|NB: This is one of 18 papers in Mariner, Rosemary B., & G. Kurt Piehler, ed. by (February 1, 2009), "The atomic bomb and American society: New perspectives," University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 344-380.|
Click here for index of all 154 names mentioned in this paper.
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Click here for pictoral version of this paper.
by Edward W. Lollis
Public monuments preserve memory. The word “monument” is derived from the Latin monere, which means “to remind” and also “to teach” or even “to admonish.” Monuments can be seen as the attempts of certain groups to project their interpretations of past time into the future.1 Time also plays a part in the reception of monuments, and the public doesn’t always interpret them in the same way their creators intended.2
In the small city of Oak Ridge in East Tennessee, a large bronze bell – cast in Japan according to Buddhist tradition – hangs in an oaken pavilion modeled on the region’s indigenous cantilevered barns.3 A special monument in a special place.
The four-ton bell has images and text inscribed into its external surface. The words “INTERNATIONAL FRIENDSHIP” are flanked by two graphic panels: One panel depicts a mockingbird, dogwood blossoms, and the Great Smoky Mountains. The other panel depicts flying cranes, cherry blossoms, and Mount Fuji. Both panels are crossed by a rainbow ending in an atomic symbol.
On the opposite side of the bell, the word “PEACE” is flanked by two textual panels: One is inscribed “PEARL HARBOR December 7 1941” and “VJ DAY September 2 1945.” The other panel is inscribed “HIROSHIMA August 6 1945” and “NAGASAKI August 9 1945.”
A log hangs from the roof of the pavilion and rings the bell when it is swung against the “sweet-spot” under the words “INTERNATIONAL FRIENDSHIP.”
This is the story of the people behind the Oak Ridge International Friendship Bell.4 It’s a story of people who attempted to project their interpretations of past time into the future. And it’s a story of other people who had conflicting interpretations of their own.5 Here are a few of the many people who contributed to the story:
A “secret city” of the Manhattan Project, Oak Ridge was created by the U.S. Army in 1942 and enriched the uranium used to bomb Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.6 One of Oak Ridge’s war-time facilities evolved into Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which is now the nation’s largest multi-purpose research institution. ORNL attracts a wide variety of international scientists. In 1963, these included Venkanta Ramamohana (Ram) Uppuluri -- originally from India -- and his wife Shigeko Yoshino – who grew up in Kyoto, Japan. Ram was a mathematician with a contagious, congenial personality, and Shigeko was a biologist and artist with a more delicate nature. This international couple traveled widely, thought globally, and brought personal memories of two Asian cultures to East Tennessee. Ram fantasized about erecting in Oak Ridge the outdoor symbols of various world religions, including a large stone bull (Nandi) from India.7 On one trip to Japan, Ram surprised Shigeko by seriously suggesting that they actually bring a giant Japanese temple bell to their adopted city. 8
In the 1980’s, Japanese visitors and Japanese investments were pouring into Tennessee.9 Nissan opened a huge assembly plant, and Japanese Bridgestone purchased the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. The first accredited Japanese-language high school in the United States opened in Sweetwater, Tennessee. And Oak Ridge recognized the increasing levels of atomic cooperation with Japan by signing a sister city agreement with Naka-Machi, home of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute’s Fusion Research Establishment.
Very much aware of the growing Japanese involvement in his state, Ram Uppuluri wrote a “Proposal to Enhance Tourism in Tennessee” in 1987.10 The proposal argued that “bring[ing] the Biggest Bell from Japan and hous[ing] it in a specially designed building surrounded by rows of Stone Lanterns” would enhance the beauty of the state and increase tourism. For the next two years, Ram and Shigeko sought to increase public awareness of this proposal. The project took on aspects of an entire park with tame deer and a wall large enough to be seen from outer space, but the central object was always a bell, which they sometimes called a “peace bell” and sometimes a “friendship bell.” The Uppuluris’ enthusiasm infected Keiko Murikami, wife of a Japanese scientist, and Ethel Quinn McDonald, an Oak Ridge proposal writer who had volunteered in Japanese orphanages while her husband was in the U.S. Air Force.
Of approximately 50,000 Buddhist temple bells in Japan before World War II, the majority was melted down to make armaments. After the war, four bell makers started casting replacements.11 The U.N. Association of Japan presented the first new “peace bell” to the United Nations in New York in 1954. “National Treasure” Masahiko Katori cast a “friendship bell” for San Diego in 1958 and a peace bell for Hiroshima in 1964.
Eager to compete in the highly visible international market, Sotetsu Iwazawa told the Uppuluris that he would very much like to make a bell for Oak Ridge, Tennessee. His ambition and their dream would both be attained, but not for many years in the future.
The story of the Oak Ridge bell also goes back to the 1980 census and to the 1982 Knoxville World’s Fair. The fair showcased the area’s dual claims to fame: The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – the nation’s largest producer of electricity – and Oak Ridge – the famous “Atomic City.”12 Unfortunately, the fair brought no lasting benefit either to Knoxville or to Oak Ridge. Publication of the 1980 census results was also disappointing, proving that Oak Ridge had actually lost population during the previous decade.13
In an attempt to combat this decline, Congresswoman Marilyn Lloyd held a “Growth and Development Conference” in Oak Ridge on April 16, 1983.14 The conference created an elite “Committee of 50,” and Lloyd’s staff hand-picked its first fifty members. The committee was charged (a) to create programs to bring about growth and development and (b) to celebrate the results on the city’s fiftieth anniversary in 1992-1993. The Committee of 50 managed a job training program (until funds ran out), successfully proposed left-turn lanes for Oak Ridge Turnpike, and studied the feasibility of building an airport, but in fact created no lasting program for true growth or development.15
On July 14, 1988, the Oak Ridger newspaper published a lengthy description of the Uppuluris’ proposal for a “friendship bell,”16 and five days later the Uppuluris made a presentation to the Committee of 50. Committee minutes say that, “after the presentation Dr. [Joe] Tittle suggested that the Committee of 50 sponsor a city-wide contest to allow the citizens to decide on a 50th Anniversary Memorial for the city. Dr. Tittle thought that carillons would make a nice memorial.”17
In August, the Committee of 50 created a “birthday committee” under Tittle’s chairmanship to organize the fiftieth anniversary celebration, and shortly thereafter the birthday committee, in turn, created a new parent organization – the Oak Ridge Community Foundation (ORCF). For the next four years these two organizations worked in tandem: The lofty foundation handling policy and finance issues, while the lowly birthday committee (and anniversary staff) handled the day-to-day details.18
On January 26, 1990, Dr. Tittle invited formal proposals for a “monument to become a visible, continuing symbol of the celebration theme: ‘Born of War, Living for Peace, Growing Through Science.’” Written on ORCF letterhead, his letter of invitation appeared to promise financing by asking, “What could be achieved…if funds raised by the Oak Ridge Community Foundation up to $300,000 were made available?”
Six proposals were submitted. They included plans for a higher education center, the renovation of the Children’s Museum, a life-size statue of “Visionary” John Hendrix, and a carillon bell tower to mark the “center” of town.19 The birthday committee and ORCF selected the other two: The reconstruction of the performing arts pavilion behind the Civic Center -- and “The Japanese bell.” Thanks to the talents of Ethel McDonald, the bell proposal was presented far more professionally than any of its five competitors.
Encouraged by winning the competition, the Uppuluris and their followers reorganized the bell committee, under the chairmanship of Ethel McDonald and asked local artist Susanna Harris to design panels for the bell which would symbolize East Tennessee and Japan. Another Oak Ridger, architecture professor Jon Coddington, winced at the simple sketch submitted with the bell proposal and offered to work pro bono to design a massive pavilion based on the East Tennessee cantilevered barn but also incorporating symbols representing both Asian and Western artistic traditions.20
The rest of 1990 was spent waiting to see if the ORCF wanted the bell and the performing arts pavilion to be combined into a single project managed by a combined “Monumental Committee.”21 The bell committee also waited for the ORCF to provide the promised funds. After a while, it became clear that the arts pavilion had its own backers, the ORCF would not have funds of its own, and the bell would be on its own financially.
In 1991, the Uppuluri’s only child -- Ram Jr. – was graduated from Vanderbilt Law School and returned home to study for the bar. To help his parents, he tried to raise money for the bell by staging a “Friendship Bell Festival” (or bon ordori) on October 20, 1991. Keiko Murikami helped out by making a full-size papier mache mock-up of the bell. The mock-up had the following “inspired words of Dr. Joe Tittle” inscribed on one side:22
Japan and placed here in memory of
all of the workers of the Manhattan project,
1942-1946, as a symbol of everlasting
peace and goodwill among all people
of the world.
Oak Ridge 50th Birthday
The mayor and five other members of the city council attended the festival,23 and small contributions were received from Japanese companies all over East Tennessee. But net proceeds totaled only 50 dollars, foreshadowing a lengthy period of significant financial struggle before the bell could become a reality.24
Publicity surrounding the festival brought the bell to many citizens’ attention, as if for the first time. The Oak Ridger published a letter to the editor on October 3 in which Helen Kuhns complained about the expense of the anniversary celebration, adding that “the bell as described by the Uppuluris…is a charming idea [but only so long as no] taxpayers’ money goes into it or its shelter.” In her quiet way, Ms. Kuhns launched what most Oak Ridgers still remember as “The Bell Wars.”25
Ms. Kuhns was very closely followed by Clarence F. Runtsch whose October 6 letter blasted any “Japanese Peace Bell, or Japanese Friendship Bell, or International Friendship Bell which is Japanese in concept.” Runtsch said it would be “absurd to ask Americans to fund a bell that could possibly be interpreted as a monument of forgiveness to a former foreign enemy” – a sentiment which other veterans of World War II would echo for the next four years.26
On October 16, a letter from Radford M. Carroll said that the “project is an implied insult to the thousands of Oak Ridge workers who have a justified pride in their role in forcing an early end to a bloody war.” Carroll called the project “a private religious expression” but feared that the city would soon be asked for funds, in which case “the City Council [should] drop it like a hot potato or they will see a taxpayer explosion.”27
On October 28, Runtsch wrote to thank “the many individuals who personally responded to my letter” of October 6. Claming there had been “overwhelming opposition,” he wrote that “people [do] not take offense to the proposal of a monument for peace, but instead are vehemently opposed to the selection of a Japanese bell for that purpose.” Runtsch went on to propose a “court of peace” or “peace park” with a number of smaller bells donated by each country that participated in World War II.28
Yet another thread of the bell’s story is the indispensable role of Dr. Alvin Weinberg, the most renowned, honored, and beloved citizen of Oak Ridge. A protégé of Nobel laureate Eugene Wigner, Weinberg joined other nuclear scientists in July 1945 by signing the “Szilard petition” which recommended to President Truman that the bomb be demonstrated before being used on human beings. Weinberg was director of ORNL from 1955 until 1974, and director of the Institute for Energy Analysis (IEA) until 1985. In that year, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists invited him to comment on the fortieth anniversary of Hiroshima, and he replied with a one-page article entitled “The Sanctification of Hiroshima.” In it, he expressed the hope that Hiroshima would become “a ghastly legend” and thereby cause humanity to “accept the absolute necessity of avoiding the nuclear holocaust” in the same way that certain taboos are sacred to the adherents of major world religions.29
Dr. Weinberg visited Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the first time in 1991. He observed the crowds in Hiroshima’s Peace Memorial Park, rang the peace bell of Masahiko Katori, and thought seriously and deeply about the Japanese bell being proposed for Oak Ridge.30
Soon after returning to Oak Ridge – and five days before the Friendship Bell Festival – an ORCF press release announced that Weinberg would become honorary chairman of the bell committee.31 Two days before the festival, the Oak Ridger published a “guest column” in which Weinberg said in part:
“Oak Ridge as well as Hiroshima should be sanctified…if we believe that nuclear weapons must be tabooed, [and] the Oak Ridge Friendship Bell ought to acquire the same kind of transcendent, religious character as has the Hiroshima Bell. [The Oak Ridge bell] will forever symbolize Oak Ridge’s recognition that the nuclear holocaust at Hiroshima should never be repeated.”32
Whether he approached the Uppuluris or they approached him is unclear, but they needed each other. The Uppuluris needed Weinberg’s support to energize the bell project, and Weinberg needed the bell as a way to link Oak Ridge and the Manhattan Project to the “sanctification of Hiroshima.” This match would eventually assure the successful completion of the bell project, but not for some time yet to come.
Weinberg’s participation did not immediately rescue the bell project. By January 1992, very little money had been raised for the bell, the anniversary celebration was fast approaching, and the ORCF executive committee recommended that the board cancel the entire bell project! Dr. Weinberg and his wife Gene were taking their annual vacation in Mexico, and committee chair Ethel McDonald passionately appealed to the ORCF board to postpone making a decision until Weinberg could be present to defend the project.33
In March, Weinberg began focusing his own time and considerable prestige to raising money for the bell from professional contacts all over the world. On April 14, a check for $14,008.05 arrived from sister city Naka-Machi. Ram and Shigeko Uppuluri carried a model of the bell pavilion to Naka-Machi in the summer in 1990. Yasusato Asakawa, president of the Naka-Machi sister city association, subsequently collected this amount from 420 individual donors.34 When the ORCF board met on April 30, Weinberg and McDonald were at last able to show some progress. The board decided to retain the bell as an unfunded foundation project -- but to separate it from the anniversary celebration.35
Committee Chair McDonald (then age 49) and Honorary Chair Weinberg (then age 77) might have led a successful effort to finance and construct the bell, but that was not to be: Ethel died suddenly and prematurely on September 4, 1992.36
On September 18, the birthday committee launched an ambitious series of anniversary events which continued through December 1993 – including the reconstruction of the performing arts pavilion. By all accounts, the celebration was immensely successful. But there were also negative outcomes: (a) The Committee of 50 faded out of existence without achieving any growth or development, (b) the ORCF also faded into obscurity despite the intention of its founders that it become a permanent institution, and (c) there was still no “suitable memorial” to mark Oak Ridge’s first five decades.
Eventually, Weinberg would contribute $10,000 of his own money by selling three personal gold medals: The Atoms for Peace Award (1960), the Heinrich Hertz Memorial Award (1980), and the Enrico Fermi Award (1980). His “firm commitment” of $10,000, bank deposits of $60,000, and the bell committee’s promise to commit all future donations, persuaded the ORCF to negotiate a contract for the bell when Iwazawa visited Oak Ridge in April 1993. For his part, the bell maker offered a $42,000 “discount,” thus reducing the total cost of the bell to $83,000 (FOB the foundry in Kyoto).37
Seventeen Tennesseans gathered in Kyoto for the bell’s casting on July 14, 1993: All three members of the Uppuluri family, Oak Ridge Mayor Ed Nephew and his German wife Marese, and eleven faculty members of the University of Tennessee. Prof. Patricia Postma brought along her husband, Dr. Herman Postma, who had succeeded Dr. Weinberg at ORNL but retired in 1991. Dr. Herman Postma photographed and video-taped the casting, the ceremony which preceded the casting, and a Rotary Club dinner which followed. The casting took place inside Iwazawa’s foundry, and Postma’s video shows employees in khaki uniforms and yellow hardhats performing dangerous tasks while an orange-robed Shinto priest and his assistant face cauldrons of molten metal, chant, and throw in what appear to be slips of paper. Ram and Shigeko Uppuluri are seen adding what appear to be a few dogwood branches from Tennessee38
The next day, all of the Tennesseans took the train to Hiroshima and visited Peace Memorial Park. Mayor Nephew laid a wreath and was followed everywhere by reporters who were keenly aware of the connection between Oak Ridge and the Hiroshima bomb.39 Later, a former Fulbright exchange student offered to crate the bell, and the Honda Motor Car Company agreed to ship it on a car carrier to the port of Savannah, Georgia.
The birth of the bell did not make the news in Oak Ridge until August 5 when the Oak Ridger quoted Mayor Nephew and Pat Postma as feeling great joy and awe to have attended the casting ceremony. Postma added:
“It represents more than just a bell for Oak Ridge. Those dates (Dec. 7, 1941 and Aug. 6, 1945) are a reminder to all people to not do it again. It recognizes the folly of those two days, but it is bigger than those two days.”40
Sometime between the bell festival in October 1991 and Iwazawa’s visit to Oak Ridge in April 1993, the inscription composed by Dr. Tittle (“in memory of all the workers of the Manhattan Project” etc.) was scrapped, and the names and dates of four wartime events were substituted.
When asked about this, Shigeko Uppuluri recalled only that the original inscription had to be shortened because the foundry was going to charge about $50 per character. For his part, Dr. Weinberg said that he attaches no great importance to the manner in which the final wording was decided, but he added, “As best I remember, it was Jack Goodwin who more or less insisted on the four names and dates.”41
So far as can be determined, the first public disclosure of the four names and dates was in a news story about Iwazawa’s visit.42 But the way in which Prof. Pat Postma was quoted four months later led many readers to believe that there were only two names and dates on the bell.
On September 24, the Oak Ridger published the following defense by Ram Uppuluri, Jr.:
“I appreciate the opportunity…to set the record straight and address some of the major concerns that have arisen with respect to the International Friendship Bell. First of all, the [bell] does not just bear two dates. It bears four... These dates were not selected to suggest any kind of ‘moral equivalence’ between any two events. Rather, they were chosen because of their historical significance, particularly as they relate to our city... Had it not been for the awful events of Pearl Harbor, the United States might not have been thrust into World War II and Oak Ridge might not have been born. As it was, our city was not only born, but was instrumental in helping to usher in the nuclear age... Perhaps it is true that the bell bears these dates like scars on an otherwise beautiful object of art, as one writer in this space has observed. But history bears these dates as well.”43
Two years later – at the height of the third bell war – Jack Goodwin wrote the only letter about the bell which he would send to the editor of the Oak Ridger. It had the tone of someone who knew the inside story:
“The Bell…has been marked properly with cause (Pearl Harbor), reaction (the two bombs), and result (Japanese unconditional surrender). There is no apology. Rather, we are soberly reminded of that which must be avoided in the future if humankind is to survive. Just as we use bells to celebrate beginnings, living joys and sorrows, and endings, let’s ring OUR bell often for all to hear. Let each decide the meaning to her or him. Or will we next silence this and all other bells in order to avoid ‘trivializing’ their meaning?”
The second bell war started right after publication of the four names and dates. The first Oak Ridger to notice the dates was John Preston. On April 15, the Oak Ridger published the following from Preston:
"The implications may be subtle to some, but are undoubtedly not lost on such sophisticates as the Uppuluris and Alvin Weinberg, that this commemoration suggests a moral equivalency in these [four] events… I do not believe most Oak Ridgers, past or present, believe that the heinous acts of the Japanese in World War II [are equivalent to the way] we responded with…nuclear bombs, to end the war.”45
Over the next three months, a few other Oak Ridgers wrote against the bell, but the newspaper received as many letters from members of the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association. Apparently, the Tennessee state chairman in nearby Powell, Tennessee, informed members all over the country, then told Oak Ridgers that, “You people…put so little value on the freedom which [you] enjoy, to let this group humiliate all veterans that fought in all wars that their children and grandchildren can live in a free country.”46 His letter was echoed by a lady in nearby Clinton, Tennessee: “I fail to understand what the proposed bell has to do with peace between nations. Have the Japanese erected a monument to any country they occupied during the course of the war?”47
Then war became intense. On August 9, the Oak Ridger published the following from Clarence Runtsch, leader of the 1991 bell war:
“The proposed Japanese bell is not a bell of peace. Instead, it rings of treachery, enslavement, rape and other repugnant crimes against humanity... Protests against ‘the bell’seem to be arrogantly ignored... If it is difficult for certain proponents to understand, why there is such intense opposition to ‘the bell,’ may I suggest that they attend the National Reunion of the Guadalcanal Campaign Veterans on Sept. 23-26 in Chattanooga for clarification… There will be individuals at that reunion, probably some with arms or legs missing, who can express themselves much more eloquently and emphatically than this writer.”48
On August 17, Minton J. and Tommye Kelly repeated the words attributed to Prof. Pat Postma on August 5 and added their own comment: “Obviously, Ms. Postma considers dropping the bomb was folly; we disagree. It saved countless American and Japanese lives because beachhead invasion…was no longer required.”49
Tommye Fleming served as a Marine celestial navigation trainer during World War II. She met Minton Kelly after the war while both were students at Texas A&M.50 When he received his Ph.D. in physics, they moved to Oak Ridge so that he could work under Alvin Weinberg at ORNL. Their joint letter launched Tommye into the forefront of the opposition to the bell. For the rest of 1993, there was a constant barrage of letters expressing the opposition of other Oak Ridgers. Many letter writers were not veterans, but veterans of World War II seemed to feel the most personally offended by the bell.
Some of their recurring objections were:
The opposition caught the bell’s proponents totally off-guard and caused them to reply defensively. The number of pro-bell letters about equaled anti-bell letters, but it didn’t seem so at the time. Ram Jr. reflects, “I held my breath every afternoon waiting to see the next argument the opponents had against the bell.”51
It took the ORCF until September 30 to compose and issue an official statement in support of the bell. Assembled by committee, the statement found many diverse reasons to support the bell:52
Dr. Herman Postma had had nothing to do with the bell before he attended its casting in July 1993. But, as soon as he returned to Oak Ridge, Dr. Weinberg (age 78) asked him to chair the bell committee and see the project through to completion, and Postma (age 60) accepted.53 The son of Dutch parents, Postma was a physicist who had come to Oak Ridge in 1954 between studies at Duke and Harvard. He permanently joined the ORNL staff in 1959, married Pat Dunigan, the daughter of the Oak Ridge High School principal, and in 1974 succeeded Weinberg as the first lab director in history to lack Manhattan Project experience.54 (Postma told the author that he was very glad not to have any part of the U.S. weapons program on his conscience.56)
When the bell arrived in October 1993, Postma tucked it away in an interior courtyard of the municipal building where the public could visit and it would be safe until its final disposition was decided.44
Throughout 1994, Dr. Weinberg continued to solicit funds from his many contacts around the world, and Dr. Postma led the local fund-raising effort for the bell pavilion. That effort was greatly assisted by Sotetsu Iwazawa who donated 300 miniature bells and shipped them to Oak Ridge inside the big bell. Although not all of the miniatures were sold – and some were later returned to Iwazawa at his request – Postma and other members of the bell committee sold many for $250 each and thus financed a major part of the bell pavilion.57
In June 1995, the Rev. Dwyn M. Mounger was called from Anderson, South Carolina, to become pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. The son of a Mississippi civil rights and peace activist, Mounger was acutely aware that, within less than six weeks of his arrival, the world would observe the fiftieth anniversaries of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1995.58
Mounger’s solution to this dilemma was to compose a “Litany of Remembrance” for the victims of all wars, up to and including the victims of the recent bombing in Oklahoma City. Mounger soon learned about the bell and acquired a miniature to ring in conjunction with the litany during his Hiroshima Day service. Parishioners also introduced Rev. Mounger to Dr. Alvin Weinberg.
The Manhattan Project physicist and the newly arrived minister hit it off immediately. Mounger wrote another Presbyterian minister on August 1 that Weinberg “is one of the most inspiring people I’ve ever encountered. [He] sees Hiroshima and August 6, 1945, as a ‘religious event’ (in the same sense as was the Holocaust) which has the potential of forever making any further use of nuclear weapons a universal taboo.”59
In the fall, Mounger brought several Presbyterian peace activists to Oak Ridge and introduced them to Dr. Weinberg at a meeting which also included two Presbyterian leaders of OREPA.60 Participants discussed how they might support Weinberg’s desire to “sanctify” Hiroshima but did not meet a second time. This did not end the deep mutual respect which Mounger and Weinberg had for each other. In November, they outlined a book which they intended to co-author on the sanctification of Hiroshima.61
On July 11, 1995, Ram Uppuluri, Sr., passed away at age 64.62 His memorial service filled the Oak Ridge Unitarian Universalist Church to capacity. The speakers were Dr. Alvin Weinberg, Ram Uppuluri, Jr., and Dr. Doan Phung (a Vietnamese scientist who worked for Weinberg at the IEA but left to start his own company). A family friend and well-known musician, Yuko Fukuda, played Japanese music on the koto.63
On April 24, 1995, a check for $23,121.48 suddenly arrived from 571 individual and corporate members of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan.64 Three days later, Dr. Postma wrote city manager Jeff Broughton to inform him that the bell committee had sufficient funds to complete the bell pavilion, and Broughton replied May 11 informing Posma that the committee’s plans for the pavilion had been approved.65 Postma was elated: He now had both of the things he needed to give the bell its permanent home -- sufficient funds and official approval.
But the municipal election on June 6 suddenly threatened everything. Three of the bell’s previous supporters on the city council were unexpectedly defeated, and Mayor Ed Nephew was subsequently replaced by Kathy Moore, who had become a member of the council in the previous election. Known as the “gang of four,” the new majority was upset about city spending and eager to fire city manager Broughton (which they did on October 2). The “four” didn’t feel strongly about the bell one way or another, but they were unwilling to defy public opinion, and they correctly knew that many Oak Ridge citizens still opposed the bell.
Fighting to keep ahead of the rapidly changing political situation, Postma announced June 8 that the construction of the bell pavilion was ready to begin, and ground was, in fact, broken in Bissell Park at the beginning of July.66 But – still fearing that the “gang of four” might halt construction and evict the bell from the municipal building at any time – Postma frantically made a contingency plan to hang the bell safely atop a tall utility pole on private property.67
The council did not act immediately, but the sight of actual construction triggered the third bell war. Letters to the editor of the Oak Ridger again voiced the veterans’ many objections. Now with a highly visible location being developed, new complaints were added about the physical structure of the bell pavilion and its specific location.
In mid-July, Tommye Kelly petitioned the City Council to remove the four names and dates from the bell or, barring this, to “prevail upon a local church or some other organization involved in the peace movement to provide space for it on privately owned land.”68 On July 24, she and her dentist, Dr. J. D. Johnson, proposed that the bell be rung only at High Noon on Memorial Day, i.e. only once a year.
Dr. Johnson was born in a small cotton town in northern Mississippi, attended the University of Memphis, and was drafted shortly after Pearl Harbor. After graduating from the UT College of Dentistry, Johnson moved to Oak Ridge, joined many professional and civic organizations, and dabbled in politics.69
In a “guest column” published August 3, Dr. Johnson (age 75) blasted the bell, challenged the City Council to take action, and called on all citizens to express themselves:
“I am opposed to the bell…because…its intent and purpose…are an affront and insult to all who fought and especially all who died in World War II... At Remagen, my [howitzer] battery was the first artillery unit to reach the Rhine… I know the horrors of war...
“It has been crystal clear, even from its early stages of planning, that this bell was intended to be a monument to the Japanese. Therefore, it becomes a bell of apology, a bell of atonement…”
“On [July 24] Mrs. Tommye Kelly [and I] urged the council to accept and ultimately adopt our resolution which provides that the bell shall ring at high noon on Memorial Day of each year and only on Memorial Day. This is a simple and straightforward solution. It leaves no room for misinterpretation or misunderstanding. It simply honors our war dead of all wars, and it in its simplicity lies its majesty, nobility and honor…
“Of one thing I am certain: We do not want this bell to become a shrine and a Mecca for all the anti-nuclear activists [OREPA] who do not understand or recognize the difference between nuclear war and peaceful uses of nuclear energy…”70
On August 7, Shigeko Uppuluri replied briefly and eloquently:
“...at high noon, the big bell will toll, echo in the valley of Oak Ridge for three, four minutes. And another deep sound ... and another. And I know it is Dr. Johnson who is ringing the bell. He fought many battles during World War II and he remembers many of his friends who died in that war. I too like to ring the bell just as much as Dr. Johnson wants to ring the bell... When do I want to ring the bell? I want to ring it on the [anniversary of the] day [August 20, 1972, when] both my late husband and I got citizenship of this country…
The bell was built to honor the workers of the Manhattan Project, to commemorate 50th birthday of Oak Ridge and to become a symbol and everlasting monument for the peace. The bell is for everyone, the young and the old..."71
The city council allocated its entire meeting on September 5 to debate the bell and to vote whether or not to permit its being placed in Bissell Park. Twenty well known citizens, representing both sides of the issue, spoke to the council, three votes were taken, and each vote was split four to three. The final vote postponed a final decision, created a seven-member “bell policy committee,” and asked the new committee “to research the bell and develop a policy for its use that will be acceptable to the community.”72
Three members of the “Group of Four” appointed well known opponents to the bell policy committee: Tommye Kelly, Dr. J. D. Johnson, and Thelma Brown (who was a retired teacher and worked in Dr. Johnson’s dental office.) The fourth member -- future mayor David Bradshaw -- appointed a black high school student, presumably in order to bring in a neutral outsider and to curry political support among minority voters. (Bradshaw is the only one still remaining on the council in 2006, having retained the mayor’s seat since 2001.)
The three “hold over” council members avoided appointing well-known supporters, presumably in order to avoid inevitable confrontations. Former Mayor Ed Nephew – who had attended the bell’s casting in 1993 – appointed Wanda Craven, a successful travel agent who had been active in the sister city movement. (Craven and Kathy Moore are sisters but on opposite sides of the political fence.) Councilwoman Pat Rush appointed her new minister, Rev. Dwyn Mounger. And longtime Councilman Walt Brown appointed David L. Coffey, a former ORNL scientist who had started his own business, sold out profitably, and was now serving his ninth year in the Tennessee state legislature. (Brown said later that he hoped Coffey would be “a peacemaker.”73)
By the first meeting of the committee, yet another retired scientist emerged from the complex milieu of Oak Ridge: William J. Wilcox, Jr., was a Manhattan Project chemist at age 20, worked at K-25 and Y-12, and eventually became technical director of Union Carbide’s Nuclear Division – responsible for all technical operations at both Oak Ridge plants.74 His genius, which would resolve a major obstacle to the bell’s existence, was to broaden and reinterpret the entire “meaning” of the bell.
Wilcox told the author that he had been troubled by the bell all the time he had read about it in the press but hadn’t figured out exactly why. At last it came to him: Dr. Weinberg and other bell proponents were trying to rewrite Oak Ridge history. Their emphasis on “Manhattan Project workers” and the four dates on the bell suggested that Oak Ridge’s only service had been to make uranium in World War II and to bomb Japan, whereas Oak Ridge had actually made many positive contributions over its entire fifty years.75
At their very first meeting, the seven committee members agreed on compromise ringing restrictions: The bell could be rung at any time with a small rubber mallet, but its log striker would be padlocked and its key made available for a limit of three rings between 6:00 and 6:15 pm each day.
Representing no one but himself, Wilcox presented the draft of a “Friendship Bell statement of purpose” which the committee read and approved in principle. In due course, the bell policy committee and the city council would unanimously approve two texts written by Wilcox: The relatively long “statement of purpose” as well as a shorter version “to be inscribed on a plaque to be placed next to the Bell in the bell house.”76
Thrilled at this compromise, Rev. Mounger dashed off a confidential letter to Ed Nephew, Herman Postma and Alvin Weinberg. Here are extracts (quoted with permission):
“October 6, 1995. Dear Ed, Herman, and Alvin: This letter, for obvious reasons, is for your eyes only… “I realize how disappointed you must be in the compromise that we appointees to the ‘Bell Policy Committee’ had to reach on our unanimous proposal that will come to City Council... But please don’t let this stop you from turning the bell over to the city...
“THE BELL WILL STILL ACCOMPLISH ITS PURPOSE -- PERHAPS EVEN BETTER THAN ANY OF US HAVE EVER DREAMED! J.D. thinks that he’s won a victory. But the VERY OPPOSITE is true! Let the bell work!...
“The whole committee -- including J.D. and Tommye -- grew excited as we thought of it’s [sic] ritual daily ringings’ becoming an Oak Ridge tradition and an event of pilgrimage for visitors. I’m convinced that ‘two years, ten years’ from now EVERYONE will ask (as we do now about the once-controversial Vietnam Memorial Wall): ‘Why was there ever any quarrel about this?’ I firmly believe that eventually -- probably sooner than any of us expect -- city policy will change so that the bell can be, and will be, freely rung by practically anyone and everyone...
“Have enclosed for you a truly beautiful, proposed statement of purpose for the bell which Bill Wilcox has carefully written…”77
On March 4, 1996, the bell was trucked from the municipal building to the incomplete pavilion in A.K. Bissell Park and lifted into place. Its dedication took place on Friday, May 3, 1996, with Herman Postma serving as master of ceremonies all day. Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General Emeritus of the International Atomic Energy Agency, was the keynote speaker; and Rev. Dwyn Mounger delivered the invocation. Rev. R. Boyd Carter, chairman of ORCF, formally presented the bell, and Mayor Kathy Moore accepted it on behalf of the city.78
The climax of the dedication was a veritable who’s who of bell supporters lining up to take turns ringing the bell.79 But that was the last time the bell would be freely rung for another five years: At the end of the dedication ceremony, the bell was padlocked and the ringing restrictions recommended by the bell policy committee and adopted by the city council took effect.
That evening, former Senator Howard Baker, Jr. (later to be American Ambassador to Japan) and Keiji Naito, professor of physics and president of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, addressed a banquet at the Garden Plaza Hotel.80
On the following day, May 4, Dr. Weinberg achieved an intellectual tour-de-force with a world-class symposium devoted to “Strengthening the Tradition of Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons.” The first paper was by Prof. Thomas Schelling (who would win the Nobel Prize in 2005 for his work on game theory), and the last was “The Bell and the Bomb” by Dr. Alvin Weinberg.81
Bell supporters and opponents had made their peace, but there was still some pent-up dissention brewing in the background when the bell was moved from the Municipal Building on March 4, 1996. Exactly one month later, Oak Ridgers were stunned to see the following in the afternoon paper:
“LAWSUIT SEEKS TO REMOVE BELL
“Robert Brooks filed suit in U.S. District Court in Knoxville,
seeking removal of the Friendship Bell from public property.
Brooks is retired after working many years at the K-25 Plant,
and has lived in Oak Ridge since 1945…”
Brooks had never spoken publicly against the bell during any of the bell wars. So who on earth was he? A partial answer is suggested by the following paraphrase from remarks of orthopedist Joe Tittle:
“During my years of medical practice, I treated practically everyone in Oak Ridge, and I got to thinking about my patients as belonging to two different groups. One group includes all of the scientists and other professionals whose names you see in the Oak Ridger all the time. The other group I called ‘the electricians’ for the electrical workers union to which many of them belong. The electricians watch the machines all night in the K-25 and Y-12 nuclear plants waiting for something bad to go wrong. Their work is dangerous and they are pretty well paid, but they aren’t highly educated and don’t join the same clubs and churches as the first group. So it’s easy for many Oak Ridgers to overlook the important role which ‘the electricians’ play in the life of this city.”82
Robert K. Brooks may, in fact, have been the very first American to confront Japanese soldiers after Pearl Harbor. He had joined the U.S. Army in 1939 at age 16 and was among the few troops already trained in 1941. After Pearl Harbor, he was immediately ordered to the Pacific, and submarines put him ashore alone (dressed in a Japanese uniform) on four different occupied islands to observe Japanese ports and airfields. On New Georgia island in early 1942, Brooks saw four or five Japanese soldiers carry a small bell into a clearing. A large group of soldiers lined-up, approached the bell, and rang it one-by-one. When he reported this to his superiors, a Japanese-speaking intelligence officer said, “This is important. They were praying to the Buddha. What you saw may indicate that a military operation is being planned.”83
Brooks is fiercely proud of his forty-year career at K-25, having started as the bottom man on the shift and risen to be the top man – cascade coordinator. He retired September 30, 1985, the same day that K-25 stopped enriching uranium. When asked why he filed suit (single-handedly and at personal expense), he explained, “What really got to me was seeing the chrysanthemum – the very symbol of Imperial Japan – which every Japanese officer wore on his uniform during the war – on the bell at the municipal building… within SIGHT of the memorial to American veterans, some of whom gave their lives fighting Imperial Japan!”84
When Brooks’ pursued his suit in February 1998, his complaint read: “The Friendship Bell is a Buddhist symbol whose presence [in a public park] results in an endorsement of the Buddhist religion [by the City of Oak Ridge] in violation of the Establishment Clause [of the first amendment] of the U.S. Constitution.” Brooks asked for the bell to be removed from public property and for compensatory damages due to mental anguish.85 This legal filing was covered by a Knoxville television station, and Brooks stated his case cogently:
Rev. Dwyn Mounger expressed “the other side of the story:”
“They’re praying to a god when they ring that bell. If an altar was out there and the Baptists were out praying, I’d feel exactly the same way. Religion does not belong on public property. Am I still bitter toward Japan? No, I’m not bitter at all. I’m simply fighting for my beliefs.”
“Although the bell may LOOK like a religious symbol, that doesn’t mean that it is. By the same token, you could say that a public school house which has a belfry on it that looks like a church, that that’s a religious symbol, when we know that it certainly isn’t. For example, animists worship trees. So should we take the trees out of our parks?”86
The U.S. District Court in Knoxville ruled against Brooks on March 17, 1999, and he appealed his case to the Sixth Circuit in Cincinnati, Ohio. Brooks again expected to receive “my day in court,” but the appeals court assigned the case to a panel of three judges.
When the three judges published their opinion on July 21, 2000, two of them agreed with Brooks that the bell is a Buddhist religious symbol but disagreed that its presence in A. K. Bissell Park violates the Establishment Clause. Justices Karen Nelson Moore and R. Guy Cole, Jr., wrote as follows:
Although Brooks appealed this decision to the Supreme Court, it decided on February 20, 2001, not to hear the case. Robert Brooks still fervently believes that the Oak Ridge bell was Buddhist from the moment it was made and that to ring it sends a prayer to the Buddha, whether or not the ringer knows that he or she is engaging in a religious act. He is still waiting for justice.
"We conclude that, although the bell has secular significance in Japanese culture, it also carries strong Buddhist connotations and therefore qualifies as a religious symbol for the purpose of Establishment Clause analysis...
“We therefore find it appropriate to apply [the three prongs of] the Lemon test to Oak Ridge's display of the Friendship Bell...  A statute or governmental practice must have a secular purpose;  its primary effect must be neither to advance nor to inhibit religion; and  it must not foster excessive governmental entanglement with religion.87
“ Applying the first prong of the Lemon test, we have little difficulty in concluding that Oak Ridge's purpose in adopting the Friendship Bell was secular...  We [also] hold that the Friendship Bell display, in context, does not have the effect of endorsing religion. [And 3] we find no impermissible governmental entanglement with religion.”88
Once the Oak Ridge bell was in place, citizens discovered that it couldn’t be heard for more than one or two hundred yards. So no one’s sleep was disturbed. The bell suffered from only the most minor vandalism. So the Oak Ridge Police Department disconnected the video surveillance equipment which Herman Postma had had to install. And no one from the OREPA had ever used the bell as a venue for protests against weapons production at the Y-12 plant. So the very worst fear of the bell’s opponents was also shown to be groundless.
The bell now stands proud in its cantilevered pavilion combining features from Asian and Western traditions. Ringing restrictions were removed in 2001.89 So the bell may now be rung by anyone at any time – sometimes frivolously and sometimes solemnly. It is probably fair to say that most Oak Ridgers now accept the bell, respect its unique history, and value it as a permanent addition to their civic landscape.
This paper began with a statement about the use of public monuments by certain groups to project their interpretations of past time into the future. It was also noted that the public doesn’t always interpret monuments in the same way their creators intended. In the case of the Oak Ridge bell, we have seen that many groups contributed to its creation and construction. And the bell projects the different interpretations of each contributor:
The bell, identical in style and quality to Buddhist bells in Japan, will probably endure for many centuries. The pavilion will last longer than most buildings but will eventually fade and may or may not be replaced. Dr. Weinberg’s many writings are already scattered. The plaque made from the words so carefully crafted by Bill Wilcox will also suffer the ravages of time.92 In the long term, the bell will remind, teach, and admonish each visitor in different ways, depending, for the most part, on the different cultural and personal values each visitor brings to the experience.
But that’s not a bad prospect for a monument in a small town “Born of War, Living for Peace, Growing Through Science.” And it’s probably a better prospect than most monuments created to commemorate the aftermath of the atomic bomb.
The third bell war coincided with the “history war” at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The later involved the Air and Space Museum’s plan to “interpret” Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the fiftieth anniversaries of the two bombs in 1995, along with a display of the partially restored Enola Gay, the B-29 which flew the bomb of Oak Ridge uranium from Tinian Island to Hiroshima.93 Although the issues were quite similar, the vast national publicity surrounding the crisis at the Smithsonian never involved Oak Ridge. And in all the words spilled by combatants in the Oak Ridge bell wars, no one ever referred to the Enola Gay controversy.
The Oak Ridge posts of the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars sat out all three bell wars – during which so much was said on behalf of veterans -- and both organizations have maintained complete and absolute silence on the bell to this day.
For years, the bell committee and ORCF maintained that the Oak Ridge bell was very unusual. For example, on July 14, 1988, Shigeko Uppuluri was quoted as saying, “There are [only] two bells in the United States that I know of: One in California and one in New York…”94
In 1998, Brooks based his suit, in part, on the rarity of “such bells.” His formal complaint alleged that, “there is only one other such bell in the United States, and it is housed in a private Buddhist Temple in California.”95
To counter Brooks, Dr. Herman Postma then tried to make it seem that Oak Ridge was not unique and that there were already a number of “such bells.” The affidavit he prepared for the appeals court mentioned bells in San Diego, Portland, Honolulu, and Annapolis – and provided photos of bells in San Diego, San Pedro, and Seattle.96
It is doubtful that any Oak Ridger came close to knowing the true number of large “Buddhist” bells which were already on public display in North America. Assisted by the internet, the author can now identify at least twenty-six large Asian bells which were in place before 1996.97 The number is larger if Western bells are included and far larger if peace and friendship monuments of all forms are considered – not just monuments which happen to be in the shape of large bells.98
How different the story of the Oak Ridge bell might have been had Robert Brooks, the other veterans who opposed the bell, and Federal judges in Knoxville and Cincinnati been aware that the bell in Oak Ridge was hardly unique. It actually had a relatively large numbers of predecessors, but none of them had provoked anything like the controversy – religious or otherwise -- which surrounded the Oak Ridge bell.
1 Bergren, Lars, et al (2000). return
2 Hatlie (year?), “Deconstructing historical markers.” return
3 Interview with architect Jon Coddington, Aug. 28, 2003. In addition to its local tradition, Coddington liked the way in which the cantilevered barn has a footprint/foundation which is smaller than its superstructure. return
4 A PowerPoint version of this paper was presented July 17, 2005, in Oak Ridge to the Conference on the Atomic Bomb and American Society sponsored by the Center for the Study of War and Society, University of Tennessee. return
5 This paper is based on 49 interviews with 32 key participants between May 8, 2003 and August 9, 2005. Every request for an interview was granted, and all interviewees gave generously of their time. The author conducted 38 interviews in person (34 in Oak Ridge, three in Knoxville, and one in Murfreesboro), six by telephone, and four by e-mail. Dr. Miriam Levering, Professor of Religious Studies, University of Tennessee, participated in 20 interviews. Fourteen interviewees also provided documents from their personal or institutional files. Five key participants died before the research was conducted: Ms. Ruth Goldstein Carey, Mr. Jack Hunter Goodwin, Dr. J. D. Johnson, Ms. Ethel Quinn McDonald, and Dr. Ram Uppuluri. return
6 The other two “secret cities” were Hanford, Washington, and Los Alamos, New Mexico. Hanford produced the plutonium used for the bomb which destroyed Nagasaki, including Urakami Cathedral. A small “Bell of Peace” modeled on the cathedral’s Western style bell was given to Hanford and is now displayed in the nearest public library. Los Alamos does not have a comparable monument. A “Children’s Peace Statue” was offered but rejected by the Los Alamos County Council in November 1994 and is now located at the Plaza Resolana in nearby Santa Fe. return
7 Interview with Ram Uppuluri, Jr., Dec. 31, 2003. return
8 Interview with Shigeko Uppuluri, June 13, 2004. return
9 Evidence of Tennessee’s love affair with Japan is provided by “Friends: Japanese and Tennesseans, a model of U.S.-Japan Cooperation,” a 182-page coffee-table book published by the state of Tennessee in 1986 under the authorship of Governor Lamar Alexander. Japanese investment in Tennessee is roughly the same as that of all other foreign countries combined. return
10 Uppuluri (1987). Found in ORCF archives at the Children’s Museum, Oak Ridge. return
11 “Searching for the Spirit of the Bell,” short documentary by NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai, or Japan Broadcasting Corporation), date unknown, as translated for Oak Ridge Public Television by Shigeko Uppuluri, 1991. This video is available at the Oak Ridge Public Library. return
12 In order to accommodate visitors during the fair, the U.S. Department of Energy constructed overlooks at ORNL and K-25 and refurbished the original “Graphite Reactor” (where plutonium and medical isotopes were first produced). For security reasons, the ORNL overlook has been torn down, and the public may no longer visit the Graphite Reactor except on infrequent summer bus tours for U.S. citizens only. return
13 Oak Ridge’s population was an estimated 75,000 at the end of World War II but fell to 30,229 in the 1950 census and 27,169 in the 1960 census. Remarkably, it has remained essentially the same in every census since then. return
14 Congresswoman Lloyd was one of four VIP’s the Uppuluris recruited in 1988 to serve on a bell “advisory committee.” The other three were Oak Ridge lawyer Eugene Joyce, bank vice president and former state senator James (Buzz) Elkins, and former city council member Elaine Trauger. return
15 Interview with Dr. Charles Coutant, Jan. 31, 2004. Coutant was president of the Committee of 50 in 1988-89. return
16 Siemens (1988). return
17 Committee of 50 minutes recorded by M. Yvonne Weaver. Provided by Dr. Charles Coutant. return
18 Dr. Joe Evan Tittle was an orthopedist who had served in the U.S. Air Force, traveled throughout Southeast Asia, and become a collector of Asian art. He volunteered for many years as the doctor of the Oak Ridge High School football team. Tittle retired in 1993 and left Oak Ridge soon after. He was interviewed at his apartment in Knoxville. return
19 ORCF archives at the Children’s Museum, Oak Ridge, preserves copies of all six proposals. return
20 Interview with Jon Coddington, Aug. 28, 2003. return
21 Minutes of “Friendship pavilion committee” recorded by Alice P. Maxwell, June 5, 1990. Provided by Jon Coddington and found in ORCF archives at the Children’s Museum, Oak Ridge. return
22 Brochure of the Friendship Bell Festival. Found in ORCF archives at the Children’s Museum, Oak Ridge. return
23 Carey (1991). return
24 Using financial records from various sources, the author has compiled a list of 194 separate donations totaling $164,701 (including the $42,000 discount offered by bell maker Sotetsu Iwazawa) – plus 68 separate purchases of miniature bells totaling an additional $29,845. Despite the cooperation of everyone he contacted, the author never found bank account information of other definitive financial records. Ironically, the most complete source was a computer print-out provided by Tommye Kelly who obtained it during the bell wars. The original source of the print-out was never determined. return
25 Oak Ridgers remember “the bell wars” as if they continued non-stop over a very long period of time. Actually, there were three very separate “wars.” The Oak Ridger published nine anti-bell letters in 1991, 18 in 1993, and 25 in 1995. Comparable numbers for pro-bell letters are five in 1991, 16 in 1993, and 40 in 1995. These numbers do not include editorials (all of which favored the bell) and “guest columns” (which took both points of view). return
26 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Oct. 6, 1991. Clarence Frederick Runtsch was a former Marine, a veteran of Guadalcanal, and the sculptor who had submitted the rival “Visionary” proposal to the ORCF in early 1990. return
27 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Oct. 16, 1991. Carroll is the only opponent of the bell who publicly changed his mind. On Sept. 5, 1993, he wrote to offer the bell a “somewhat lukewarm” welcome. Carroll said that he had come to accept “the assurance of the bell sponsors that no atonement on the part of either the Japanese or the Americans is inferred in the symbolism of the bell. I fear, however, that there are people from other locations as well as from Oak Ridge that will still view the bell as a symbol of remorse for the use of the atomic bomb.” return
28 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Oct. 28, 1991. return
29 Weinberg (1985). See full text at the very end of this web page. return
30 Weinberg (1991). return
31 Uppuluri, Jr. (1991). return
32 Weinberg (1991). return
33 Minutes of ORCF board meeting, Jan. 23, 1992. Obtained from Dr. Charles Coutant. return
34 Ram and Shigeko Uppuluri carried a model of the bell pavilion to Naka-Machi in the summer in 1990. Yasusato Asakawa, president of the Naka-Machi sister city association, subsequently collected this amount from 420 individual donors. return
35 Minutes of ORCF board meeting, Apr. 30, 1992. Obtained from Dr. Charles Coutant. return
36 Obituary (1992), “Ethel Quinn McDonald: Retired project control analyst,” Oak Ridger, September 7. return
37 These details are from two letters, both dated Apr. 29, 1993. One letter is from Dr. Alvin Weinberg and Shigeko Uppuluri to the chairman of the ORCF describing the bell committee’s finances. The other letter -- from the chairman of the ORCF to Sotetsu Iwazawa and countersigned by Iwazawa – is in effect the contract for the bell. Both documents were obtained from the papers of Dr. Alvin Weinberg at Oak Ridge Associated Universities. return
38 Video made by Dr. Herman Postma. This video played many times on Oak Ridge Community Television in the latter months of 1993. return
39 Japan Times, July 16, 1996. return
40 Fitzgerald (1993, August 5). Prof. Postma’s words are quoted here exactly as they appeared in print, including the parentheses. The next day, an Oak Ridger editorial praised the bell and called for calm: “It is time for this community to resolve the petty semantic issues revolving around the International Friendship Bell project and move forward toward the creation of a first-class monument to international cooperation and peace here in Oak Ridge… Wouldn’t it be nice, as a final 50th Birthday tribute, to get the job finished by the end of this year?” return
41 Obituary (2003), “Jack Hunter Goodwin: Retired Union Carbide operations head,” Oak Ridger, March 19. Goodwin was assigned to Oak Ridge in 1944 as a young soldier and then worked at the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant. He went abroad for Union Carbide in 1961 and remained in Taiwan for ten years after he retired in 1977. return
42 Fitzgerald (1993, April 7). return
43 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Sept. 24, 1993. return
44 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Sept. 1, 1995. Goodwin died in March 2003 before he could be interviewed for this paper. return
45 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Apr. 15, 1993. return
46 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, July 23, 1993. In late 1996, other members of the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association wrote letters to the city protesting bell. So far as can be determined, this is only attention that the bell ever received from groups outside Oak Ridge. return
47 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, July 28, 1993. The answer to Ms. Meredith’s question is “yes.” The Japanese government has erected peace monuments at several places occupied during WW-II, including a 1987 monument on Attu Island in Alaska, the only part of the United States actually occupied by the Japanese. There are also many privately funded monuments, including a 1954 US-Japan Friendship Monument in Yokohama and a 1975 peace tower and bell near the route of the Bataan death march in the Philippines. return
48 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Aug. 9, 1993. Having led the first bell war and launched the second, Runtsch was not heard from again. return
49 Letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger, Aug. 17, 1993. return
50 Interview with Tommye and Minton Kelly, Sep. 9, 2003. return
51 Interview with Ram Uppuluri, Jr., Dec. 31, 2003. Ram, Jr., also said that his father jested about the opposition by saying, “In Oak Ridge, peace is a four-letter word.” return
52 ORCF (1993). return
53 Interview with Dr. Herman Postma, May 21, 2003. Interview with Dr. Alvin Weinberg, Aug. 26, 2003. return
54 Parson, Paul (2004), “Former ORNL head dies,” Oak Ridger, November 8, page 1, and Smyser, Dick (2004), “Editor’s License: 'Optimistic, entrepreneurial' administrator,” Oak Ridger, November 18. return
55 Interview with Dr. Herman Postma, Sep. 8, 2004. return
56 Dr. Weinberg and Mayor Nephew wanted to display the bell at the American Museum of Science and Energy (AMSE), but the U.S. Department of Energy, which owns the museum, denied permission. return
57 Miniature bells are still on sale for $250 at the “Chapel on the Hill” in the office of Rev. R. Boyd Carter, who is still chairman of the ORCF. return
58 Interview with Rev. Dwyn Mounger, July 6, 2003. Mounger left Oak Ridge in 2001 to become an interim minister in Georgia and Arkansas. He was interviewed in Knoxville where he maintains a home for his eventual retirement. return
59 Letter dated Aug. 1, 1995, from Rev. Mounger to Rev. Richard L. Killmer, Presbyterian Peacemaking Program, Louisville, Kentucky. return
60 Interview with Rev. Dwyn Mounger, Jul. 6, 2003, and interview with Rev. Ralph Hutchison, Jun. 6, 2003. Rev. Hutchison is coordinator of the Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance (OREPA). return
61 Weinberg, Alvin M., & Rev. Dwyn Mounger (1995, Nov. 16), "The Sanctification of Hiroshima," outline of a proposed book to be written by the two collaborators, pp. 2. Copies obtained from both authors. return
62 Obituary (1995), “Venkata Uppuluri: Retired scientist, activist,” Oak Ridger, July 12, and Smyser, Dick (1995), “Editor’s license: Oak Ridge’s conduit to not just India but the world,” July 20. return
63 Records of the Oak Ridge Unitarian Universalist Church. return
64 Letter from Keiji Naito, president of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, dated April 7, 1995. return
65 Copies of this correspondence were provided by Dr. Herman Postma. return
66 Fowler (1995). return
67 Interview with Dr. Herman Postma, May 21, 2003. return
68 Letter dated Jul 15, 1995, from Tommye F. Kelly “To the Honorable Members of the Oak Ridge City Council.” return
69 Obituary (2003), “James David Johnson Sr.: Former dentist, state Board of Regents member, Oak Ridger, July 7. return
70 Johnson (1995). return
71 Letter to editor of the Oak Ridger, Aug. 7, 1995. return
72 Oak Ridge City Council (1995, September 5), “Minutes, Oak Ridge City Council Meeting,” pp. 11. return
73 Deposition of Walter Brown, Dec. 23, 1996, in the case of Robert Brooks v. the City of Oak Ridge et al. return
74 Smith (2006). return
75 Interview with William Wilcox, Jr., Aug. 19, 2003. return
76 See Appendix for the text of the statement of purpose. See Fig. 5 for the text of the shorter version for the plaque. Both texts were officially adopted by resolution 2-14-96 of the Oak Ridge City Council, Feb. 7, 1996. return
77 Letter dated Oct. 6, 1995, from Rev. Dwyn Mounger. return
78 Program entitled “The International Friendship Bell, Dedication & Symposium, May 3-4, 1996, jointly sponsored by The University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the Oak Ridge Community Foundation,” pp. 8. return
79 The first ringing of the bell was done by eight carefully selected pairs: Shiho Hayashi and Jason Rowen (Japanese and American children), Mayors Kathy Moore and Yasusato Asakawa, Shigeko Uppuluri and Hugh (Bish) Bishop, Dr. Alvin Weinberg and Dr. Herman Postma, Jon Coddington and Sotetsu Iwazawa, Tom Hill and Rev. R. Boyd Carter (past and current presidents of the ORCF), Dr. Joe Tittle and Dr. John Haffey, Dr. Bill Birch and Dr. Tomio Kawata (both nuclear scientists). return
80 Video made and provided by Dr. Herman Postma. return
81 Program entitled “The International Friendship Bell, Dedication & Symposium, May 3-4, 1996, jointly sponsored by The University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the Oak Ridge Community Foundation,” pp. 8. Other speakers at the symposium were Prof. Bruce Russett, Prof. Freeman Dyson, Prof. Frederick Seitz, Dr. Jack Barkenbus, Prof. Sidney Drell, Dr. David Fischer, and Admiral Stansfield Turner. return
82 Interview with Dr. Joe Tittle, Mar. 16, 2004. return
83 Interview with Mr. Robert Brooks, Sep. 2, 2003. And Brooks, Robert K. (1996). return
84 Interview with Mr. Robert Brooks, Sep. 2, 2003. return
85 Brooks (1998). return
86 Nelson, David (1998), news reporter, WBIR-TV News, Knoxville, 6:00 pm newscast, February 27. Video provided by Mr. Robert Brooks. Transcribed by the author. return
87 Lemon v. Kurtzman was a Supreme Court case in 1971 in which Chief Justice Burger articulated three criteria (prongs) which courts have used ever since to decide other Establishment Clause cases. return
88 US Court of Appeals (2000). Although he concurred in the overall result, the third judge, Alan E. Norris, decided that the bell is not religious. In his words: "…plaintiff [Brooks] has failed to establish that the Oak Ridge bell is, in fact, a Buddhist religious symbol... I therefore doubt whether a Lemon analysis is even necessary in this situation. In any case, as the majority opinion notes, the Oak Ridge bell passes the Lemon test, and therefore does not violate the Establishment Clause…” return
89 Dr. Postma tried for several years to get the restrictions removed. In 2001, he encouraged 14 year old Elise Campbell to petition the city for removal. The city council agreed on May 7, Mayor Bradshaw removed the chains, and Ms. Campbell freely rang the bell for the first time on May 31. return
90 The brochure created for the dedication on May 3, 1996, ignored the official interpretation and relied on earlier formulations, including the honoring of Manhattan Project workers. return
91 For example, see http://oakridgevisitor.com/attractions.html, http://webpages.charter.net/yokoken/bell.htm, and http://www.tnvacation.com/vendors/international_friendship_bell. return
92 The plaque was not “placed next to the Bell in the bell house” but installed on a post near a footpath so far away that most visitors who arrive by car never see the plaque. The plaque was very nearly lost in 2004 when three of its four screws worked loose. return
93 See Nobile (1995) and Harwitt (1996) for good summaries of the Enola Gay controversy at the Smithsonian. Hunt (1996?) is the best on-line summary. return
94 Siemens (1988). return
95 Brooks (1998). return
96 Affidavit of Dr. Herman Postma in the case of Robert Brooks v. City of Oak Ridge et al, Dec. 2, 1998. return
97 Annapolis, Boston, Des Moines, Duluth, Edmonton, Hilo (HI), Honolulu, Lethbridge (AB), Lexington (VA), Mexico City, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Reading (PA), United Nations (NY), San Diego, San Francisco, San Marino (CA), San Pedro (CA), Sonoma (CA), Toronto, Topeka, Vancouver (BC), Victoria (BC), Washington (DC), and two bells in Seattle. Six of these were war trophies, and four were displayed as art objects, but sixteen were specifically displayed as symbols of world peace and/or international friendship. Today, there are at least seven more: New York City, Mississagua (ON), Montreal, Oak Ridge, two bells in Los Angeles, and a second in Vancouver (BC). return
98 As detailed in the previous note, there were already at least 26 large Asian style bells in North America before the Oak Ridge bell was dedicated in 1996. Also in North America before 1996, there were at least 56 large Western style bells, 91 international friendship monuments of all kinds, and 201 peace monuments of all kinds. As of March 2006, these numbers have risen to at least 33 large Asian bells, 70 large Western bells, 127 international friendship monuments of all kinds, and 300 peace monuments of all kinds. return
Adams, Ray (2002, September), "Ray's Bell Page," Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). Information about various large bells. Includes an on-line recording of the International Friendship Bell.
Anon. (1992, September 7), "DEATHS: Ethel Quinn McDonald: Retired project control analyst," Oak Ridger.
Anon. (1995, July 12), "DEATHS: Venkata Uppuluri: Retired scientist, activist," Oak Ridger.
Anon. (2003, March 19), "OBITUARIES: Jack Hunter Goodwin: Retired Union Carbide operations head," Oak Ridger.
Anon. (2003, July 7), "OBITUARIES: James David Johnson Sr.: Former dentist, state Board of Regents member," Oak Ridger.
Barkenbus, Jack N., & David L. Feldman, ed. by (1996, August), "Strengthening the Tradition of Non-use of Nuclear Weapons," Energy, Environment and Resources Center (EERC), University of Tennessee, Knoxville, pp. 69. Contains 11 papers from a symposium of the same name held in Oak Ridge, TN, May 4, 1996, in connection with the dedication of the International Friendship Bell on May 3, 1996.
Baker, Senator Howard H., Jr. (1996, May 3), address to dinner guests during the dedication of the International Friendship Bell, Oak Ridge, TN, published in Barkenbus & Feldman (1996, August).
Bergren, Lars, et al (2000), “Time and the public monument,” introduction to section 12, 13th International Congress of the History of Art, September 2-8, London, England.
Brooks, Robert K. (1998, February 19), “Complaint,” as re-filed in the US district Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.
Brooks, Robert K. (1996, December 20), “Deposition of Robert Brooks,” court document in the case of Robert Brooks v. City of Oak Ridge, US District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, pp. 125. NB: Pages missing, both in court records and in personal files of Mr. Brooks.
Carey, Ruth, photos by (1991, October 24), “Oak Ridge celebrates the friendship bell [festival],” Oak Ridge Journal.
Carey, Ruth (1993, about April 1), “Trip abroad [by Ram and Shikego Uppuluri] united mothers in Japan, India,” Oak Ridger.
Carey, Ruth (1993, June 9), “Reminiscing: Orthopedic surgeon [Dr. Joe Tittle] retires from practice, not from community,” Oak Ridger.
Coddington, Jonathan P. (1990, June 29), "Preliminary Site Plan," set of six page-size sketches of the proposed bell house (pavilion) for the International Friendship Bell, Oak Ridge, TN, including overall site plan, four drawings of the bell house, and a page of six small sketches illustrating various attributes of the plan.
Fowler, Bob (1995, July 9), “Japanese birthday bell will soon get permanent home: When struck, bell guaranteed to make your bones ring,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, Anderson County Community News, page AC-1 & 3.
Eklund, Sigvard Arne (1996, May 3), “Nuclear energy: Threat and promise,” dedicatory address for the International Friendship Bell, Oak Ridge, TN. NB: Of Swedish nationality, Eklund is director general emeritus of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Fitzgerald, Will (1993, April 7), “Bellmaker visits site for peace bell,” Oak Ridger.
Fitzgerald, Will (1993, August 5), "Friendship Bell Dedication Rites [in Kyoto, Japan] Are Emotion Filled for [Oak] Ridge Mayor [Ed Nephew]." Oak Ridger.
Hatlie (year?), Mark T., “Deconstructing historical markers: How to question historical places, monuments, memorials, and museums,” Tübingen, Germany.
Harwitt, Martin O. (1996), “An exhibit denied: Lobbying the history of Enola Gay,” Copernicus, pp. 477. Harwitt is former director, Air & Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Heine, Steven (1999, February 1), “Affidavit of Steven Heine,” filed in US District Court, Eastern District of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, pp. 7 plus resume and 12 other attachments. NB: Heine is expert witness for Robert Brooks in the case of Robert Brooks vs. City of Oak Ridge. See Levering (1999, January 4).
Hunt, Gaillard T. (1996?), "Massacre at the Smithsonian [Institution]," self-published. "This comment is based largely on the memoir “An Exhibit Denied” by Martin Harwitt, 1996" (qv).
Johnson, Dr. James D. (1995, August 3), "Guest column: Let 'The Bell' toll only on Memorial Day," Oak Ridger.
Kawata, Tomio (1996, June 6), “Guest Column: Japanese visitor shares his essay on the [International Friendship] bell,” Oak Ridger. NB: Kawata attended the bell dedication and afterwards mailed this text to Rev. Dwyn Mounger from Japan.
Kelly, Minton J. & Tommye Fleming Kelly (1993, August 17), "Your views: Bell would convey wrong message," letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger.
Kelly, Tommye Fleming (1993, September 10), “Your views: Gives quotes concerning bell,” letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger.
Kelly, Tommye Fleming (1995, August 23), “Guest column: Let the Friendship Bell ring seldom and solemnly,” Oak Ridger.
Levering, Miriam Lindsey (1999, January 4), "Oak Ridge Bell Report," pp. 24, unpublished. Refutations of allegations by plaintiff in the case of Robert Brooks vs. the City of Oak Ridge. Expert testimony prepared for and submitted to the city's counsel but not used in court. Copy obtained from the author. See Heine (1999, February 1).
Levering, Miriam Lindsey (2000, August 7), “In the Atomic City, for whom does the temple bell toll?,” paper delivered to the XVIII International Congress, International Association for the History of Religion, Durban, South Africa, unpublished.
Levering, Miriam Lindsey (2003, Fall), "Are friendship bonsho bells Buddhist symbols?: The case of Oak Ridge [Tennessee]," Pacific World (Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies), San Francisco. 3rd series, no. 5, pp. 163-178. NB: Despite its date, this journal did not appear until Fall 2004, and the article contains information dated in early 2004.
Levering, Miriam Lindsey (2005 November/December), “Remembering Hiroshima in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,” Dharma World, Kosei Publishing Co., Tokyo, pp. 6-11.
McDonald, Ethel Quinn (1990, March 1), "A proposal for the Oak Ridge Friendship Bell presented to the 50th Birthday Committee, Oak Ridge Community Foundation...submitted by the Friendship Bell Committee, Shigeko Uppuluri, Chairperson," pp. 5 plus cover and 4 attachments, unpublished. This document does not attribute authorship to McDonald, but McDonald (1992, January 23) and other sources do so.
McDonald, Ethel Quinn, & Ram Yoshino Uppuluri (1991, October 8), “Your views: Some answers about bell project,” letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger.
McDonald, Ethel Quinn (1992, January 23), Letter to the Oak Ridge Community Foundation, pp. 7 plus 3-page attachment entitled "Friendship Bell Contributions: Summary & Detail,” unpublished.
Mounger, Rev Dwyn M. (1995, August 6), "Litany of Remembrance," First Presbyterian Church, Oak Ridge, TN. Text published by Oak Ridger and elsewhere.
Namiki, Kenichi or Ken (ongoing), “The International Friendship Bell: A community project to provide a lasting legacy for Oak Ridge’s 50th birthday celebration,” webpage [http://webpages.charter.net/yokoken/bell.htm] based on an early International Friendship Bell brochure. NB: Namiki returned to Japan after teaching at Tennessee Meiji Gakuin High School in Sweetwater, TN.
Nephew, Edmund A. (1993, June 24), “Mayor suggests inscription for bell,” letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger.
Nephew, Edmund A. (1996, December 23), “Deposition of Ed Nephew,” court document in the case of Robert Brooks v. City of Oak Ridge, US District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, pp. 40 plus (missing pages). NB: Nephew was mayor of Oak Ridge, 1991-1995. Shorter depositions made the same day by David Bradshaw, Walter Brown, Mike Coffey, Francis Kovac, Kathryn Moore, and Patricia Rush. These seven comprised the Oak Ridge City Council, 1995-1997.
Nobile, Philip, ed. by (1995), "Judgment at the Smithsonian: The uncensored script of the Smithsonian's 50th anniversary exhibit of the Enola Gay," Marlowe & Co., New York, pp. 270.
ORCF (1990, January), “Interview with Dr. Joe Tittle, Chairman for Oak Ridge’s 50th Birthday Celebration,” press release. ORCF = Oak Ridge Community Foundation.
ORCF (1991, October 15), "Press Release," Oak Ridge Community Foundation, pp. 2. Announcement of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's appointment as honorary chair of the Friendship Bell Committee. Attributed to Ram Yoshino Uppuluri.
ORCF (1992, April 30), Minutes of the board meeting, Oak Ridge Community Foundation, Oak Ridge. The ORCF Board separates the bell project from the 50th birthday celebration.
ORCF (1993, September 30), "Community Foundation support for International Friendship Bell: Unanimously approved by ORCF Board of Directors, September 30, 1993." NB: Same text reissued on August 25, 1995.
ORCF (1995, August 25), letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger from the Chair of the Oak Ridge Community Foundation (ORCF) with four attachments: (1) list of bell supporters, (2) names and phone numbers of the seven members of the City Council, (3) "Basic Information on Bell Issues," and (4) same statement of support for the International Friendship Bell issued by the ORCF board on September 30, 1993 (qv).
Oak Ridge Convention & Visitors Bureau (2004, January 16), "Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Photo Resource Guide: Attractions, events, and scenic images of the area," CD with about 90 images. Cover photo is image of the International Friendship Bell.
Postma, Herman, produced, filmed & edited by (1993, July 14 & 19), “The International Friendship Bell: Casting and Ringing Ceremonies,” Postma Video Productions, Oak Ridge. 24-minute film videotaped at Iwazawa Foundry, Kyoto, Japan, and shown 19 times (according to Postma) on Oak Ridge Community cable TV. The 3 parts of the film are casting on July 14, Rotary banquet on July 14, and test ringing on July 19.
Postma, Herman, produced, filmed & edited by (1996, May 3), “International Friendship Bell Dedication and Dinner,” Postma Video Productions, Oak Ridge. 49-minute film videotaped in A.K. Bissell Park and at Garden Plaza Hotel. Includes speeches by former Senator Howard Baker and Prof. Keiji Naito. Includes long list of bell benefactors in US and Japan.
Postma, Herman (1998, December 2), “Affidavit of Dr. Herman Postma,” US District Court, Eastern District of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, pp. 8 plus exhibits. NB: This is the testimony on which the City of Oak Ridge and its lawyers based their successful defense in the case of Robert Brooks v. City of Oak Ridge.
Runtsch, Clarence Frederick (1990, circa March 1), “The visionary [“Oak Ridge prophet” John Hendrix]: A sculpture project,” one of six proposals for a 50th anniversary monument submitted to the Oak Ridge Community Foundation, Oak Ridge, TN, pp. 2 plus biographical information on the artist.
Siemens, Audrey (1988, July 14), "Friendship bell is planned for Oak Ridge area," Oak Ridger.
Silence, Michael (1992, January 26), “Japanese bell rings resentment to some Oak Ridgers,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, p. B3. Contrasts quotations from Clarence Frederick Runsch vs. same from Ethel Quill McDonald.
Smyser, Dick (1989, August 29), “Editor’s License: Meet Mr. 50th Anniversary Observance [Dr. Joe Tittle],” Oak Ridger.
Smyser, Dick (1993, September 14), “Editor’s License: A light at Gettysburg, a bell in Oak Ridge,” Oak Ridger.
Silence, Michael (1993, April 10), “Japanese bell maker [Sotetsu Iwazawa]: Bomb justified,” Knoxville News-Sentinel.
Smith, D. Ray (2006, February 7), “Historically Speaking: Bill Wilcox – Oak Ridge Historian,” Oak Ridger.
Smith, Stephen A., et al (1989, August 6), "A citizen's guide to Oak Ridge," Oak Ridge Education Project and Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance (OREPA), Knoxville, pp. 34.
Smyser, Dick. (1995, July 20), “Editor’s License: Oak Ridge’s conduit to not just India but the world [Venkata Uppuluri],” Oak Ridger.
Smyser, Dick (1995, August 29), “Editor’s License: The Bell and its Ringing, to each of us as we choose,” Oak Ridger, page 7A.
Uppuluri, Ram Yoshino (1991, October 15), press release issued by the Oak Ridge Community Foundation (ORCF). Ram is coordinator, International Friendship Bell Committee. See ORCF.
Uppuluri, Ram Yoshino (1993, June 24), “Your views: About bell maker Soutetsu Iwazawa,” letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger.
Uppuluri, Shikego, & Keiko Murikami (1990, February 23), “Your views: Comment on Peace Park,” letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger.
Uppuluri, Shikego Yoshino (1995, August 7), "The bell is for everyone, the young and the old," letter to the editor of the Oak Ridger. Response to Johnson, J.D. (1995, August 3).
Uppuluri, Shikego Yoshino (2001, June 19), remarks accepting forth annual (and last) International Friendship Bell Award, ”), American Museum of Science and Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, unpublished.
Uppuluri, Venkata R. R. (1987), "A Proposal to Enhance Tourism in Tennessee," unpublished.
US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (2000, July 21), “Opinion [in the case of] Robert Brooks v. City of Oak Ridge,” Cincinnati, Ohio. Text available on http://openjurist.org/222/f3d/259/robert-brooks-v-city-of-oak-ridgeline and http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&case=/data2/circs/6th/995516.html.
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1985, December), "The Sanctification of Hiroshima," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Chicago, vol. 41, no. 11, p. 34. See full text at very end of this web page.
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1989, June), "Deterrence, defense, and the sanctification of Hiroshima," Article #16188, The World and I, Washington, DC.
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1991, October 18), "Guest Column: Friendship Bell could be an important symbol here," Oak Ridger.
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1993, October 4), "A [personal] statement on the Friendship Bell," delivered to the Oak Ridge City Council, unpublished.
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1994), "The first nuclear era: The life and times of a technological fixer [autobiography]," American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 291. Includes sections entitled "Sanctification of Hiroshima" and "The International Friendship Bell." See book review by Mike Moore in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 52, no. 1 (January/February 1996).
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1996, May 4), "The Bell and the Bomb," paper delivered to symposium on "Strengthening the Tradition of Non-use of Nuclear Weapons" at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). Published in Barkenbus & Feldman (1996, August).
Weinberg, Alvin M. (1997), "The Bell and the Bomb," Cosmos Journal, Cosmos Club, Washington, DC. Similar to Weinberg (1996, May 4) but shorter. On-line.
Wilcox, William J., Jr. (1995, September 27), “When to ring the bell is not our biggest problem,” memorandum to Ms. Diantha Pare & Bell Policy Committee on the Bell, pp. 11, unpublished.
Wilcox, William J., Jr. (1995, September), “Statement of Purpose” of the International Friendship Bell, drafted by Wilcox, recommended by the Bell Policy Committee, and approved by the Oak Ridge City Council. See full text above (Appendix).
Wilcox, William J., Jr. (1995, September), Plaque of the International Friendship Bell, drafted by Wilcox, recommended by the Bell Policy Committee, approved by the Oak Ridge City Council, and unveiled May 3, 1996. Text copied from the plaque in A.K. Bissell Park, Oak Ridge, TN. See full text above (Figure 5).
Wilcox, William J., Jr. (1995, October 23), “Mid-October summary of thoughts on our bell problem,” memo to the Bell Policy Committee, pp. 4, unpublished. Contains 3 numbered “non-ringing issues” plus 3 numbered “more approaches.”
Wilcox, William J., Jr. (1995, December 20), “Bell Policy Committee Report, City Council Memorandum 95-308,” memo to Honorable Major and Members of City Council, p. 1 plus 2 Attachments (7 pages in total), unpublished.