 Nobel Peace Prize to Menachem Begin & Anwar Sadat

Speeches, Books & Films
1960 "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" by William L. Shirer
1961 (1/17) Farewell address (Military-Industrial Complex Speech) by Dwight D. Eisenhower
1963 "The Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan
1963 Pacim in Terris by Pope John XXIII
1963 (4/16) Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr., Birmingham, AL
1963 (6/26) "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech by John F. Kennedy, Berlin, Germany
1963 (8/28) "I have a dream" speech by Martin Luther King, Jr., Washington, DC
1964 "John F. Kennedy: Years of Lightning, Day of Drums" with Gregory Peck, US Info Agency
1964 Theory of Positive & Negative Peace by Johan Galtung
1968 (4/4) Speech about Martin Luther King, Jr. by Robert F. Kennedy, Indianapolis
1973 "The Politics of Nonviolent Action" by Gene Sharp
1975 "The Holocaust," a 4-part 9.5-hour miniseries on NBC television (USA)

Civil & Human Rights
1965 (3/7) Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, AL (unintentional monument)
1968 (4/4) Page 26.7 Lorraine Motel (MLK assassination), Memphis, TN (unintentional monument)
1969 (6/28) Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village, New York City, NY (unintentional monument)
1970 Page 27.2 Suffragette Memorial, Christchurch Gardens, London, England
1971 Page 27.5 "Broken Obelisk" by Barnett Newman, Rothko Chapel, Houston, TX (1st of several)
1976 Four Freedoms Monument of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Sunset Park, Ohio River, Evansville, IN
1973 "Break the Grip of the Absentee Landlord" mural by Mark Rogovin, Chicago, IL
1977 Page 28.5 Reformers Tree Memorial, Hyde Park, London, England (historic site)
1977 Page 28.7 Plaza de Mayo (Desaparecidos Memorial), Beunos Aires (unintentional monument)

1967 Protestant Church of Reconciliation, Dachau Concentration Camp, Dachau, Germany
1968 Page 26.6 Armenian Genocide Memorial, Yerevan, Armenia

Palestine & Israel
1966 Yad Kennedy, John F. Kennedy Peace Forest, near Moshav Aminadav, Jerusalem, Israel
1966 "Jerusalem City of Peace" wall relief by Danny Karavan, Knesset, Givat Ram, Jerusalem, Israel
1974 Grave of Oscar Schindler, Catholic Franciscans' Cemetery, Mount Zion, Jerusalem, Israel
1978 Land Day Monument, Sakhnin, Galilee, Israel

Peace Bells
1960 Yokohama Friendship Bell by Masahiko Katori, Shelter Island, San Diego, CA
1961 "Japanese temple bell of peace & friendship," Iowa State Capitol, Des Moines, IA
1962 Kobe Bell, Seattle Center (former world's fair grounds), Seattle, WA
1964 Page 25.8 Hiroshima Peace Bell by Masahiko Katori, Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan
1975 Page 27.8 Friendship Tower & Bell (Rissho Kosei-kai), Bagac, Bataan Peninsula, Philippines
1977 Page 28.6 Nagasaki Peace Bell (Western style bell), Hill of Yamazato, Nagasaki, Japan
1978 Okinawa Peace Bell, Peace Memorial Hall, Mabuni Hill, Okinawa, Japan

Peace Parks
1964 Roosevelt Campobello International Park, Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Canada
1966 Pacem in Terris sculptures by Frederick Franck, 96 Covered Bridge Rd, Warwick, NY
1972 Page 27.7 Heiwa no Ishiji/Peace Memorial Park, Okinawa, Japan
1975 Page 28.1 "Isaiah Wall," Ralph Bunche Park (opposite UN Headquarters), New York City, NY
1975 United Nations Plaza, San Francisco, CA
1978 Peace Symbols Zone, Nagasaki Peace Park, Nagasaki, Japan

Peace Statues
1960 Statue of Lord Baden-Powell by Don Potter, Baden-Powell House, London, England
1963 Page 25.4 Memorial to Grigoris Lambrakis, Thessaloniki, Greece
1967 Page 26.3 Knights of Columbus Peace Monument, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
1968 Page 26.5 Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Tavistock Square, London, England
1972 Page 27.6 Hombre en Busca de Paz/Man's Search for Peace," Medellin, Columbia
1972-1988 Trail of the Whispering Giants by Peter Wolf Toth, USA/Canada
1977 "Reconcilation" sculpture by Josephina de Vasconcellos, Univ of Bradford, England (1st of 5)

Peace Walls & Murals
1965 Page 26.1 "Produktion im Frieden/Production in Peace," Eisenhüttenstadt, East Germany
1967 Page 26.4 All Nations Peace & Reconciliation Memorial, above Friedland, Göttingen, Germany
1975 Page 28.2 "Raices de la Paz/Roots of Peace" underground mural by Carlos Paez Vilaró, OAS, Washington, DC

Peace Windows
1964 Page 25.6 "Peace & Human Happiness" window by Marc Chagall, UN Headquarters, NY City
1976 Page 28.3 Vitrail de la Paix/Peace Window by Marc Chagall, Sarrebourg, France

Peace Flames
1964 Page 25.5 John F. Kennedy Torch of Friendship, Bayfront Park, Miami, FL, USA
1964 Page 25.7 "Peace Arising from the Flames of War" by Marshall Fredericks, Cleveland, OH
1968 Hiroshima Flame, Hoshino-mura, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu Island, Japan

Peace Pagodas
1968 Peace Pagoda, Peace Plaza, Nihonmachi (Japan Town), San Francisco, CA
1978 Peace Pagoda (Nipponzan Myohoji), Sri Pada, Sri Lanka

Other Peace Monuments
Year? Page 25.1 Dove of Peace ("La Cola de la Ballena"), La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
1960 Page 25.2 Grave of Sylvia Pankhurst (from UK), Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
1963 Page 25.3 Monumento a la Paz/Peace Monument by Dr. Farid Mattar, Caracas, Venezuela
1968 Ruta de la Amistad/Route of Friendship (1968 Olympics), Mexico City, Mexico
1969 Page 26.8 Amistad Dam, Rio Grande, Cuidad Acuna/Del Rio, Mexico/USA
1969 Page 54.5 Peace Lines & Murals, Northern Ireland
1969 Page 27.1 "Peace on Earth" Fountain, Music Center, Los Angeles, CA
1969 "The Sphere" (World Peace Monument) made in Germany by Fritz Koenig , WTC, NY City
1970 "Love" by Robert Indiana, Indianapolis Museum of Art, IN (1st of many)
1971 Page 27.3 Azadi Tower, Tehran, Iran
1971 Page 27.4 Capilla de la Paz/Chapel of Peace, Calle de la Paz, Acapulco, Mexico
1972 Open Hand Monument by Le Corbusier, "Ditch of Consideration," Chandigahr, Punjab, India
1979 Page 28.8 Vienna International Center (VIC), Vienna, Austria

Peace/Anti-War Museums (none)

Holocaust Museums (13 museums, 0.7/year)
1960 Anne Frank Huis/Anne Frank House, Prinsengracht, Amsterdam, Netherlands
1961 Gedenkstätte und Museum Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg (near Berlin), Germany
1961 Sobibor Memorial & Museum, Sobitor, Poland
1962? Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust, Pan Pacific Park, Los Angeles, CA
c1965 Holocaust Awareness Museum & Educ Ctr, Jewish Identity Ctr, Philadelphia, PA
c1965 Stutthof Museum, Stutthof Concentration Camp, Sztutowo, Poland
1965 Page 26.2 Gedenkstätte Dachau/Dachau Memorial Site, Dachau, Bavaria, Germany
1965 Konzentrationslager (KL) Natzweiler, Natzweiler-Struthof, Alsace, France
1968-1990 2006 Jasenovac Memorial Site Museum, Jasenoac, Croatia
1971 Musée de la Résistance et de la Déportation, Citadelle de Besançon, France
1975 Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp, Mauthausen & Gusen, Austria
1976 October 21 Memorial Museum, October 21 Memorial Park, Kragujevac, Serbia
1977 Anne Frank Center USA, 38 Crosby Street (5th floor), New York City, NY

Civil & Human Rights Museums (2 museums, 0.1/year)
1977 Eleanor Roosevelt Center at Val-Kill, ER National Hist Site (NPS), Val-Kill, NY
1968 Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Non-Violent Social Change, Atlanta, GA

Some Other Museums for Peace
1961 DuSable Museum of African American History, Chicago, IL
1962 Museum Haus am Checkpoint Charlie, Berlin, Germany
1965 Charles Wright Museum of African American Hist, Detroit, MI
1967 Musee Albert Schweitzer, Gunsbach, France
1967 Maruki Gallery for the Hiroshima Panels of Ira & Toshi Maruki, Saitama, Japan
1969 Henri Dunant Museum, Heiden, Switzerland
1973 Gandhi Smriti/Birla House, New Delhi, India
1974 Cherokee National Museum, Talequah, OK
1975 Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum, Okinawa, Japan
1975 Peace Resource Ctr by Barbara Reynolds, Wilmington, OH
1976 Page 28.4 African American Museum, Philadelphia, PA
1976 National Museum of American Jewish History, Philadelphia, PA
1976 Display House of the Daigo Fukuryu Maru, Tokyo, Japan
1977 Abraham Lincoln Library & Museum, Springfield, IL
1978 "Black Hole" by Ed Grothius, Los Alamos, NM (near nuclear lab)

Chapter 7

& Murals

Pages 53-58

40 Selected Monuments
(including 4 museums)

10 Years (1980-1989)
Av 4.0 Monuments/Year

20 Countries
Av 2.0 Monuments/Country

Palestine, Israel, etc.
1981 (6/7) Israeli destroys a nuclear reactor in Osirak 17 km SE of Baghdad, Iraq.
1981 (10/6) Assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in Cairo
1982 (6/6) Israel invades southern Lebanon & drives PLO out of Beirut
1982 (Jun-Sep) First Lebanon War = 6th of Israel's 7 wars (conflict lasts to 2000)
1982 (9/16-18) Israel permits massacre in Sabra & Shatilla refugee camps, South Beirut
1983 (10/23) Suicide bomber kills 241 US Marines at barracks near Beirut airport
1985 (10/1) Israel bombs PLO headquarters 12 mi from Tunis
1987-1993 First Intifada in Palestine. Hamas is created in Gaza Strip
1988 (Nov) PLO in Algiers unilaterally declares independence of Arab State of Palestine
1988 (12/15) President Reagan authorizes start of "substantive dialogue" with the PLO
1989 (10/22) Taif Agreement ends civil war (Lebanon)
1989 Human chain around Old City walls of Jerusalem

1979 (11/4)-1980 (1/20) Iran holds US embassy hostages for 444 days, Tehran
1980 (12/8) Assassination of John Lennon, New York City
1982 (4/2-6/14) Argentina seizes & UK retakes the Falkland Islands
1983 (10/25) US invades Grenada
1985 Greenpeace's "Rainbow Warrior" sunk by French in Auckland, NZ

1981 North/South Summit, Cancun, Mexico
1884 Stockholm Disarmament Conference
1986 (10/11-12) Reykjavik Summit (US & USSR fail to agree on nuclear weapons)

1980 UN University for Peace (UPAZ), Cuidad Colon, Costa Rica

1980 Solidarity strikes led by Lech Walesa (Poland)
1982 (6/12) One million people protest cold war arms race in Central Park, NY City
1983 (6/20) International Day of Nuclear Disarmament protests in 50 US cities
1986 Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament (9 mo fm LA to Washington, DC)
1989 (6/5) "Tank Man" blocks tanks in Tiananmen Square, Beijing (China)
1989 (11/9) Fall of Berlin Wall (Germany)

Laws & Treaties
1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
1982 (6/30) Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) fails ratification (USA)
1986 Reagan Administration accuses USSR of violating SALT II & withdraws
1987 Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (USA & USSR)

1986 International Year of Peace proclaimed by UNGA
1986 (Nov) Iran-Contra scandal (USA)
1988 (12/7) At UNGA Mikhail Gorbachev announces reduction of Soviet military
1988 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to UN Peacekeeping Forces
1989 (11/17) Velvet Revolution (Czechoslavakia)

Speeches, Books & Films
1982 Richard Attenborough's film "Gandhi"
1982 (5/9) "The Eureka Speech" by Ronald Reagan challenges USSR on nuclear arms
(START) = "The Beginning of the End of the Cold War"
1989 "The Second Shift: Working Parents & the Revolution at Home" by Arlie Russell Hochschild

Peace Bells
1981 World Peace Bell (from Japan), World Peace Bell Park, Shravasti, Uttar Pradesh, India
1985 Hiroshima Peace Bell, Izumo Taisha Mission, Honolulu, HI
1985 Nagasaki Peace Bell (miniature), Richland Public Library, Richland, WA (near nuclear plant)
1986 Pacific Bell by Masahiko Katori, Univ of BC, Vancouver, BC, Canada
1988 World Peace Bell #1 by Tomijiro Yoshida, Cape Soya, Hokkaido, Japan (1st of many)
1989 Page 34.3 World Peace Bell, Volkspark, Friedrichstain, Berlin, Germany
1988 Nagasaki Peace Bell, Piskarevsky Memorial Cemetery, St. Petersburg, Russia

Peace Camps
1981 Greenham Common Woman's Peace Camp, RAF Greenham Common, Berkshire, England
1982 Page 30.6 Faslane Peace Camp, Argyll & Bute, Scotland (near nuclear base)
1986 Page 32.2 "Madre del Mundo" #2 by Marsha Gómez, Peace Farm, Panandle, TX (near nuclear plant) (in storage)

Peace Gardens
1984 Intl World Peace Rose Gardens of T.J. David & Sylvia Villalobos, Sacramento, CA (1st of many)
1988 Page 33.2 Gladys Muir Peace Garden, Manchester Univ, North Manchester, IN
1986 Page 32.3 "Messenger of Peace" sculpture, Peace Garden, Manchester, England
1987 Page 32.4 Monument to Disarmament, Work & Peace by Thelvia Marin, UPaz, Costa Rica
1988 Gardens for Peace (GFP) of Dr. Laura Dorsey, Atlanta, GA (1st of many)

Peace Parks
1988 Page 33.8 Parque Internacional La Amistad, Costa Rica/Panama
1988 Page 34.1 Seattle Peace Park (from sister city), Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Peace Walls & Murals
1985 "Golden Rule" mosaic by Norman Rockwell, UN Headquarters, NY City
1985 Western Peace Wall, Victoria School, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
1985 Page 31.5 "Three Minutes to Midnight" mural by David Fitcher, Seminole St, Atlanta, GA
1988 Page 33.7 "Freedom Quilt" mural by David Fitcher, Am Friends Serv Cte, Atlanta, GA
1988 World Wall for Peace #1 by by Carolyna Marks, Berkeley, CA (1st of many)
1989 Page 34.6 Quaker Tapestry, Friends Meeting House, Kendal, Cumbria, England

Other Peace Monuments
1980 Page 30.1 "Peace Form One," Ralph Bunche Park (opposite UN Hq), New York City, NY
1980 Page 30.2 UN University for Peace (UPAZ), Cuidad Colon, Costa Rica
1983 Page 30.8 "Virgen de la Paz/Virgin of the Peace," Cuidad de Trujillo, Venezuela
1984 Page 31.1 Livermore Peace Monument by Don Homan, Livermore, CA (near nuclear lab)
1984 Page 31.2 John Lennon Memorial, Strawberry Fields, Central Park, New York City
1984 Page 31.3 Friendship Arch ("The Yoke"), Kiev, Ukraine
1984 Page 31.4 "Constellation Earth" by Paul Theodore, Blufton Univ, OH

1985 Page 31.6 Emancipation Statue, ABC Highway, Barbados
1985 Page 31.7 Peace Fountain (Glood v. Evil), Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York City, NY
1985 Page 31.8 London Peace Pagoda, Battersea Park, London, England
1985 "SunSweep" by David Barr, Campobello Is, Lake-of-the-Woods & Pt Roberts, USA/Canada
1986 Peace Tables by George Nakashima (1986, 1996, 1999, 2010)
1986 Clarke Peace Memorial by Philip C. Johnson, Univ of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN
1987 Page 32.5 Statue of Leo Tolstoy, Doukhobor Museum, Verigin, Saskatchewan, Canada
1987 Page 32.6 Statue of Franz Jägerstätter, North Philadelphia, PA
1987 Japanese Peace Monument, Attu Island, Aleutian Islands, AK
1987 Inukshuk in Canada (1987, 1988, 2002, 2003, 2007, etc.)
1987 Homomonument, Keizersgracht Canal, Amsterdam, Netherlands

1988 Page 32.7 "Manchester Peace Group" by Philip Jackson, Manchester, England
1988 Page 32.8 Peace Monument for UN International Year of Peace, Sydney, NSW, Australia
1988 Page 33.1 Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Canadian Museum of Hindu Culture, Toronto, ON, Canada
1988 Page 33.3 Monument Against War & Fascism, Alpertinaplatz, Vienna, Austria
1988 Page 33.4 "Children of the World," Nordkapp/North Cape, Norway
1988 Page 33.5 "Non-violence" (Knotted Gun) by Carl Fred Reutersward, UN Hq, NY City (2nd? of many)
1988 Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Ferry Building, San Francisco, CA
1988 Page 34.2 World Peace Gate, Olympic Park, Seoul, South Korea
1989 Page 34.4 Statue of National Reconciliation, Klafthmonos Square, Athens, Greece
1989 Page 34.5 Civil Rights Memorial (table) by Maya Lin, Poverty Law Ctr, Montgomery, AL
1989 Templo da Boa Vontade/Temple of Good Will, Brasilia, Brazil
1989 (5/30) Goddess of Democracy, Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China (lasted 5 days)

Year? Page 34.8 Gyarah Murti (Gandhi & 10 other figures on the 1930 Salt March), New Delhi, India
Popularization of peace monuments.
Nuclear disarmament

Peace/Anti-War Museums (9 museums, 0.9/year)
1980 Friedensmuseum Lindau of Thomas Wechs, Jr., Lindau, Germany (now Friedens Raeume)
1981-2005 The Peace Museum by Mark Rogovin, Chicago, IL (closed)
1982 Friedensmuseum der Kirchengemeinde, Meeder, Germany
1985 Mem Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders, Nanjing, China
1987 Vredescentrum van de Provincie en de Stad Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium
1986 Page 32.1 Intl Mus of Peace & Solidrty by Anatoly Ionesov, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
1988-2012 Peace Abbey by Lewis M. Randa, Sherborn, MA (closed)
1988 Page 54.3 Memorial pour la Paix de Caen, Colleville-sur-Mer, Normandy, France
1989 Grass Roots House Peace Museum, Kochi, Japan

Holocaust Museums (4 museums, 0.4/year)
Dallas, TX
Detroit, MI
Berlin, Germany

Civil & Human Rights Museums (5 museums, 0.5/year)
1980 Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site (NPS), Atlanta, GA
1980 Women's Rights National Historic Park (NPS), Seneca Falls, NY
1985 Osaka Human Rights Museum (Right Osaka), Osaka, Japan
1985 Schwules Museum/Gay Museum, Berlin, Germany
1987 National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC

Some Other Museums for Peace
1980 Fridensmuseum Brucke von Remagen, Rhine River, Germany
1980 Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
1981 Musee Albert Schweitzer, Kaysersberg, Alsase, France
1981 Page 30.3 Dag Hammarskjold Memorial & Museum, Ndola, Zambia
1982 Museo Etnográfico Mitad del Mundo, Cuidad Mitad del Mundo, Quito, Equador
1982 Jimmy Carter Library & Museum, Atlanta, GA
1985 Harriet Tubman African American Museum, Macon, GA
1985 Schwules Museum/Gay Museum, Kreuzberg district, Berlin, Germany
1986 Page 44.1 Lion & Lamb Peace Arts Center, Bluffton University, Ohio
1987 Florence Nightengale Museum, London, England
1987 Mus of War of Chinese People's Resistance Against Jap Aggression, Beijng, China
1988 Page 35.6 Musée Intl de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge, Geneva, Switzerland
1989 Page 34.7 Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau, Québec, Canada
1989 Monument des Droits de l'Homme, Champs de Mars (Rue de Belgrade), Paris, France

Chapter 8

Victims &

Pages 35-40

40 Selected Monuments
(including 4 museums)

5 Years (1990-1994)
Av 8.0 Monuments/Year

19 Countries
Av 2.1 Monuments/Country

Iraq & Kuwait
1990 (8/2) Iraq occupies Kuwait
1991 (2/28) Liberation of Kuwait = First Gulf War = Operation Desert Storm

Former Yugoslavia
1992-1995 War in Bosnia & Herzegovina
1992 (4/5)-1996 (2/29) Siege of Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia & Herzegovina)

Palestine & Israel
1992 Gush Shalom organized in Israel
1993 (9/13) Oslo Accords signed by Bill Clinton, Yassir Arafat & Yitzhak Rabin
1994 (2/25) Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in Hebron, West Bank
1994 Washington Declaration signed by Yitzhak Rabin & King Hussein
(witnessed by Bill Clinton)
1994 Araba Crossing Point (ends state of war between Israel & Jordan)
1994 (5/4) Palestine Authority (PA) established pursuant to the Oslo Accords
1994 (12/10) Nobel Peace Prize to Yasser Arafat , Shimon Peres & Yitzhak Rabin

UN Peacekeeping
1992 UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) created
1993 Kofi Annan appointed head of UN Peacekeeping Operations
1993 UN intervention in Somalia supported by US
1993 (10/3-4) Battle of Mogadishu ("Black Hawk Down"). 1st failure of UN peacekeeping
1994 (4/6) Rwanda President Habyarimana killed in plane crash
1994 Tutsi genocide in Rwanda = 2nd failure of UN peacekeeping
1994 (July)Tutsi army (RPF) conquers Rwanda thus ending the genocide
1994 UN peacekeeping expands to 80,000 troops in 17 operations worldwide

1991 (Oct) Madrid Conference (Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestinians, US & USSR)
1992 Global Forum & UN Conf on Environment & Development, Rio de Janeiro

1990 Origin of Peace Parks Foundation by Anton Rupert (Southern Africa)
1992 International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP)

Laws & Treaties
1990 (10/3) Reunification of Germany
1992 Maastricht Treaty establishing the European Union
1993 UN Chemical Weapons Convention

1990 Nelson Mandela's release from prison
1991 (Dec) Collapse of the Soviet Union
1994 End of Apartheid, Freedom Day (South Africa)
1994 Israel begins to construct security barrier east of Green Line

Speeches, Books & Films
1993 "Schindler's List" by Steven Spielberg
1994-1999 Survivors of the Shoah project by Steven Spielberg

Peace Bells
1990 Page 36.5 World Peace Bell, Parque Lira, Mexico City, Mexico
1990 Sapporo Bell by Sotetsu Iwasawa, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, OR
1990 Nagasaki Peace Bell, Honolulu Hale (City Hall), Honolulu, HI
1994 Ohara Peace Bell (from Japan), Enger Park, Duluth, MN

Peace Gardens
1990 Peace Garden by Sudarshan Kapoor, Fresno State Univ, Fresno, CA
1990 Page 37.2 Peace Garden by Frederick Franck, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Harrisburg, PA
1991 Page 37.5 Jardin de la Paz/Peace Garden, Tlatelolco, Mexico City, Mexico
1992 Intl Peace Garden Foundation (IPGF) of Paula Savage, Batavia, NY & Toronto, ON (1st of many)

Peace Parks
1990 Page 36.1 Sadako Statue & Peace Park by Floyd Schmoe, Seattle, WA
1990 Page 36.7 Parque de la Paz (AK-47's in cement), Managua, Nicaragua
1990 Page 36.8 Japanese-American Historical Plaza, Portland, OR
1990 Parque de la Paz/Peace Park, Plaza de la Paz/Peace Square, Managua, Nicaragua
1994 Page 40.3 Place de la Paix, Old City, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
1994 Page 40.6 Hill of Humanity Park for Shiune Sugihara
1994 Page 40.7 Friendship Gate, Pacific Rim Park, Vladovostok, Russia

Peace Statues
1990 "Good Defeats Evil" (St. George) by Zurab Tsereteli, UN Headquartrers, New York City, NY
1992 Page 38.5 "Reconciliation" (National Peacekeeping Monument), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
1992 Page 38.6 "Hands Across the Divide" by Maurice Harron, Craigavon Bridge, Londonderry
1992 Gay Liberation Monument by George Segal, New York City, NY
1993 Page 38.8 "Tortura Nunca Mais/Torture Never Again," Praça Henrique Pereira, Reciife, Brazil
1993 Page 39.3 "Mother with Dead Son" by Kathe Kollwitz, Neue Wache, Berlin, Germany
1994 Page 40.2 Underground Railroad Memorial, Battle Creek, MI
1994 Page 40.8 Statue of Alex Odeh, Public Library, Santa Ana, CA

Palestine & Israel
1989 Peace Garden, Eilat, Gulf of Aqaba, Israel
1990 "Wings of Peace" by Carlo Zauli, Levi & Fortuna Eskenazi Sculpture Gdn, Tel Aviv Univ, Israel
1991 Park of Olives, near Ramat, Israel
1993 Page 39.4 Doves by Eliezer Weishoff, Rishon LeZion, Israel

Rotary International
1993 Page 39.7 Rotary Peace Monument, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia (1st of many)
1993 Page 40.1 Rotary Peace Monument, Chandigahr, Punjab, India (one of many)

Other Peace Monuments
c1990 Home of Aung San Suu Kyi, Inya Lake, Yangôn, Myanmar/Burma (unintentional monument)
1990 Page 36.2 Flame of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Ueno Toshogu Shrine, Tokyo, Japan
1990 Page 36.3 Canadian Human Rights Monument, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
1990 Page 36.4 Memorial to the Victims of the Gulag, Lubyanka Square, Moscow, Russia
1990 Page 36.6 Maaqilman Rauha/World Peace, Helsinki, Finland
1990 Page 37.1 Greenpeace Rainbow Warrior Memorial, Matauri Bay, New Zealand
1991 Page 37.3 "Infinity" (from Turkey), _____ Monuments Zone, Nagasaki, Japan
1991 Page 37.4 Shanti Stupa/Peace Pagoda, Ladakh, Kashmir
1991 Page 37.6 "Chain Reaction" by Paul Conrad, Santa Monica, CA
1991 Page 37.7 "Arctic Arc" by David Barr, Bering Strait, USA/Russia
1991 World Peace Sanctary, World Peace Prayer Society, Wassaic, NY
1992 Baha’i Peace Monument, UN Earth Summit, Brasilia, Brazil
1992 Page 38.2 Chiune Sugihara Memorial, Vilnius, Lithuania
1992 Page 38.3 Monument de la Paix/Peace Monument, Bamako, Mali
1992 Page 38.4 "Plus Jamais la Guerre/No More War," Hull, Quebec, Canada
1992 Page 38.7 Monumento a la Paz, Plaza Constitución, San Salvador, El Salvador
1993 Page 39.1 Grafton Peace Pagoda (Nipponzan Myohoji), Petersburg, NY
1993 Page 39.2 "Way of Human Rights" by Danny Karavan, Nuremburg, Germany
1993 Page 39.5 "Symmetry" for Wilfred Owen, Shrewsbury, England
1993 Page 39.6 Peace Monument, Bona Espero/Good Hope, Alto Paraiso de Goias, Brazil
1994 Page 40.5 "Peace Thrones," Bluffton Univ, Bluffton, OH
1994 Page 38 Christo de la Paz/Christ of Peace, road to Comalapa Intl Airport, San Marcos, El Salvador
1994 Pacifist Memorial by Lewis M. Randa, Peace Abbey, Sherborn, MA
Spread of Buddhist peace stupas

Peace/Anti-War Museums (6 museums, 1.2/year)
1991 Osaka International Peace Center (Peace Osaka), Osaka
1992 Kyoto Museum for World Peace of Ituro Anzai, Ritsumeikan Univ, Kyoto, Japan
1992 Kawasaki Peace Museum & Nakahara Peace Park, Kawasaki
1993 First Austrian Peace Museum of Franz Deutsch, Wolfsegg, Austria
1993 Peace Museum of Saitama, Saitama Prefecture, Japan
1994-2005 Prairie Peace Park of Don Tilley, near Lincoln, NE (closed)

Holocaust Museums (11 museums, 2.2/year)
1991 Terezin, Czech Republic
1992 Berlin, Germany
1992 St. Petersburg, FL
1993 Page 39 US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC
1993 Westerbok, Netherlands
1993 Museum of Tolerance, Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles, CA
1994 El Paso, TX
1993 Mechelen, Belgium
1994 Izieu, France
1994 Vancouver, BC, Canada
1995 Newark, England

Civil & Human Rights Museums (6 museums, 1.2/year)
1991 Page 37.8 National Civil Rights Museum, Memphis, TN
1992 Page 38.1 Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, Birmingham, AL
1994 Page 40 Centre Mondial-Paix, Libertes et Droits," Verdun, France
Savannah, GA
Selma, AL

Some Other Museums for Peace
1990 Cordell Hull Museum, Byrdstown, TN
1990 Musee de la Memorie et de la Paix, Cerval, France
1992 Japanese American National Museum, Los Angeles
1993 Robben Island Museum, South Africa (unintentional monument)
1993 Musee Olympique & Olympic Studies Ctr, Lausanne, Switzerland

Chapter 9

Bells &

Pages 41-45

32 Selected Monuments
(including 1 museum)

5 Years (1995-1999)
Av 6.4 Monuments/Year

17 Countries
Av 1.9 Monuments/Country

UN Peacekeeping
1995 Under UN mandate, NATO-led force begins peacekeeping in Bosnia
1995 (July) Srebrenica massacre = 3rd failure of UN peacekeeping
1997 Kofi Annan appointed UN Secretary General

Palestine & Israel
1995 (11/4) Assassination of PM Yitzhak Rabin

1995 World Conference on Woman (Bejing)
1999 International Peace Conference of NGO's (The Hague)

1995 World Trade Organization (WTO)
1998 Rome Statute creates International Criminal Court (ICC)
1999 European Central Bank & introduction of the Euro

Laws & Treaties
1996 Treaty of Pelindaba for African nuclear free zone
1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (never ratified by USA)
1997 (12/11) Kyoto Protocol to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
1998 Good Friday Agreement negotiated by George Mitchell (Northern Ireland)

Speeches, Books & Films
1997 "The Rape of Nanking" by Iris Chang

Peace Bells
1995 Page 42.1 UN Peace Bell (from Japan), Vienna International Ctr, Vienna, Austria
1996 Page 43.1 World Peace Bell (from Japan), City Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
1996 Page 43 Peace Bell (from Japan), Sacher Park, Nahlaot, Jerusalem, Israel
1996 Page 43.2 International Friendship Bell by Sotetsu Iwasawa, Oak Ridge, TN (near nuclear plant)
1997 Page 43.6 Friedensglocke des Alpenraumes, Moesern bei Seefeld, Austria
1998 Page 44.2 World Peace Bell (from Japan), Jardin Japonés, Buenos Aires, Argentina
1999 Page 45.6 Bell of Peace (melted bullet cartridges), The Phramid, Tirana, Albania
1999 Page 45.7 American Freedom Bell, Charlotte, NC
1999 Page 45.8 World Peace Bell (from France), World Peace Bell Center, Newport, KY

Peace Gardens
1995 Page 42.5 Gate of Peace, St. Thomas Peace Garden, Birmingham, England

Peace Parks
1997 Page 43.7 Parque por la Paz Villa Grimalki, Santiago de Chile, Chile (unintentional monument

Peace Statues
1995 Page 42.2 "Reconcilation" by Josephina de Vasconcellos, Coventry Cathedral, England
1995 Page 42.3 "Reconcilation" by Josephina de Vasconcellos, Conf Ctr, Hiroshima, Japan
1995 Page 42.6 Statue of Sadako Sasaki, United Nations Peace Plaza, Independence, MO
1995 Trinigon (National Monument for Peace), Narvik, Norway
1995 Children's Peace Statue, Santa Fe, NM (intednded to be near nuclear lab in Los Alamos)
1996 Page 43.4 "A Landmark for Peace" (MLK & RFK) by Greg Perry, MLK Park, Indianapolis, IN
1997 Page 44.3 Commemorative Monument of Peace & Unity, Davao, Philippines
1998 Page 44.6 "The Day the Wall Came Down," Allied Museum, Berlin, Germany
1998 Page 44.7 "Ten Martyrs of the 20th Century," Westminister Abbey, London
1998 Page 45.1 Estatua de Eugenio Maria de Hostos, Hostos Plaza, Ciudad Vieja, San Juan, Puerto Rico
1999 Page 45.5 Sojourner Truth Monument, Battle Creek, MI

Palestine & Israel
1995 The Surreal Peace Chair, Village Entrance, Ein Hod Art Colony, near Haifa, Israel
1996-2003 Parliament Building, Abu Dis, West Bank (unoccupied)

Peace Walls & Murals
1995 Cornerstone of Peace, Mabuni, Okinawa, Japan
1996 Page 42.8 World Wall for Peace by Carolyna Marks, Little Five Points, Atlanta, GA
1997 Page 44.1 Peace Wall & Moon Gate by J.B. Hudson, Bluffton Univ, OH
1998 Page 45.2 "Peace Wall" mural by Jane Golden, 29th & Wharton Streets, Philadelphia, PA
1998 Page 45.3 "More Beautiful & Better World" mural, Los Angeles, CA

Other Peace Monuments
1995 Page 42.4 Rossenstrasse monument by Ingeborg Hunzinger, Berlin, Germany
1995 Page 42.7 Tour de la Paix by Arman (old tanks), Beirut, Lebanon
1996 World Peace Pagoda, high above Phewa Tal, Pokhara, Nepal
1996 Page 43.5 Monumento a la Paz/Peace Monument, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
1997 Page 43.8 "Broken Chair" for Landmine Treaty, Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland
1998 Page 44.4 Victims of Genocides Monument, Montréal, Québec, Canada
1998 Page 44.5 J. William Fulbright Peace Fountain, Univ of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
1998 Page 44.8 "Hope," Raoul Wallenberg Walk, New York City, NY
1998 "Peace Trails Through London" by Valerie Flessati, London, England
1998 Monumento de la Memoria, Comunidad de Paz, San José de Apartadó, Colombia
1999 Page 45.4 World Peace Crystal Grid, Geographic South Pole, Antarctica

Peace/Anti-War Museums (9 museums, 1.8/year)
1995 Children's Peace Pavilion, Independence, MO
1995 Oka Masaharu Museum of Oka Masaharu, Nagasaki, Japan
1995 Yi Jun Peace Museum, The Hague, Netherlands
1998 The Peace Museum, Bradford, Yorkshire, England
1998 Guernika Museo de la Paz of Iratxe Momoitio, Guernika, Spain
1998 In Flanders Fields Museum, Ypres, Belgium
1998 Friedensmuseum Nurnberg, Nurnberg, Germany
1999 No More Hiroshima-No More Nagasaki Museum of Balkrishna Kurvey, India
1999-2009 Friedenshistorisches Museum of Thomas Wechs, Jr.,Bad Hindelang, Germany (closed)

Holocaust Museums (8 museums, 1.6/year)
Newark, NJ
Houston, TX
Atlanta, GA
New York City, NY
Cape Town, South Africa

Civil & Human Rights Museums (1 museum, 0.2/year)
1997 International Museum of Women, 101 Howard St, San Francisco, CA

Some Other Museums for Peace
1995 Armenian Genocide Museum & Inst, Yerevan, Armenia
1996 Erich Maria Remarque-Frienszentrum, Osnabruck, Germany
1997 Taipai 228 Memorial Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
1998 Little Rock Central HS National Hist Site (NPS), Little Rock, AR (unintentional monument)
1998 Page 44.6 Alliierten Museum/Allied Museum, Berlin, Germany
1999 Pier 21 Immigration Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (unintentional monument)

Chapter 10

New Millenium

Pages 46-52

48 Selected Monuments
(including 6 museums)

4 Years (2000-2003)
Av 12.0 Monuments/Year

20 Countries
Av 2.4 Monuments/Country

Wars & Attacks
2001 (9/11) al-Queda attacks, New York City, Washington, DC, & ______, PA
2003-2012 War on Iraq by US & "coallition partners"
2003 (Aug) Sergio Vieira de Mello & other UN personnel killed in Baghdad

Palestine & Israel
2000 Isreal ends occupation of southern Lebanon (since 1982)
2000 (7/11-25) Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David, MD
2000 (9/28) Ariel Sharon provokes Arabs by walking on Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
2000 (Sep-Nov) Second Intifada (al-Aqsa) in Palestine
2001 (Oct) Kofi Annan assembles Quartet to address Palestine issue
2002 (Apr) Israel beseiges PA in Ramallah, invades Jenin & other refugee camps in West Bank
2002 "Road Map" for Peace between Israel & Palestine
2002 (Mar) Arab Summit in Beirut agrees w/Saudi proposal to normalize relations with Israel
2002 (Apr) After Passover massacre, Isreal reoccupies 6 West Bank cities
2003 (6/4) Red Sea Summit in Aqaba (Jordan) to begin implementing "Road Map for Peace."
2003 (12/1) Geneva Accord to end Israel/Palestine conflict

2000 (Sept) Millennium Summit adopts Development Goals (MDB's) for 2015
2000 (Oct) Sharm el-Sheikh Conference (Bill Clinton & Middle Eastern leaders)
2001 First World Social Forum (Porto Alegre)
2001 UN Conference on Racism (Durban)
2000 Camp David Peace Summit (Clinton, Arafat & Barak)

2002 International Criminal Court (in Peace Palace)

Nobel Peace Prizes
2001 Kofi Annan & United Nations receive Nobel Peace Prize
2002 Nobel Peace Prize to Jimmy Carter

Speeches, Books & Films
2002 "Jenin Jenin," film directed by Mohammed Bakri
2003 "The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara"

2001 (9/11) Ground Zero, Lower Mantattan, New York City, NY (unintentional monument)
2001 (9/11) Ground Zero, Shanksville, PA (unintentional monument)
2002 (9/11) Page 50.4 "Bell of Hope" (from England) Trinity Church, New York City
2003 (9/11) Page 52.7 Peace Bell, Veterans Park, Ridgefield Park, NJ

Peace Bells
2000 Glocke für den Frieden "Concordia"/Concordia Peace Bell, Kronplatz, Bruneck/Branico, Italy
2000 Peace Bell, Imjinjak Park, Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), South Korea
2000 Nagasaki Peace Bell, Red Church, Independence Sq, Minsk, Belarus
2003 Peace Bell, Memorial Hall for Compatriots Killed in the Nanjing Massacre, Nanjing, China

Peace Statues
2000 Page 47.1 Statue of John Lennon, John Lennon Park, Vedado district, Havana, Cuba
2000 Page 48.3 "The Famous Five" (for women's rights), Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada
2001 Page 48.6 "Shot at Dawn" Memorial (WW-I deserter), Lichfield, England
2001 Page 49.6 "Gateway to Freedom" (slaves to Canada), Detroit River, Detroit, MI
2001 Page 49.7 "Tower of Freedom" (slaves from USA), Windsor, Ontario, Canada
2002 Page 50.7 Memorial to Victims of Communism, Prague, Czech Republic
2002 Page 50.8 Idaho Anne Frank Human Rights Memorial, Boise, ID
2003 Page 51.5 Najeen/Survivor (replaced Saddam Hussein), Firdus Square, Baghdad, Iraq
2003 Page 51.6 Greenham March Statue, City Hall, Cardiff, Wales
2003 Page 52.2 Statue de la Paix (carved cedar log), Fonsorbes, Haute-Garonne, France
2003 Page 52.3 "Circle of Peace" by Gary Lee Price, Women's Hosp, Huntsville, AL
2003 Page 52.5 Horse by Thomas Kippler (cars destroyed in 2002), Jenin Refugee Camp, W.Bank

Palestine & Israel
2000 Page 47.3 "Path of Peace" by Danny Karavan, Negev Desert, Israel
c2001 Page 49.3 Palestinian Child Martyr Monument for ___________, Bamako, Mali
2001 Mural by Susan Greene, Ibdaa Cultural Ctr, D’heisheh Refugee Camp, Bethlehem, W.Bank
2001 Baha'i Gardens, around the Shrine of the Báb, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel
2001 Page 49.2 Bethlehem Peace Center, Manger Square, Bethlehem, West Bank
2002 Mukataa/Office of PLO/PA, Ramallah, West Bank (unintentional monument)
2002 Israeli gate, D'heisheh Refugee Camp, Bethlehem, West Bank (unintentional monument)
2003 Page 52.6 "Deir Yassin Remembered" by Daniel A. McGowan, Seneca Lake, NY
2004 Page 54.1 Peace Dove & Globe, Ma'ale Adumin (Israeli settlement), West Bank

2000 Page 47.6 Memorial to Victims of the Holocaust, Judenplatz, Vienna, Austria
2001 Page 49.4 Holocaust Maenmal der Kinder, Whitwell Middle School, Whitwell, TN

Clara Halter
2000 Page 48.1 Mur pour la Paix by Clara Halter, Champs de Mars, Paris, France
2003 Peace Tower by Clara Halter, St. Petersburg, Russia
2005 Page 55.1 Portes de la Paix/Gates of Peace by Clara Halter, Peace Blvd, Hiroshima, Japan

Mexico & USA
2000 Page 47.2 World Trade Bridge, Rio Grande, Laredo/Nuevo Laredo, USA/Mexico
2000 Page 47.4 Flame of Friendship/Flama de la Amistad, Convention Center, San Diego, CA
2002 Torch of Friendship, San Antonio, TX

World Peace Prayer
2003 Page 51.4 Peace Pole (by Friendship Force), Deeds Point, Dayton, OH
2002 Page 52.4 World Peace Prayer Fountain by Hank Kaminsky, Fayetteville, AR
2003 84 Peace Poles (from Winter Olympics), Jordan Park, Salt Lake City, UT

Peace Furniture
2001 Page 49.5 Peace Table by George Nakashima, Academy of Arts, Moscow, Russia (1 of 4)
2001 "Throne of Weapons" by Cristovao (Kester) Estevao, Maputo, Mozambique
2002 Page 51.3 "Seat of Peace," Ngataringa Park, Devonport, Auckland, New Zealand
2003 "Table of Peace," Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Tel Aviv, Israel

2001 Gay & Lesbian Holocaust Memorial, Green Park, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia
2001 LGBT Veterans Monument, Palm Springs, FL
2003 Pink Triangle Park & Memorial, Castro, San Francisco, CA

2001 Reconciliation Place (Indigenous people & settlers), Parl Triangle, Canberra, ACT, Australia
2002 Page 51.2 "Shared Past, Common Future" (Nat Slavery Monument), Amsterdam, Netherlands
2003 Page 51.8 Peace Bridge by Truth & Reconciliation Commission, Freetown, Sierra Leone
2003 Page 52.8 Versohnungs/Reconciliation (Pax Christi), Gronau-Westfalen/Losser, Germ/Neth

Other Peace Monuments
2000 Page 47.5 'Stones of Peace' Wall, Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), South Korea
2000 Page 47.7 Monument de la Paix (concrete in situ), Espace public, Saint Herblain, France
2000 Page 48.2 Monument de la Paix/Peace Monument (with weapons), Timbuktu, Mali
2000 Page 48.4 Inukshuk (Arctic man), City Hall, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

2002 Page 49.8 "Peace Garden" (Arendt+Gandhi+Suttner) by Werner Horvath, Vienna, Austria
2002 Page 50.1 World Peace Park, Lüshun, Dalian (former Port Arthur), China
2002 Page 50.2 Peace Memorial Gymnasium, Greek Orthodox, Cathedral, Tenafly, NJ
2002 Page 50.3 Irish Hunger Memorial, New York City, NY
2002 Page 50.5 Green Island Human Rights Memorial Park, Tai-Tung County, Taiwan
2002 Page 50.6 Friendship Gate, Spin Boldak/Chaman, Afghanistan/Pakistan

2003 Page 51.1 World Peace Flame, Peace Palace, The Hague (1st of several)
2003 Page 52.1 Monument for Norman Cousins, Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan
2003 Itinéraire de la paix dans les rues de Genève/Peace Trail, Geneva, Switzerland
2003 Peacemakers Mural by Dr. Fayeq Oweis, Glide Memorial Church, San Francisco, CA
2003 Jardin de la Paix/Garden of Peace for Sergio Vieira de Mello, Geneva, Switzerland
2003 Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi Square, Johannesburg, South Africa

Peace/Anti-War Museums (8 museums, 2.0/year)
2000 - Museo de la Paz en la Vall d'Uixó, Vall d'Uixó, Spain
2000 Page 47.8 National Liberty Museum by Irvin Borowsky, Philadelphia, PA
2001 Page 48.8 Europaische Museum fur den Frieden,, Stadtschlaining, Austria
2001 Nobelmuseet/Nobel Museum, Stockholm, Sweden
2002 Center of the Tokyo Raid & War Damage, Tokyo, Japan
2003 Museo para la Paz, Fundación Arias, San Juan, Costa Rica
2003 Föreningen Peace Museum, Uppsala, Sweden
2003 Center for Peace Museum of Yeongwhan Kim, Seoul, South Korea

Holocaust Museums (8 museums, 2.0/year)
London, England
Naples, Italy
2001 Page 49.1 New Mexico Holocaust & Intolerance Museum, Albuquerque, NM
Richmond, VA
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Budepest, Hungary

Civil & Human Rights Museums (4 museums, 1.0/year)
2000 Rosa Parks Library & Museum, Troy University, Montgomery, AL
2002 Green Island Human Rights Memorial Park, Taiwan
Dallas, TX
Sao Paulo, Brazil

Some Other Museums for Peace
2000 Freedom Schooner Amisted, New Haven, CT
2000 John Lennon Museum, Saitama, Japan
2000 Chiune Sugihara Memorial Hall & Museum, Gifu, Japan
2000 Page 48.5 Solidarity Museum/Solidarnosc, Gdansk, Poland
2001 Apartheid Museum, Johannesburg, South Africa
2001 Page 48.7 Judisches Museum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
2002 National Peace Memorial Halls in Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japan
2002 Slavery & Civil War Museum, Selma, AL
2003 Global Village & Discovery Center, Habitat for Humanity, Americus, GA
2003 Page 51.7 Halabja Martyrs Monument & Museum, Halabja, Kurdistan, Iraq

Chapter 11

& Memories

Pages 53-58

40 Selected Monuments
(including 11 museums)

4 Years (2004-2007)
Av 10.0 Monuments/Year

21 Countries
Av 1.9 Monuments/Country

Palestine & Israel
2005 (2/14) Assassination of Rafiq al-Aariri in Lebanon
2005 (Aug) Israel unilaterally pulls out of Gaza Strip
2006 (1/25) Hamas wins legislative election 74 seats to Fath's 45
2006 (4/14 Ehud Olmets become PM of Israel
2006 (June) Israel attacks Gaza Strip, bombs only power plant on June 26
2006 (Jun-Aug) Second Lebanon War = Hezbolah War, 7th of Israel's 7 wars. Israel defeat
2007 (6/7-15) Battle of Gaza between Hamas & Fatah in the Gaza Strip
2007 (11/27) Annapolis Summit at US Naval Academy, MD

UN Peacekeeping
2004 Bangladesh forces are "The Cream of UN Peacekeepers" (per BBC)
2005 UN Peacebuilding Commission

2004 (3/11) Train bombings in Madrid, Spain
2005 (7/7) Terrorists kill 52 by bombing 3 subways & one bus in London
2006 (7/11) Train bombings in Mumbai, India

Speeches, Books & Films
2005 "The Interpreter " by Sydney Pollack filmed in UN buildings
2006 "An Inconvenient Truth" about climate change by Al Gore

Peace Bells & Gongs
2006 Page 57.8 World Peace Bell (last of 20), Christchurch, New Zealand
2006 World Peace Gong #2 (from Indonesia), Birla House, New Delhi, India (1 of several)

2006 Page 57.2 "...Struggle Against World Terrorism" (Grief Tear) by Zurab Tsereteli, Bayonne, NJ

Palestine & Israel
2004 Page 54.1 Peace Dove & Globe, Ma'ale Adumim (Israeli settlement), West Bank
Date? Page 54.2 Abandoned Peace Dove, Faqua, Jenin District, West Bank
c2005 Page 56.5 "To Exist Is To Resist" mural on Israeli separation wall, Bethlehem, West Bank
2005 Satirical murals by grafitti artist Bansky, Israeli Separation Wall, Bethlehem, West Bank

Peace Statues
2004 Page 54.6 "Wall of Peace," Canadian Museum of Hindu Civilizaiton, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2005 Page 56.1 Statue of Peace Pilgrim (Mildred L. Norman), Peace Pilgrim Park, Egg Harbor City, NJ
2005 Page 56.3 "Captured Africans" (slave trade), St. George's Quay, Lancaster, England
2005 "Reconciliation: The Parable of the Prodigal Son," Duke Divinity School, Durham, NC
2006 Page 57.7 Tennessee Women Suffrage Memorial by Alan LeQuire., Market Square, Knoxville, TN
2007 Page 58.3 "Kind Angel of Peace," Moscow, Russia
2007 Page 58.5 Bust of Nelson Mandela, Parliament Square, London, England
2007 Page 58.7 Statue of Seated Gandhi, Ariana Park, Geneva, Switzerland
2007 "Goddess of Democracy" (Victims of Communism Memorial), Washington, DC
2007 Denkmal "PeaceWomen," Stadt Soltau, Lower Saxony, Germany

Walls & Murals
2004 Page 54.5 Bogside Artists murals, Northern Ireland
2004 Page 54.7 Human Rights Mural by Yuri G.Yuroz, Coral Springs, FL
2005 Page 55.4 "Wall of Tolerance," Civil Rights Memorial Center, Poverty Law Center, Montgomery, AL
2005 Page 56.8 "Peace is Cool," Pax Christi, Utrecht, Netherlands
2006 "Anarchists of the Americas" by Susan Greene 1369 Haight Street, San Francisco, CA
2007 Edward Said Mural by Susan Greene & Dr. Fayeq Oweis, SF State Univ, San Francisco, CA

2006 Legacy of Love Monument for Friedhelm Schnitzler, Oak Lawn Triangle, Dallas, TX

Other Peace Monuments
2004 Page 54.3 World Peace Statue (from China), Memorial pour la Paix de Caen, Normandy, France
2004 Page 54.4 Cuneiform peace monument by Jim Havens, Woodstock School, Missouri India
2004 International Civil Rights Walk of Fame, Martin Luther King, Jr., Center (NPS), Atlanta, GA

2005 Page 54.8 Peace Pole (on private driveway), Knoxville, TN
2005 Page 55.3 James Reed Memorial by Evelyn Lowrey, Selma, AL
2005 Page 55.5 Memorial to Deserters, University Botanical Garden, Ulm, Germany
2005 Page 55.6 Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin, Germany
2005 Page 55.7 Monumento de Derechos Humanos, Murcia, Spain
2005 Page 56.7 Peace Sign, Bird Rock, Point Loma, CA
2005 Bradford Peace Trail ("A Walk Around Bradford, City of Peace"), Bradford, England

2006 Page 57.1 Monumento de la Paz by Placi de Gaona, Sayalonga, Andalucia, Spain
2006 Page 57.3 Portland Peace Memorial Park, Portland, OR
2006 Page 57.4 Palace of Peace & Reconciliation, Astana, Kazakhstan
2006 Page 57.6 International Peace Garden (from Cyprus), St. Patrick's, Dublin, Ireland

2007 Page 58.2 Memorial to the Victims of State Terrorism, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2007 Page 58.6 "Imagine Peace" Tower for John Lennon, Videy Island, Reykjavik, Iceland
2007 Tehran Peace Monument, City Park, Tehran, Iran
2007 Parque de la Memoria/Memory Park, Belgrano section, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2007 Monument pour la Paix/Peace Monument, Saint-Michel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
2007 Solar Peace Structure, University of Saarland, Germany

Peace/Anti-War Museums (5 museums, 1.25/year)
2005 Page 56.6 Dayton International Peace Museum, Dayton, OH
2005 Page 56.2 Nobels Fredssenter/Nobel Peace Center, Oslo, Norway
2005 Page 55.2 Holocaust Hist Museum by Moshe Safdie, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel
2007 Page 58.4 Tehran Peace Museum of Shahriar Khateri, Tehran, Iran
2007 Peace Exhibit, Goat Haunt Ranger Station, Waterton-Glacier Intl Peace Park, MT

Holocaust Museums (9 museums, 2.25/year)
2005 Ctr Europ du Résistant Déporté dans le System Concentrationnaire Nazi, Struthof
2007 Page 58.1 Holocaust Documentation & Education Center, Hollywood, FL
2007 Museum of History & Holocaust Education, Kennesaw State Univ, Kennesaw, GA
2004 Kraków, Poland
2004 New York City, NY
2005 Hinzert, Belgium
2005 Paris, France
2005 Schirmeck, France
2006 Buenos Aires, Argentina

Civil & Human Rights Museums (5 museums, 1.25/year)
2004 Page 54.6 Canadian Museum of Hindu Civiliation, Toronto, ON
2004 National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, Cincinnati, OH
2004 National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
2005 Page 56.4 Arab American National Museum, Dearborn, MI
2007 National 228 Memorial Museum, 54 Nanhai Road, Taipei, Taiwan

Some Other Museums for Peace
2004 Kigali [Genocide] Memorial Centre, Kigali, Rwanda
2004 National Museum of Patriotism of Nicholas D. Snider, Atlanta, GA
2005 Page 55.4 Civil Rights Mem Ctr, Southern Poverty Law Ctr, Montgomery, AL
2005 Page 55.8 Museum of the African Diaspora, San Francisco, CA
2005 Huis van Erasmus/House of Erasmus, Rotterdam, Netherlands
2005 Muhammad Ali Center, Louisville, KY
2005 Eternal Gandhi Multimedia Museum, Gandhi Smriti, New Delhi, India
2005 Cultural Revolution Museum of Peng Qi'An, China
2006 Page 57.5 John Rabb International Safety Zone Memorial Hall, Nanjing, China
2006 Green McAdoo Cultural Center, Clinton, TN
2007 Cambodia Landmine Museum, Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia
2007 Page 58.8 International Slavery Museum, Liverpool, England

Chapter 12


Pages 59-64

40 Selected Monuments
(including 8 museums)

5 Years (2008-2012)
Av 8.0 Monuments/Year

23 Countries
Av 1.7 Monuments/Country

Arab Spring
2010-2011 "Arab Spring" (rulers removed in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya & Yemen)
2011 (1/26) Tahrir Square is focal point of Egyptian Revolution
2011 (3/15) Civil War begins in Syria
2012 (2/23-8/31) Kofi Annan is UN & Arab League Envoy to Syria

Palestine & Israel
2008 (12/27-Jan 2009) 22-Day War in Gaza Strip (Palestine)
2010 Hillary Clinton & George Mitchell meet with Mahmoud Abbas
& Benjamin Netanyahu (Sharm El-Sheikh)
2011 Campaign to make Palestine (West Bank, Gaza & East Jerusalem) a UN member
2012 (11/29) UNGA declares PA a "non-member state." Israel announces construction near Jerusalem.

2008 Attack on Mumbai, India, by Islamist terrorists trained in Pakistan
2011 (1/8) Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords shot & 6 others killed near Tucson, AZ
2011 (5/2) Osama bin Laden killed by US forces in Pakistan
2011 (Dec) US combat troops exit Iraq (after 9 years)
2012 (9/11) Terrorist attack on US consulate in Benghazi, Libya
2012 (12/14) Gun massacre at Sandy Hook Elementry School, Newtoen, CT, USA
2013 (Jan) Al-Qaeda-linked terrorists take 100's of hostages at Tigantourine gas facility near Aménas, Algeria

2009 UN Climate Change Conference (Copenhagen Summit)

Laws & Treaties
2010 New strategic arms-reduction treaty (ratified by USA)

2008 Election of Barack Obama (USA)
2009 Nobel Peace Prize to President Obama
2010 Aung San Suu Kyi released from house arrest (Myanmar)
2011 Occupy movement protests dominence of the rich (USA)
2012 (11/6) Barack Obama reelectred to 2nd term 2013-2017
2013 (2/28) Pope resigns.

Speeches, Books & Films
2009 "Freeing Silvia Baraldini"
2009 "Budrus" (aka"Budrus Has a Hammer") directed by Julia Bacha
2009 "The Strangest Dream" (about Joseph Rotblat) by Eric Bednarski
2010 "Miral" by Rula Jebreal & Julian Schnabel
2012 "The Gatekeepers" about Israel's internal security service Shin Bet
2013 "Nuremberg: Its Lesson for Today/Nuernberg und seine Lehre" of Stuart Schulberg

2008 (9/26) Garden of Healing, Snug Harbor Cultural Ctr & Botanical Gdn, Staten Island, NY City, NY
2011 (9/11) Page 63.2 National September 11 Memorial, New York City, NY
2011 (9/11) Peace Memorial Sculpture by Miyha Ando, Battersea Park, London, England

Peace Bells & Gongs
2008 Page 61.1 World Peace Gong (from Indonesia), Magyarország, Hungary
2009 World Peace Bell, World Peace Bell Park, Gangwon Province, South Korea
2009 Peace Bell, Nicholas Roerich Museum, Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia
2012 Page 64.2 Peace Bell (at World Choir Games), Cincinnati, OH

Peace Statues
2008 Page 60.2 "Healing Hands," Ennis, County Claire, Ireland
2009 Page 61.3 Peace Monument (girl & boy reading textbooks), Kampla Road, Gulu, Uganda
2009 Page 61.4 Jade Buddha for Universal Peace (from Thailand), Stupa, Victoria, Australia
2010 Statue of Sri Chinmoy (World Harmony Run Torchwith), Vassa, Finland
2011 Page 62.5 Statue of Martin Luther King, Jr. by Lei Yixin, Tidal Basin, Washington, DC
2012 Page 63.1 Stone Carving of Rosa Parks, Human Rights Porch, National Cathedral, Washington, DC
2011 Page 63.3 Frederick Douglass Memorial, Easton, FL
2011 Statue of Anne Frank, Wilhelmina Park, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
2012 Page 64.3 "Path of Peace" Monument, Des Moines Area Community College, Des Moines, IA
2012 Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Center for Families, YWCA, Salt Lake City, UT
2012 Statue of Nelson Mandela, Omniversum, International Zone, The Hague, Netherlands

Palestine & Israel
2008 Page 60.5 "Gate of Return" (with symbolic key), Aida Refugee Camp, Bethlehem, West Bank
2008 Page 60.7 Tolerance Monument by Aleksander Gudzowaty, Jerusalem, Israel
2008 Page 60.8 Peres Peace House, Jaffa, Tel Aviv, Israel
2009 Memorial to the victims of the 9-11 attacks, Arazim Forest, Ramot, Jerusalem, Israel
2012 Memorial to Munich Massacre [at 1972 Olympic Games], Nazareth Illit, Israel

Peace Parks
2008 Mayo Memorial Peace Park & Garden of Remembrance, Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland
2009 Page 61.5 Manchester Peace Park (Eden Project), Podujevo, Kosovo
2011 Page 62.6 Praça da Paz/Square of Peace, Joinville, Santa Catarina , Brazil

Peace Bridges
2010 Page 62.1 Pont de l'Europe/Bridge of Europe, Rhine River, Strasbourg/Kehl, France/Germany
2012 Page 63.4 Peace Bridge, Bow River, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Pleace Walls & Murals
2008 Page 60.6 Dialogue Quilt (from Boston), Friends Meeting House, Ramallah, West Bank
2009 Obama Nobel Peace Mural, Miami Art Palace, Miami, FL
2010 Page 61.6 Olympia-Rafah Solidarity Mural for (Rachel Corrie by Susan Greene, Olympia, WA

Pleace Walks & Trails
2008 Stadswandeling Erasmus in Rotterdam/Erasmus City Trail in Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
2008 Atlanta Peace Trails, Atlanta, GA
2009 Leeds Peace Trail, Leeds, England
2009 Wellington Peace Walk, Wellington Botanic Garden, Wellington, New Zealand
2010 Page 61.7 Glick Peace Walk by Gene & Marilyn Glick, Walnut Street, Indianapolis, IN
2010 Manchester City Centre Peace & Social Justice Trail, Manchester, England

LGBT Monuments
2008 Page 60.1 Memorial to Homosexuals under Nazism, Berlin-Tiergarten, Germany
2011 Page 62.3 Monument to LGBT People, Ciutadella Park, Barcelona, Spain

Other Peace Monuments
2008-2011 Page 60.3 Humanity Monument by Naif Alibeyoglu, Kars, Turkey (destroyed)
2008 Matrimandir, Peace Area, Auroville, Tamil Nadu, India
2009 Vietnamese Boat People Monument, Westminster, CA
2009 Deserteurdenkmal/Deserter Monument, Cologne, Germany
2009 China-US Peace & Friendship Sculpture, Georgia State Univ, Atlanta, GA

2010 Page 61.8 "Peace & Harmony" (John Lennon Peace Monument), One Park West, Liverpool, England
2010 Global Vipssana Peace Pagoda, Mumbai, India
2010 Peace Monument, Bazdarana, Prizren, Kosovo
2010 Peace Plaque unveiled by Bruce Kent, Bonn Square, Oxford, England

2011 Page 62.7 "Unhate" Dove (by Benetton), University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya
2011 Page 62.8 "I, to, am a hibakusha" (Barbara Reynolds), Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan
2011 "Votes for Women!," Mile End Park, near Bow Borough of Tower Hamlets, London, England
2011 Monumento a Paz/Peace Monument, Luena, Moxico Province, Angola
2011 Plaque, William Penn Square, Protestant Church, Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, France
2011 Memorial plaque for Alfred Hermann Fried, Widerhofergasse 5, 9th district, Vienna, Austria
2011 Manitoba Conscientious Objector Memorial, Bethel Heritage Park, Winkler, Manitoba, Canada
2011 Beacon of Peace & Hope, Arkansas Inland Marine Museum, North Little Rock, AR

2012 Page 63.5 "Peace & War"painting by Abdullah Alif, Mogadishu, Somalia
2012 Page 63.7 Honorary Intl Peace Garden (War of 1812), Holland Land Office Museum, Batavia, NY
2012 Page 63.8 "Wonder Wheel of Peace," Helsinki, Finland
2012 Page 64.1 Jerusalem-Friedensstein/Jerusalem Rock of Peace, Bensheim-Hochstädten, Germany
2012 Page 64.4 Shanthi Mahal/Global Peace Palace, Thumboli, near Alappuzha, Kerala State, India
2012 Monument to Victims of Chemical Weapons, Org for the Prohibition of Chem Weapons, The Hague
Future Page 64.8 La Mano de la Paz/The Hand of Peace, Tijuana, Mexico

Peace/Anti-War Museums (5 museums, 1.0/year)
2008 Interfaith Peace Museum of Pakistan (I-LAP), Islamabad, Pakistan
2008 Sahajeevana Centre for Coexistence, Columbo, Sri-Lanka
2008 Peacelab-Museum, Collegno, Bologna, Italy
2011 No Gun-Ri Intl Peace Park & Museum, No Gun-Ri, Yongdong County, South Korea
2012 Page 62.4 US Institute of Peace by Moshe Safdie, Washington, DC
2013? Page 64.5 Museum of Peace, Semey, Kazakhstan

Holocaust Museums (8 museums, 1.6/year)
2008 Mémorial de l'Internement et de la Déportation, Compiegne, France
2009? Ulica Pomorska/Pomorska Street, Historical Museum, Kraków, Poland
2009 Page 61.2 Holocaust Memorial, Bucharest, Romania
2009 Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center, Skokie, IL
2009 Fabryka Schindlera/Schindler's Factory Historical Museum, Krakow, Poland
2010 Documentation Center, Topography of Terror, Berlin, Germany
2011 Musée memorial des enfants du Vel d'Hiv, Orléans, France
2013 Muzeum Historii Zydow Polskich/Museum of Hist of Polish Jews, Warsaw, Poland

Civil & Human Rights Museums (9 museums, 1.8/year)
2008 Tule Lake Segregation Center, Tule Lake, CA
2008 Page 60.4 National Sikh Heritage Ctr & Holocaust Museum, Derby, England
2009 Museum of Chinese in America, New York City
2009 Women's Suffrage Museum, Harriet Taylor Upton Assn, Warren, OH
2010 International Civil Rights Center & Museum, Greensboro, NC
2010 Page 62.2 People's History Museum, Spinningfields, Manchester, England
2014? Page 64.6 National Center for Civil & Human Rights, Atlanta, GA
2014? Page 64.7 Canadian Museum for Human Rights, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
2015 National Musuem of African American Hist & Culture, Washington, DC

Some Other Museums for Peace
2009 Heifer Village, Heifer International, Little Rock, AR
2010 Humanity House, Prinsegracht 8, The Hague, Netherlands
Date? Museo de la Memoria, Rasario, Argentina
2011 Maison forestiere de l'Ermitage (for Wilfred Owen), Bois-l'Eveque, Ors, France
2012 Page 63.6 Visitors Centre, Peace Palace, The Hague, Netherlands