Please email your comments & questions to geovisual @ comcast.net. Thank you.

Bertrand Russell [1872-1970]
Albert Einstein [1879-1955]
Cyrus Eaton [1883-1979]
Leó Szilárd [1898-1964]
Linus Pauling [1901-1994]
Joseph Rotblat [1908-2005]

Born in six different countries, these men had very different careers but contributed, each in a different way, to the common cause of peace & nuclear disarmament. Much has been written about each of them. The primary purpose of this web page is to present, in chronological order, the physical monuments -- both intentional & unintentional -- which symbolize their lives & common cause.

Right click image to enlarge.

B
I
R
T
H
May 18, 1872 - Birth of Bertrand Russell [1872-1970], Cleddon Hall, Trellech, Monmouthshire (Wales) into an influential & liberal family of the British aristocracy. Russell's father, John Russell, Viscount Amberley [1842-1876], was an atheist & consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding [1841-1877]. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous. John Russell's atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill [1806-1873] to act as Russell's secular godfather. Mill died the year after Russell's birth, but his writings had a great effect on Russell's life.
Bertrand Russell [1872-1970] was a Welsh philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian & social critic. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist & a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these things in any profound sense. He was born in Wales, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain. Russell led the British "revolt against idealism" in the early 1900's. He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy, along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege & his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein, & is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. He co-authored, with Albert North Whitehead, "Principia Mathematica," an attempt to ground mathematics on logic. His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy." His work has had a considerable influence on logic, mathematics, set theory, linguistics, computer science (see type theory and type system) & philosophy, especially philosophy of language, epistemology & metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed free trade & anti-imperialism. Russell went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler, then criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the USA's involvement in the Vietnam War & was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament. One of his last acts was to issue a statement which condemned Israeli aggression in the Middle East. In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals & freedom of thought." 1950


B
I
R
T
H
March 14, 1879 - Birth of Albert Einstein [1879-1955] at Bahnhofstrasse 20, Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman & engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father & his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. The Einsteins were non-observant Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. Later, at the age of eight, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium where he received advanced primary & secondary school education until he left Germany seven years later. Ulm, Baden-Württemberg (Germany). "The spot where the house that Einstein was born in is now occupied by, of all things, a bank. Outside the bank, there is a monument of red marble marking the spot where the house was. Directions: From the train station, exit the station & cross the street. The monument is at the entrance to the main shopping street."
Albert Einstein [1879-1955] was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics & one of the most prolific intellects in human history. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics & quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He was visiting the USA when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 & did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the USA, becoming a citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon & recommended that the US begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, together with Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. 1921


B
I
R
T
H
December 27, 1883 - Birth of Cyrus Eaton [1883-1979], farm near Pugwash, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia (Canada). "Cyrus was raised on a farm near the hamlet of Pugwash Junction, Nova Scotia, where his father, Joseph Howe Eaton, had lumber holdings, ran a small general store & functioned as district Post Master."
Cyrus Eaton [1883-1979] was a Canadian-born investment banker, businessman & philanthropist in the USA, with a career that spanned 70 years. For decades one of the most powerful financiers in the American midwest, Cyrus Eaton was also a colorful & often-controversial figure. He was chiefly known for his longevity in business, for his opposition to the dominance of eastern financiers in the America of his day, for his occasionally ruthless financial manipulations & for his outspoken criticism of America’s Cold War brinkmanship. He funded & helped organize the first Pugwash Conferences on World Peace, in 1955.

B
I
R
T
H
February 11, 1898 - Birth of Leó Szilárd [1898-1964], Budapest (Austro-Hungarian Empire). Son of a civil engineer. His parents Louis Spitz & Thekla Vidor, both Jewish, raised Leó in the Városligeti fasor of Pest, Hungary. From 1908–1916, Leó attended Reáliskola high school in his home town. Showing an early interest in physics & a proficiency in mathematics, in 1916 he took the Eötvös Prize, a national prize for mathematics. He enrolled as an engineering student at Budapest Technical University during 1916. The following year, he was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army as an officer-candidate. Prior to his regiment being sent to the front, Szilárd fell ill with Spanish Influenza & was returned home for hospitalization. Later he was informed that his regiment had been nearly annihilated in battle, so the sickness probably saved his life. He was discharged honorably at the end of the war. During 1919, he resumed engineering studies at Budapest Technical University but soon decided to leave Hungary because of the chaotic political situation & rising antisemitism under the Horthy regime. Szilárd continued engineering studies at Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology) in Berlin-Charlottenburg. He soon changed to physics & took classes from Einstein, Planck & Max von Laue. His dissertation on thermodynamics Über die thermodynamischen Schwankungserscheinungen (On The Manifestation of Thermodynamic Fluctuations) during 1922 was praised by Einstein & awarded top honors. In 1923, he was awarded a doctorate in physics from Humboldt University of Berlin.
Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] was an Austro-Hungarian physicist & inventor who conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi & in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb. He also conceived three revolutionary devices - the electron microscope, the linear accelerator & the cyclotron. Szilárd himself did not build all of these devices or publish these ideas in scientific journals. So their credit often went to others. As a result, Szilárd never received the Nobel Prize, but two of his inventions did.


B
I
R
T
H
February 28, 1901 - Birth of Linus Pauling [1901-1994], Portland, Oregon (USA). The first-born child of Herman Henry William Pauling (1876-1910) & Lucy Isabelle "Belle" Darling (1881-1926). Herman Pauling was descended from South-German farmers, who had immigrated to a German settlement in Concordia, Missouri. Linus Pauling spent his first year living in a one-room apartment with his parents in Portland. In 1902, after his sister Pauline was born, Pauling's parents decided to move out of the city. They were crowded in their apartment, but couldn't afford more spacious living quarters in Portland. Lucy stayed with her husband's parents in Oswego, while Herman searched for new housing. Herman brought the family to Salem, where he took up a job as a traveling salesman for the Skidmore Drug Company. Within a year of Lucile's birth in 1904, Herman Pauling moved his family to Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore. The business climate in Oswego was poor, so he moved his family to Condon in 1905. Image shows Condon in 1900.
Linus Carl Pauling [1901-1994] was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author & educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history & ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century. Pauling was among the first scientists to work in the fields of quantum chemistry & molecular biology. Pauling is one of only four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize. He is one of only two people awarded Nobel Prizes in two different fields (Chemistry & Peace) - the other being Marie Curie (Chemistry & Physics) - & the only person awarded two unshared prizes.


B
E
R
N
1903-1905 - Einstein-Haus, Kramgasse No. 49, Bern (Switzerland). "The flat on the second floor was rented by Albert Einstein from October 1903 to May 1905. It has been restored in the style of that period to reflect Einstein's stay in Bern. The site is open to the public."

B
E
R
N
1905 - Bern (Switzerland). Einstein's "miracle year" when he was a patent clerk in Bern. Photo (taken about 1910) shows Conrad Habicht, Maurice Solouine & Albert Einstein. These three close friends named themselves "The Olympian Academy" & met to debate books in the fields of physics & philosophy.


B
I
R
T
H
November 4, 1908 - Birth of Józef Rotblat [1908-2005], Warsaw (Poland) to a Jewish family as one of seven children (two not surviving childbirth). His father Zygmunt built up & ran a nationwide horse-drawn carriage business, owned land & bred horses. Józef's early years were spent in what was a prosperous household, but circumstances changed at the outbreak of the World War One. Borders were closed & horses requisitioned, leading to the failure of the business & poverty of their family. After the WAR, Józef worked as a domestic electrician in Warsaw & had a growing ambition to become a physicist. Without formal education, he won a place in the physics department of the Free University of Poland, gaining an MA in 1932 & Doctor of Physics, University of Warsaw, in 1938.
Sir Joseph Rotblat [1908-2005] - born Józef Rotblat - was a Polish-born & British-naturalised physicist & the only scientist ever to resign from the Manhattan Project. His work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution to the agreement of the Partial Test Ban Treaty. A signatory of the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, he was secretary general of the Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs from its founding until 1973. In conjunction with the Pugwash Conferences, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for their efforts towards nuclear disarmament. 1995


F
L
A
T
1911-1916 - Flat, No. 3, 34 Russell Chambers, Bury Place, Russell Estate, Bloomsbury, London WC1 (England). Modest flat occupied by Bertrand Russell, a member of the Russell family which owned & developed much of Bloomsbury. Many of his letters to Lady Ottoline Morrell [1873-1938] were written from this fourth floor flat, where TS Eliot once stayed too. Although Russell was an atheist from his teens, his lifelong social values were shaped by his grandmother, whose favourite Bible verse was: "Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil." (Exodus 23: 2). When his books were confiscated to pay his fines after one anti-war protest, his friends bought them back, & for the rest of his days he treasured his King James Version of the Bible that had been stamped: "Confiscated by Cambridge Police." When Russell was the subject of bitter personal attack while lecturing in the USA, Albert Einstein came to his defence, saying: 'Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds.' His former apartment in Russell Chambers is now available to rent." Upper image shows door & Blue Plaque for Russell installed in 2002. Lower image shows Lady Ottoline.

U
D
C
From 1914 - Union of Democratic Control (UDC), London (England). "On the outbreak of World War-I, Lady Ottoline & [her husband] Philip Morrell joined forces with several other leading political figures [including Bertrand Russell] to establish the UDC. It soon emerged at the most important of all the anti-war organizations in Britain & by 1915 had 300,000 members. Its three main objectives were: (1) that in future to prevent secret diplomacy there should be parliamentary control over foreign policy; (2) there should be negotiations after the war with other democratic European countries in an attempt to form an organisation to help prevent future conflicts; and (3) that at the end of the war the peace terms should neither humiliate the defeated nation nor artificially rearrange frontiers as this might provide a cause for future wars." /// Image is "Secret Diplomacy, or the Masked Gamblers," a cartoon from the UDC Journal of February 1917.


G
R
A
V
E
1917 - Grave of Arthur Conway Young, Plot 4, Row G, Grave 21, Tyne Cot cemetery, Passchendaele, Flanders (Belgium). "The only known grave with an anti war slogan on it. Arthur Conway Young's parents had the inscription 'sacrificed to the fallacy that war can end war.' They were close friends of Bertrand Russell." /// "Conway Arthur Young was born in Kobe (Japan) on October 9, 1890. He joined the Royal Irish Fusiliers & was killed in Belgium on October 16, 1917, as a second lieutenant. Recognizable by his grave without a religious symbol & its country of origin is clearly stated."

1921 - Albert Einstein receives the Nobel Prize for Physics. 1921

1928 - Albert Einstein to War Resisters' International (WRI): "Every thoughtful, well-meaning and conscientious human being should assume, in time of peace, the solemn and unconditional obligation not to participate in any war, for any reason, or to lend support of any kind, whether direct or indirect."


H
O
U
S
E
1929-1933 - Sommerhaus / Summer house of Albert Einstein, Caputh, near Potstdam (Germany). Unintentional monument. "Built for Einstein in 1929. Though a non swimmer, Einstein was a passionate recreational sailor on the lake [Templiner See & Schwielowsee]. He was only able to use his retreat until the Nazi takeover in 1933. After German reunification & the restitution to the Einstein family, the house is now a property of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem." /// "For me, the highlight [of my visit] was an unexpected visit to Einstein’s summer-house. Andreas Landl, the peace journalist from Vienna, joined us for the excursion to Caputh, and made pictures. I hope to be able to send you some soon." [Peter van den Dungen, Nov. 3, 2011] /// Albert Einstein [1879-1955] received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. 1981 Albert Einstein Museum, Caputh (Germany). "There is also an Albert Einstein Museum in Caputh (Germany). Small, but very interesting, although more information in it about Einstein & peace would be welcome." [Gerard Lössbroek, Nov. 5, 2011]

September 1932 - "Is war inevitable? Albert Einstein was asked by the League of Nations to invite someone - he could choose anyone - to reflect with him in a series of public letters on a pressing problem or question. The question Einstein selected was this: "Is there any way of delivering humankind from the menace of war?" Einstein wrote to Sigmund Freud [1856-1939] & posed the question. Freud’s response to Einstein was published under the title, "Why War?" His answer was consistent with what was known at that time about human motivation & aggression. February 25, 2012 - IS WAR INEVITABLE? AN INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE (Psychology Making a Difference in Society), Katie Murphy Amphitheatre, Fashion Institute of Technology, 7th Avenue at West 27th Street, New York City, New York (USA). "The theme is inspired by the correspondence between Einstein & Freud. Our examination of this topic continues to be as vital to address today as it was then. Einstein’s choice to invite Freud to think about war reflects the underlying hope & potential of psychology to offer ways to improve society. With that spirit in mind, this one-day conference will explore contemporary psychoanalytic & social psychological ideas about the problem of war. What have we learned in the last 80 years, since the Einstein/Freud correspondence, that we can, & must, highlight as advancement in our knowledge about "Why War?" This conference brings together a diverse group of thinkers that include leading researchers, clinicians, theorists & a journalist to offer a contemporary perspective on this most enduring problem in society." Information courtesy of Floyd Rudmin.

March 29, 1999 - Time Magazine, special issue on "The Century's Greeatest Minds." Cover art features Einstein & Freud.

Date? - "Imposter" Soft sculpture of Freud & Einstein, Santa Barbara, California (USA). By Susan & Kelly Nolan.

September 12, 1933 - Zebra Crossing, where Southampton Row passes Russell Square, London (England). Near the British Museum. Unintentional monument. Where Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] had the insight which led him to discover nuclear fission. No plaque marks the spot.


H
O
U
S
E
1935-1982 - Albert Einstein House, 112 Mercer Street, Princeton, New Jersey (USA). Unintentional monument. "In 1932, Albert Einstein accepted a position at the newly-created Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Coming to Princeton in October 1933, he & his wife Elsa, along with his personal secretary Helen Dukas, spent ten days at the Peacock Inn, while Elsa looked for a suitable house & Einstein dodged reporters. The Einsteins' first two years in Princeton were spent in a two-family house at 2 Library Place. By 1935 Einstein had decided to remain in Princeton & began the formal process of obtaining permanent residency in the USA. The family moved to the white, two-story house at 112 Mercer Street, which would become their permanent home. After Einstein's death in 1955 (Elsa had died in 1936), his daughter Margot & Helen Dukas remained in the house until their deaths in 1986 & 1982, respectively. At Einstein's request, the house has never been turned into a museum or public shrine; today it is owned by the Institute for Advanced Study & is used as a private residence."

A
-
B
O
M
B
August 2, 1939 - Einstein–Szilárd letter. Sent to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Signed by Albert Einstein but largely written by Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] in consultation with fellow Hungarian physicists Edward Teller & Eugene Wigner. Suggested that the USA should begin its own research because of the potentially vast destructive power of atomic bombs. Einstein, Szilárd, Teller & Wigner were among a number concerned scientists who initially feared Nazi Germany would develop the weapon first.
M
U
S
E
U
M
Date? - Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima (Japan). Photo of Einstein & Szilárd.


A
-
B
O
M
B
1944 - Manhattan Project, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA). Joseph Rotblat [1908-2005] is the only scientist ever to resign from the Manhattan Project. "The building of the atomic bomb is the tale of the 20th century. From that experience have come many stories of scientists ensnared in the web of national politics or entranced by the search for the fundamentals of the universe. There was one physicist, however, who marched to a different drummer, who left the Manhattan Project when it was discovered the Germans were not building a bomb. 'The one who paused was Joseph Rotblat,' the physicist Freeman Dyson once wrote, 'who, to his everlasting credit, resigned his position at Los Alamos.' Rotblat left Los Alamos in 1944, while there was still time to write a different history for this century. A nuclear physicist, Rotblat transformed his career to medical physics & passionately pursued disarmament." /// "While working at Los Alamos, Rotblat had been shocked to hear General Leslie Groves [1896-1970], director of the Manhattan Project, remark quite casually that the real purpose, of course, was to subdue the Soviet Union. When he decided to leave the project, a determined but highly incompetent attempt had been made to 'fit him up' as a Russian spy." /// Upper right image is photo ffrom Rotblat's ID badge. /// Lower image is obilisk at Trinity Site where first atomic explosion took place on July 16, 1945.

A
-
B
O
M
B
July 1945 - Szilárd petition. Drafted by scientist Leó Szilárd [1898-1964]. Signed by 155 scientists working on the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, & the Metallurgical Lab in Chicago, Illinois. Asked US President Harry S. Truman to consider an observed demonstration of the atomic bomb before using it against people. However, the petition never made it through the chain of command to President Truman. It also was not declassified & made public until 1961. Image shows portion of 1085 "Three Minutes to Midnight" mural in Atlanta, Georgia (USA).

January 1946 - Albert Einstein: "Mankind's desire for peace can be realized only by the creation of a world government."

May 1946 - Albert Einstein: "Our world faces a crisis as yet unperceived by those possessing the power to make great decisions for good and evil. The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking, and thus we drift toward unparalleled catastrophe."

A
-
B
O
M
B
August 2, 1946-Late 1951 - Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS). Also called the Einstein Committee. Founded by Albert Einstein & Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] in 1946. Aimed to warn the public of the dangers associated with the development of nuclear weapons, promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy & ultimately work towards world peace, which was seen as the only way that nuclear weapons would not be used again. Established in the wake of the Szilárd petition (1945) to US president Harry S. Truman opposing the use of the atomic bomb on moral grounds, which was signed by 68 scientists who had worked on the Manhattan Project. The Committee only ever consisted of the eight members of the Board of Trustees - Albert Einstein (Chairman), Harold C. Urey (Vice-Chairman), Hans Bethe, T.R. Hogness, Philip M. Morse, Linus Pauling, Leó Szilárd & Victor Weisskopf.

T
R
A
I
N
1946-1947 - Atom Train (England). "In 1946, Rotblat took the lead in setting up the Atomic Scientists Association (ASA) in order to stimulate public debate. This included many leading scientists of the day. It adopted a non-political agenda with the aim of educating the public on the peaceful uses of radioactivity & nuclear power issues. A project was conceived, called 'The Atom Train' (image). The Churchill College Archive contains 'Memorandum on Atomic Energy Train Exhibition' dated 12th November, 1946. This document was co-authored by Rotblat & was 'designed to give the public the facts in a simple & attractive manner' & would use 'charts, diagrams & photographs & demonstrate some simple experiments.' It would of been instructive to use film shows, but it was decided that this 'would interfere with the steady flow of people.' Two railway coaches were identified to house the exhibition - one for the exhibits & the other for accommodation. The aim was to assemble the exhibition in Liverpool & be available in the spring of 1947 so as to travel around the UK, in the spring & summer months."


L
E
T
T
E
R
April 10, 1948 - "The Stern Gang received money collected under the name [of the] American Friends of the Fighters for the Freedom of Israel. Mr. Shepard Rifkin was executive director after the UN Partition of Palestine & prior to the creation of Israel in May 1948. Rifkin solicited Albert Einstein to help the Stern Gang raise American money for arms to drive out the Arabs & help create a Jewish state. On April 10th, the day after the infamous massacre of Arabs at Deir Yassin, Einstein replied calling the Stern Gang terrorists & misled criminals." Text of Einstein's letter: "Dear Sir: When a real and final catastrophe should befall us in Palestine the first responsible for it would be the British and the second responsible for it the Terrorist organizations build up from our own ranks. I am not willing to see anybody associated with those misled and criminal people. Sincerely yours, Albert Einstein."/// "Purchased at auction June 21, 2007, by Daniel McGowan, executive director of Deir Yassin Remembered, for $8,500 plus $1,700 commission & $175 shipping. It will become a part of the Deir Yassin Remembered Archives, which includes documents, photographs & audio accounts of the massacre."

December 2, 1948 - Albert Einstein & others publish letter to the editor of the New York Times objecting to the right-wing Freedom Party (Tnuat Haherut) in Israel.

H
O
S
P
1949 - Joseph Rotblat "becomes Professor of Physics at St. Bartholomew's Hospital ("Barts"), London, shortly before receiving his PhD from Liverpool in 1950. He also worked on several official bodies connected with nuclear physics & arranged a major travelling exhibition for schools on civil nuclear energy, the Atom Train. At St Bartholomew's, Rotblat worked on the effects of radiation on living organisms, especially on aging & fertility. This led him to an interest in nuclear fallout, especially Strontium 90 & the safe limits of ionising radiation. In 1955, he demonstrated that the contamination caused by the fall-out after the Castle Bravo test at Bikini Atoll nuclear test by the United States would have been far greater than that stated officially."

February 1950 - Albert Einstein: "What can we do in the prevailing situation to bring about peaceful coexistence among all nations? The first goal must be to do away with mutual fear and distrust. Solemn renunciation of the policy of violence, not only with respect to weapons of mass destruction, is without doubt necessary. Such renunciation, however, will be effective only if a supranational judicial and executive agency is established at the same time, with power to settle questions of immediate concern to the security of nations."

1950 - Bertrand Russell receives the Nobel Prize for Literature "in recognition of his...writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals & freedom of thought." 1950

1950 - After meeting with Albert Einstein, Linus Pauling writes to Leó Szilárd: "The question of peace or war has now become so important as to overshadow all other questions - it is of a far grater order of magnitude that [sic] anything else." [Newton (1994), p. 74.]

1951 - When the Emergency Committee goes out of business in late 1951, Linus Pauling is very concerned & writes to Leó Szilárd: "I have been very much disturbed by the developments about atomic weapons, as described in the newspapers lately... What would you think about formulating a set of questions, asking whether it would be possible to bring law & order into the world as a whole, through cooperation between the east & the west in a sincere effort to reach a peaceful solution of our problems - to achieve a permanent peace.... These questions would then be sent in a letter to President Truman & Premier Stalin..." [Newton (1994), pp. 59-60.]

1954 - Linus Pauling [1901-1994] receives the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. 1954


D
E
A
T
H
April 18, 1955 - Death of Albert Einstein [1879-1955] at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end, Princeton Hospital, Princeton, New Jersey (USA). "He murmured a few words in German before he expired. Because the nurse didn't speak the language, his last words will never be known." Image shows Fuld Hall, home of the Institute for Advanced Study.

M
A
N
I
F
E
S
T
O
July 9, 1955 - Russell–Einstein Manifesto, London (England). "Issued by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. It highlighted the dangers posed by nuclear weapons & called for world leaders to seek peaceful resolutions to international conflict. The signatories included eleven pre-eminent intellectuals & scientists (Max Born, Percy W. Bridgman, Albert Einstein, Leopold Infeld, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Herman J. Muller, Linus Pauling, Cecil F. Powell, Joseph Rotblat, Bertrand Russell & Hideki Yukawa). Albert Einstein signed just days before his death on April 18, 1955. /// Famous quote: "We appeal, as human beings, to human beings: Remember your humanity and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open for a new paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death." (Joseph Rotblat will quote these lines upon receipt of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995.) /// A few days after the release, philanthropist Cyrus S. Eaton, who had known Russell since 1938, offered to sponsor a conference - called for in the manifesto - in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Eaton's birthplace. This conference was to be the first of the Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs, held in July 1957."

C
O
N
F
July 1957 - First Pugwash Conference on Science & World Affairs, Pugwash, Nova Scotia (Canada). Organized by Cyrus S. Eaton, Joseph Rotblat and Bertrand Russell. Followed the release of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto on July 9, 1955. (Pugwash and Rotblat jointly won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for efforts on nuclear disarmament.) The Conferences are now an international organization that brings together scholars & public figures to work toward reducing the danger of armed conflict and to seek solutions to global security threats. In image, Rotblat is 7th from the right.

N
G
O
Since 1957 - The Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs. An international organization that brings together scholars & public figures to work toward reducing the danger of armed conflict & to seek solutions to global security threats. Founded after the first conference. "Joseph Rotblat was secretary-general of Pugwash 1957-1973, chairman of British Pugwash 1978-1988 & president of Pugwash worldwide 1988-1997. Its annals, many edited by Rotblat with various collaborators, have provided continuing & wide-ranging analyses into current problems of disarmament and world security." Dorothy Hodgkin [1910-1994] was president 1976-1988. Pugwash & Rotblat jointly won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for efforts on nuclear disarmament. By late 2002, there have been over 275 Pugwash Conferences, Symposia, and Workshops, with a total attendance of over 10,000. There are now in the world over 3500 "Pugwashites," namely individuals who have attended a Pugwash meeting & are hence considered associated with Pugwash & receive the Pugwash newsletter. The Conference has offices in London, Washington, Rome & Geneva. Image shows the 58th Pugwash Conference in The Hague (Netherlands).

1960 - Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] is named "Humanist of the Year" by the American Humanist Association. 1960

1961 - Linus Pauling [1901-1994] is named "Humanist of the Year" by the American Humanist Association. 1961

1962 - Linus Pauling [1901-1994] receives the Nobel Peace Prize. 1962


D
E
A
T
H
May 30, 1964 - Death of Leó Szilárd [1898-1964], La Jolla, California (USA). Images show his grave in Kerepesi Cemetery, Plot 27, Budapest Capital District (Hungary).


D
E
A
T
H
February 2, 1970 - Death of Bertrand Russell [1872-1970] at his home, Plas Penrhyn, Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire (Wales). "Russell died of influenza. His body was cremated in Colwyn Bay on 5 February 1970. In accordance with his will, there was no religious ceremony; his ashes were scattered over the Welsh mountains later that year."


April 22, 1979 - Albert Einstein Memorial at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), NAS Building, Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Sculpted by Robert Berks and based on a bust he sculpted from life in 1953. Created for the 100th anniversary of the birth of Albert Einstein [1879-1955]. "The star map at the statue's base - a 28-foot field of emerald pearl granite from Larvik (Norway) - is embedded with more than 2,700 metal studs representing the planets, sun, moon, stars & other celestial objects accurately positioned by astronomers from the US Naval Observatory as they were on the dedication date."


D
E
A
T
H
May 9, 1979 - Death of Cyrus Eaton [1883-1979] at his home, Northfield, Ohio (USA). Age 95. "In 1994, a residential developer bought Eaton's estate in Sagamore Hills, Ohio, a village 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Cleveland & 20 miles (32 km) north of Akron, Ohio. The Eaton Estate had an area measuring approximately 200 acres (0.81 km2) and the developer constructed over 300 houses ranging in prices of $250,000 to about $500,000. Street names in the development called 'Eaton Estates' [images] include Pugwash, McMaster & Republic as an homage to Cyrus Eaton."


B
U
S
T
1980 - Bust of Bertrand Russell, Red Lion Square, London WC1 (England). Sculpted by Marcelle Quinton. Bertrand Russell [1872-1970] received the 1950 Nobel Prize for Literature. One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website. Named in "A Peace Trail Through London" by Valerie Flessati (1998). One of 309 London monuments in Kershman (2007), page 196.


1985 - "Three Minutes to Midnight," Seminole Avenue, Little Five Points, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Also called the "Seminole Peace Mural." First US mural painted by David Fichter of Cambridge, Massachusetts. "Painted as part of a cultural festival for nuclear disarmament called 'Three Minutes to Midnight' which organized several events around the city in October 1984." First image is close up of Martin Luther King, Jr. [1929-1968]. Second image shows Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] - with Albert Einstein & J. Robert Openheimer in the background - & 70 other atomic scientists petitioning for a demonstration of the atomic bomb before using it on human beings, US officials playing deaf & dumb, & three weeping "Hiroshima maidens". Click here for article & slide show about Fitcher's visit to the endangered mural on December 5, 2008.

1988-2004 - Joseph Rotblat nominates Mordechai Vanunu for the Nobel Peace Prize every year from 1988 to 2004. Mordechai Vanunu [b.1954] is the Israeli nuclear technician who revealed Israeli nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986. In 2009 & 2010, Vanunu declined the honor of being nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, writing "What I want now, I need now, is freedom, passport, [not] awards."

M
U
S
E
U
M
1994 - Albert Einstein Museum at Landau Woolen Shop, 120 Nassau Street, Princeton, New Jersey (USA). "Shockingly, the only permanent Albert Einstein exhibit in the US is surrounded by loden coats & fisherman knit sweaters... Open to the public during shop hours, you'll find photos, articles, artifacts & lots of fascinating information about the person Time Magazine called 'The Man of the Century'!"


D
E
A
T
H
August 19, 1994 - Death of Linus Pauling [1901-1994], at home in Big Sur, California (USA). He was 93 years old & died of prostate cancer. Pauling was cremated &, some eleven years later, his & Ava Helen’s ashes were interred at the Oswego Pioneer Cemetery, Lake Oswego, Clackamas County, Oregon (USA), the final resting place of Pauling’s parents Herman & Belle, and & sister Pauline, among other family members.


N
O
B
E
L
1995 - Pugwash & Rotblat jointly win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for efforts on nuclear disarmament. 50th anniversary of the atomic bomb. Rotblat's Nobel Lecture is entitled "Remember Your Humanity," & its last line is "Above all, remember your humanity." (By this time Cyrus Eaton is dead and - for that reason alone - ineligible for the Nobel.) 1995

S
I
G
N
After 1995 - Entrance Sign, Pugwash, Nova Scotia (Canada). "Visitors entering Pugwash were once greeted by roadside signs announcing that they were entering the "Home of the Thinkers," but the signs have since been replaced by a newer slogan "World Famous for Peace." The switch was made in response to the 1995 awarding of the Nobel Prize to the International Pugwash conferences "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics & in the longer run to eliminate such arms"."

M
E
M
O
R
I
A
L
February 9-11, 1998 - Leo Szilard Centenary, Budapest (Hungary). "Attendance at the events was a tribute to Szilard's lasting influence. More than 30 years after his death, friends [including Joseph Rotblat] travelled to Budapest from far & wide to remember his legacy. Events were organized by Prof. George Marx, president of the Eötvös Physical Society. They were sponsored by the Eötvös Physical Society & Eötvös University, in cooperation with the American Physical Society, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences & Pugwash. On 9 February, an all-day seminar was held in the assembly hall of Eötvös University. On the morning of 10 February, a Centenary Session honoring Szilard was held in the Congress Hall of the Hungarian Parliament. A banner on the speaker's podium in the Parliament featured a sketch of Szilard by Eva Zeisel." /// On the afternoon of 10 February, a commemorative plaque was dedicated on the apartment house on Bajza utca where Szilard was born and lived during the first four years of his life. The plaque was almost placed on the wrong building. A century ago, the building was number 28. Since then, the street numbering was changed. The building is now 50 Bajza. Luckily, the change in numbers was discovered a few days before the dedication ceremony. /// On 11 February, half of Szilard's ashes were laid to rest in the Central Cemetery on Kerepesi út. The other half will be interred in Ithaca, New York, at the grave of his wife Gertrud Weiss Szilard."


H
O
N
O
R
December 31, 1999 - Time Magazine names Einstein "Person of the Century." Cover photo is by Philipp Halsman.


E
X
H
I
B
I
T
January 22-March 5, 2001 - "Linus Pauling: A Centenary Exhibit," Memorial Union, Oregon State University (OSU), Oregon (USA). "Prepared by the staff of Special Collections & University Archives units of the OSU Libraries. Materials are from the Ava Helen & Linus Pauling Papers held by Special Collections & various photographic collections in the University Archives." Now on-line.
C
O
N
F
February 28, 2001 - "A Liking for the Truth: Truth & Controversy in the Work of Linus Pauling," LaSells Stewart Center, Oregon State University (OSU), Oregon (USA). Conference to mark the 100 year anniversary of Dr. Linus Pauling's birth. The theme of the centenary celebration, Pauling's 'liking for the truth' & the implications of his numerous contributions to a wide range of fields, were discussed by a collection of biographers, colleagues & family members over the course of six presentations & one panel discussion."


October 13, 2001 - "The Quest for Global Peace," speech by Sir Joseph Rotblat, Topper Theater, Los Alamos High School, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA). On occasion of Rotblat's first visit to Los Alamos since he left in 1944. Event organized by the Los Alamos Study Group (LASG) of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Image is "A Quest for Global Peace: Rotblat and Ikeda on War, Ethics and the Nuclear Threat" by Joseph Rotblat & Daisaku Ikeda, president of Soka Gakkai International (SGI).


C
O
N
F
July 22, 2003 - 53rd Pugwash Conference on Science & World Affairs, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). In middle image, Patrick Boyer opens the session at Thinkers' Lodge in Pugwash. In right image, Joseph Rotblat addresses the public forum at Dalhousie University.


June 2004 - "Window to the Univers" (8'x5' portrait of Albert Einstein), American Museum of Science & Energy (AMSE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). Drawn & contributed by Hollywood fashion artist Emmanuel Snitkovsky apparently as part of his proposal to create a monument to Oak Ridge "The Science City" (right image). Portrait names nine scientists: Aristotle, Galileo, Coperincus, Newton, Oppenheimer, Lorenz, Fermi, Wigner & Einstein.


2005 - "The World of Cyrus Eaton" by Marcus Gleisser. "Biography. Brings into focus many events in the life of this controversial figure: his strong support of labor: his friendships with John L. Lewis, Fidel Castro, Nikita Khrushchev & other leaders of the former USSR: and his interest and participation in the American political arena, especially his campaign for peace that culminated in the Nobel Prize-winning Pugwash Conference. 'The World of Cyrus Eaton' addresses the man & the part he played in some of the controversial events and issues of the twentieth century."


D
E
A
T
H
August 31, 2005 - Death of Sir Joseph Rotblat [1908-2005], London, (England). Age 96. "Rotblat was a Polish Jew born & educated in Warsaw, then living in Britain. Until the last days of his life he was speaking Polish perfectly well; he emphasized his links with Poland, saying that he is a 'Pole with a British passport.'" Images show Rotblat's grave in Hampstead Cemetery Hampstead, Greater London (England). Inscription at foot of stone: "Above all remember your humanity." - paraphrase of Russell-Einstein Manifesto, July 9, 1955.


After 2005 - Tribute to Joseph Rotblat, Arkansas Avenue, North Mesa, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA). In front of the Omega Peace Institute (OPI), First Church of High Technology, Black Hole Synod [middle image]. Erected by Ed Grothus [1923-2009], "pastor" of the OPI & founder of the adjacent Black Hole surplus store & atomic museum [right image]. Quotation at top: ""Remember your humanity, and forget the rest." All 3 photos by EWL.

Date? - Tribute to Joseph Rotblat, Cloud Cliff Bakery & Cafe, 1805 Second Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA). (Courtesy: Willem Malten/Los Alamos Study Group.) Cafe owner & filmmaker Willem Malten closed the cafe on April 27, 2008. Where else are these tributes to Rotblat?!?

2006 - J. Robert Oppenheimer House Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA). Built in the late 1920's for Mary K. (May) Connell, an artist & sister of the Los Alamos Ranch School's director, A. J. Connell, who designed the structure himself. Restored in 2006 after a National Park Service "Save America's Treasures" grant was obtained by the Atomic Heritage Foundation (AEF) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which transferred funds to the Los Alamos Historical Society.


F
I
L
M
2008 - "The Strangest Dream," National Film Board of Canada. "Tells the story of Joseph Rotblat, the history of nuclear weapons & the efforts of the Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs - an international movement Rotblat co-founded - to halt nuclear proliferation." Click here to see the film (89 minutes 28 seconds). Click here for the trailer.

M
U
S
E
U
M
Future - Pugwash Peace Exchange, 236 Water Street, Pugwash, Nova Scotia (Canada). Creating "an important new facility -- in the restored lodge of Cyrus Eaton [1883-1979] -- that will celebrate Pugwash's peace history, while actively promoting peace around the world." "Restoration of Cyrus Eaton's original property, now owned and managed by the Pugwash Park Commission. The property includes the Thinkers' Lodge, which was home of the first Pugwash conference in 1957 and is viewed as sacred ground by the International Pugwash Movements. As well, the original Dining Hall will be repaired and restored, to be used during conferences and events. In addition, the original structure known as the Staff House will be updated and improved to serve as the 'Scholars' Cottage.'"


Future - Future - Linus Pauling Institute, Linus Pauling Science Center, Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis, Oregon (USA). Linus Carl Pauling [1901-1994] is the only person to win two unshared Nobel Prizes - 1954 Nobel Chemistry & 1962 for Peace.

Please email your comments & questions to geovisual @ comcast.net. Thank you.

Return to Peace Monuments main page.