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Hiroshima (1955)

Making Sense of 76 "Peace Memorials"

All 75 known monuments with "peace memorial" in their names are shown below in chronological order. (There are undoutedly others yet to be "found" & added to this list.)

Their geographic distribution & timing are curious:
Forty-four (59 percent) were constructed in England or other nations of the British Commonweath, primarily after World War I and before World War II.
Eleven (15%) were constructed in Asian nations by Japan or by Japanese interests, but only after World War II.
And fifteen (20%) were constructed in the United States, mostly after World War II.

The British Comonwealth use of the phrase is addressed in "PEACE MEMORIAL - what's it all about" by the Peace Pledge Union (PPU) of London (England).

The earliest known Japanese use of the phrase is in the title of the "Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Plan" enacted in 1952. Click here for more information.

After World War I, a number of "War Memorial Halls" was constructed in Commonwealth countries (not shown here but easily found by Googling). The functions of War Memorial Halls & Peace Memorial Halls appear to be identical. It seems that some communities simply chose the name "Peace" & others the name "War." It is not known if there was any particular significance attached to this or if the choice was arbitrary for all intents & purposes.

It has not yet been determined (1) if the English phrase as used in Japan is a translation from Japanese and only coincidentally related to the previous use in Commonwealth nations or (2) if leaders in Hiroshima were aware that the phrase had been used in the Commonsealrh and adopted it for some of the plans, memorials, parks & museums they created after World War II.

Right click image to enlarge.

1870 - Peace Memorial Fountain, Smithfield, London (England). "This statue was put here in 1870 by The Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association. The bronze figure of Peace is by John Birnie Philip [1824-1875] - more famous for his work on the Albert Memorial. The matching statues of Temperance, Faith, Hope & Charity have long gone."

Date? - Peace Memorial, St. Peter & St. Paul Church, Hoxne, Suffolk (England). "Among the treasures of the [15th century] church are an ancient altar stone, a reredos (ornimental screen) made from an old screen, an exquisite peace memorial with a little silver Crucifix and beautiful lettering, and two flags which tell a tragic tale. They were flying at the masthead of a ship wrecked in a terrible storm in 1870, and, having been picked up by another vessel off Cape Finisterre [on the west coast of Galicia, Spain], they were given to this village in memory of two Home seamen who perished in the wreck."

1899-1902 = Second Boer War

1902 - South Africa Peace Memorial, Grenville Road, Lostwithiel, Cornwall (England). "The inscription on the top of the plinth reads 'PEACE MEMORIAL.' It commemorates the Boer War & has initials hand-carved on the side. It was built to acknowledge the men who went to South Africa to fight in the [2nd] Boer War from 1899 to 1902. Eighteen men from the parishes of Lostwithiel, Lanlivery & St. Winnow went to fight. All of them returned home safely."

June 27, 1903 - Clevedon Peace Memorial, Elton Road at The Beach, Spray Point, Clevedon, Somerset (England). "Important restoration work to Clevedon's unique Boer War Memorial has now been completed thanks to the town's Civic Society. 'The inscriptions had become illegible & general cleaning & re-pointing work was needed,' said Rob Campbell, Chairman of the Society's Local History Group... The Peace Memorial, as it is known, is believed to be the only external memorial to the fallen of the 2nd Boer War [1899-1902] in Somerset... The monument is in the form of a 13-foot high column of the Tuscan order & made in highly polished Scottish granite. The capital has a dove & wreath in carved Sicilian marble. It was designed by the renowned Weston-super-Mare architect Hans Price [1835-1912] & the work was carried out by Clevedon sculptor Mr J.M. Cox. The inscriptions name the fallen from Clevedon & district with mention of those fallen in both World Wars added later. The inscription reads: 'In commemmoration of Peace and in memory of the officers, N C officers, and men of Clevedon and district who fell in the service of their country in the South African War, This column is erected by their comrades and the general public of Clevedon and District.'"

1914-1919 = World War I

June 13, 1915 - Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio (USA). "Established to honor those who fought in the Battle of Lake Erie, during the War of 1812.

1919 - "Canada's Aid to the Allies and Peace Memorial," Montreal Standard Publishing Company, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). A 152-page publication edited by Frederic Yorston. Focuses on what the various provinces, people, & companies [of Canada] had done to help the Allied cause during World War I. Published in a large magazine-style format (19.5" x 23.5"), the majority of ads are for companies in the Montreal area with a sprinkling of major industries from coast to coast."

1919 - Peace Memorial Hall, Heroes Square, George Town, Grand Cayman Island (Cayman Islands). Built imediately after World War I in the heart of Old George Town.

July 19, 1919 - "Peace Memorial," Stawell, Victoria (Australia). "The monument, which is about six kilometres along Grampians Road & sits beneath trees 100 metres into a paddock, actually marks the site of the first Pleasant Creek settlement, but apparently not even a number of long time Stawell residents are aware of this. ...contains a plaque which states the following: 'Peace Memorial. Erected July 19, 1919 on the site of Treasury, Commercial Street, Pleasant Creek. Population in 1856 - 56,000.' The 56,000 people, mostly Chinese, had settled in the area in search of gold. The main settlement was no more than the 100 metre distance from where Grampians Road is now & was the first settlement known as Pleasant Creek. As the gold source dried up, the population slowly made its way east, forming a new settlement in the area now known as Stawell West & then progressing to where Stawell's Main Street now exists. As not many residents are aware of what the monument actually exists for, there are plans in place for a second plaque to be erected on the site in Grampians Road, recognising it as the site where Stawell's origins began."

July 19, 1919 - Le Bons Bay Peace Memorial Library, Banks Peninsula (New Zealand). "Built as a 'utilitarian' war memorial in 1919, commemorating the local casualties of the Great War. Although phased out from the National Library Service network in 1992, it continues to fulfil this local information/memorial role as an archive information centre run by community members."

1920 - Peace Memorial Park, Thrapston, Northamptonshire (England). Sign is inscribed: "A facility provided and maintained by Thrapston Town Council . This park was purchchsed by public subscription in 1920 to commemorate the end of the Great War of 1914-1918. The land was originally called 'Kiln Close.'"

About 1920 - Peace Memorial, Delly Green, Hailey (Witney Parish), Oxfordshire (England). "A 'Peace Memorial' on Delly green, in the form of a small domed temple supported on four columns, was erected about 1920 by Mrs. Phipps of Hailey Manor, and a war memorial cross near the church in Middletown about the same time." /// "This [photo on the right] is taken from one of the houses shown in the first Geograph for this grid square. The peace memorial was built by the lady of the manor (the boundary of manor house is just visible on the right hand side of this photograph) on the safe return of her two sons from the first World War." /// "An annual peace service takes place on Delly Green.

Date? - Peace Memorial Hall (PMH), Codicote, Hertfordshire (England). "Inside the PMH, as it is usually known [sic], are two Memorial Boards listing those who served in the Forces during the two World Wars."

Date? - Peace Memorial, Fair Oak Square, Fair Oak Village, Eastleigh Borough, Hampshire (England). Also called "Hampshire War Memorial." Related to World War I?

Date? - Porirua Peace Memorial, Te Rauparaha Park, Porirua, Wellington Region (New Zealand). Inscribed "This memorial is dedicated to Peace and all those who have fallen in the struggle to preserve it." /// "It is hoped that [a $517,000 upgrade] will be finished before the Land Wars commemorations in October [2017]. Retired Brigadier Roger Mortlock told councillors on Thursday that intense research had been carried out to discover the names of servicemen & servicewomen from the district. These would be included on plaques. 'As an old soldier, I'm disturbed when we have gatherings for Anzac Day and people say "we will remember them," when we have no idea who we are remembering,' Mortlock said. 'That's distasteful and we can do better. A new memorial would be a sparkling addition to the city.'"

April 25, 1921 - St. John's Peace Memorial Church, Kaimata (New Zealand). "Albert Burwell had arrived in New Zealand in 1885 & married the daughter of Mr. John Minchin, at St Phillip's, Tariki, twelve months later. He eventually settled & farmed in the Kaimata district. During the flu epidemic in 1918 his wife Gertrude nursed many victims & unfortunately also succumbed to the disease on the 12th of November 1918. As a memorial to his wife & a thanksgiving to the end of the WWI, Albert gifted this church to the community. Apparently the cost of the project has remained confidential, at the wish of Albert Burwell. It was opened on Anzac Day 1921."

1921 - Peace Memorial Park, Off Long Street, Historic Centre, Wigston, Leicestershire (England). " Established by public donation [and] recently rejuvenated with a Heritage Lottery Fund grant, the park now boasts an award-winning pavilion [and is] home of Wigston's bowls clubs. active Friends Group [partnered] with the council [to achieve] the lottery grant and continue to be involved in the ongoing management of the park."

1921-2002 - Peace Memorial School, 85 East 36th Street, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Only the portico (in the shape of a triumphal or memorial arch) was preserved when the 84-year old school was demolished in the Summer of 2005. The site is now called Peace Memorial Park & opened in 2008 (qv).

1920's - Ashtead Peace Memorial Hall, Woodhead Lane, Ashtead, Mole Valley District, Surry (England). "Where Ashtead meets."

1922 - Lakenheath Peace Memorial Hall, 98 High Street, Lakenheath, Brandon, Suffolk (England). "Built in 1922 following the First World War. Over the years there have been continuous improvements to our well used hall. [It] is suitable for meetings, parties, community events & much more."

March 9, 1922 - Peace Memorial Hall, Rangiora, South Island (New Zealand).
1922 - Kosai County Peace Memorial, Balcairn, Canterbury (New Zealand). "The Ashley on the building refers to the merging of the Kowai and Ashley Counties in 1967. Houses two plaques, one for Frst World War the other Second World War."

1922 - Geelong & District Peace Memorial Hall, Johnstone Park, Geelong, Victoria (Australia).

1922 - Landsborough Peace Memorial Park (LPMP), 53 Maleny Street, Landsborough, Queensland (Ausralia). In Glass House Mountains. "Next to the tennis courts & cricket oval. Has a good (not great) kids playground & is within easy walking distance of the centre of town." "Opened in 1922 & commemorates the end of World War One. The [Peace Gates - manufactured by Walter Lord] were erected in 1923 & by 1924 they had been placed in position & a fence erected." Note monogram LPMP on gate. /// Information courtesy of Bruce Elder.
Date? - Melbourne Unitarian Peace Memorial Church, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Founded in 1852. Most likely adopted "peace memorial" as part of its name after World War I. Church website says. "During the 'Great War,' the 'Great Depression' and the war against Nazism, the Melbourne Unitarian Church [sic] became increasingly involved and vocal on issues of social justice and peace. It was during this time that the Church developed the motto 'Seek the Truth, and Serve Humanity.'"

July 20, 1922 - Peace Memorial, Memorial Embankment, Bedford (England). "Stands on the Embankment beside the River Ouse. Takes the form of an allegorical figure of Justice armed in Crusader's armour, with a soldier's cloak & hands crossed on a two-handed sword. Beneath the figure is a chained dragon representing evil conquered. The base area has 8 bollards each with an animal head (lion) holding the chains. Cost £1,708 12s 6p. Sculptor was Charles Sargeant Jagger, architect Mr George P Allen (FRIBA) & builder Mr G F Loughton. Covers the First World War, Second World War & Korean War. There are no men named on it. Unveiled by Lord Ampthill." Inscription: "1914 + 1919 TO BEDFORDIANS WHO DIED MANY IN EARLY YOUTH SOME FULL OF YEARS AND HONOUR BUT WHO ALL ALIKE GAVE THEIR LIVES FOR THEIR COUNTRY /// 1939 + 1945 TO COMMEMORATE THE STRUGGLE AND SACRIFICE OF BEDFORDIANS /// 1950 + 1953 TO COMMEMORATE THE KOREAN WAR." /// Note that the older photo (post card?) is labeled "War Memorial."

Date? - Glenquarry Peace Memorial Hall, 94 Tourist Road, Glenquarry, New South Wales (Australia). "A Community Hall available for hire for Art Exhibitions, workshops & small weddings. Stunning views set among the rolling hills of Glenquarry & just 10 km from Bowral."

November 7, 1924 - St. Mary's Peace Memorial Hall, Vivian Street, New Plymouth (England). "Designed by local architects Messenger, Griffiths & Taylor... Contractors were J T Julian & Son, and the hall was opened by Bishop Dr A W Averill. Inscription (on granite plaque to right of entrance lobby): "This building is Erected by the Parishioners of St Mary's To the Glory of God And to commemorate The termination of the Great War 11th November 1918."

November 11, 1924 - Uxbridge Peace Memorial, Hillingdon House, Uxbridge, Borough of Hillingdon, London (England). Moved to the Old Graveyard, Windsor Street. /// "Erected in honour and memory of all those men and women of Uxbridge who served or fell in the Great War 1914-1918 an expresssion of gratitute from their fellow townsmen." /// "I thought we had quite enough memorials that seemed to revive the war spirit rather than to consider peace, which is, after all, the aim and end of every great struggle." -- Sculptor Adrian Jones [1845-1938] in his autobiography "Memoirs of a Soldier Artist."

June 24, 1925 - Watford & District Peace Memorial Hospital, Watford (England). "In 1917, discussions began within the District Hospital Board to build a new modern hospital as a memorial to those who had died in the First World War... Between 1918 & 1925, the Watford community raised £90,000 to build the hospital. 'The Hospital will be a living memorial of the dead, and by its nature more endurable than any monuments of stone or brass.'" /// See Watford Peace Memorial (July 1, 1928).

1925 - Beit el-Amani / Peace Memorial Museum, Mnazi Moja, Stone Town, Zanzibar (Tanzania). Built in memory of those who died in World War I. "the British extended their ideas of ‘indirect rule’ even to the architecture of the early colonial monumental buildings. The museum was therefore designed [by British architect J.H. Sinclair] as an oriental Islamic structure, reminiscent of the Aya Sophia Mosque in Istanbul, a hexagonal building with a huge central dome & smaller domes at the corners." Now [contains] traditional crafts & household items from residents of Zanzibar, sultans, slave traders, European explorers & missionaries. Displays feature David Livingstone's medical chest, information about the harvesting of cloves & the story of the German battleship Konigsberg which sunk during World War I. /// "This is an architecturally impressive building which was meant to commemorate Peace. Unfortunately, the interior is not really kept up. When we were there, there was an exhibit about the life of a well-known Zanzibaran princess. The exhibit was repetitive & not impressive in any way. The gov't really should put more focus on this supposed attraction."

1926 - Peace Memorial Hall, Ophir, Central Otago (New Zealand). "One of a number of historic buildings in picturesque Ophir, a small town at the entrance to the Ida Valley." "Built by local builder John McKnight. Has an excellent dancing floor with the boards being only 5 cms (2 inches) wide. Still the centre of community life & is used for many functions & events." Information courtesy of Paul Bedggood 26Oct12.

November 11, 1926 - Penkridge Peace Memorial Hall, Penkridge, Staffordshire (England). "Set in the heart of the village... A charity managed by a Committee dedicated to providing a meeting place for various events throughout the year. Organisations or individuals can hire the hall. Interior of the hall was refurbished in 2006 & now features the open beam structure & captures full natural light from the dormer windows..." /// Engraved on the plaque is a winged angel with an inscription at the botton 'Peace The...(?)' [indistinct]..."

July 1, 1928 - Watford Peace Memorial, near Peace Hospice (former Peace Memorial Hospital, qv) & Watford Town Hall, Watford (England). "Bronze sculptures of three nude males on a white Portland stone base. The three figures represent, left: 'to the fallen,' a seated man grieving; centre, 'victory,' a man standing with arms outstretched; and right, 'to the wounded.' a seated man. The sculptor was Mary Pownall Bromet, a student of Rodin... Restored in 2013." /// See Watford & District Peace Memorial Hospital (June 24, 1925).

Before 1929 - Peace Memorial Presbyerian Church, 110 South Fort Harrison Avenue, Clearwater, Florida (USA). Organ identified by "Classified List of Hall Organs," published in 1929 by Hall Organ Company, West Haven, Connecticut. Image is postcard postmarked November 21, 1932. N.B.: Henry M. Flagler [1830-1913], railroad tycoon & famous developer of Florida, was a Presbyerian & donated "Flagler Presbyterian Church" in 1890. Could Peace Memorial Presbyterian simply have perpetuated this naming pattern?

March 17, 1929 - Manchester Post Office Peace Memorial, Manchester (England). At the entrance to the Royal Mail Sorting Depot on Oldham Road. Inscribed: " memory of colleagues who fell during the first World War... It remained inside the original Spring Gardens Post Office building until the 1960's, then was transferreed to Parcel Post where it stood until being moved to this site in 1995. It was re-dedicated on 17th April 1997..."

June 12, 1930 - Shrine Peace Memorial, Exposition Park, 2 Strachan Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). "Presented to the people of Canada by Imperial Potentate, Noble Leo V. Youngworth, on behalf of the 600,000 members of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners) to commemorate the peaceful relationships existing for over a century between Canada and the United States." Entry #1333 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

Date? - St. Andrews Sunday School & Peace Memorial Hall, 25 McIntyre Street, Hamilton, Southern Grampians Shire, Victoria (Australia). ""

1933-1939 - Masonic Peace Memorial, Great Queen Street, London (England). "The current building, the third on this site, was built between 1927 & 1933 to the designs of architects Henry Victor Ashley & F. Winton Newman as a memorial to the 3,225 Freemasons who died on active service in World War I. It is an imposing Art Deco building, covering two & one quarter acres... The financing for building the hall was raised by the Masonic Million Memorial Fund. This fund raised over £1 million. The name was changed to Freemasons' Hall at the outbreak of the World War II in 1939."

1936 - "Peace Memorial to Members of the U.S. Congress Who Voted Against Entrance Into World War, 1917." WHERE IS THIS MEMORIAL PAINTING TODAY? By Karl Yens [1868-1945]. "Photograph by E. F. Caldwell, Arch Beach, Cal." Depicts a forest with an allegorical figure, boy, girl & dog in foreground, surrounded by "To Motherhood, Jennett Rankin, Missoula, Mont. 1880-19," the names of 8 Senators, and the names of 49 Representatives. Jeanettee Rankin [1880-1973] voted against WW-I and WW-II. Inscription: "To the Memory of those Heroic Men, Senators and Representatives, who, having ignominy heaped upon them by a frenzied people, victims of mendacious propagdanda, dared stand forth on those fateful days of April, 1917, to cast their votes against the resolution driving us into an iniquitous foreign war." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 52-53. Entry #578 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Bennett apparently copied his information from Baber. This painting has not been found on any other website. Click image to see congressperson's names.

1939-1945 = World War II

August 1941 - Rotary Peace Memorial, Mount Evans, Colorado (USA). Sundial on summit of Mount Evans 14,264 feet (4,350 meters) above sea level. Can be reached by the highest paved road in North America. Marks convention in Denver attended only by Rotarians from USA, Canada, Mexico & Cuba (due to the difficulty of international travel durng WW-II). Click here for rededication on July 15, 2006.

August 6, 1945 - Hiroshima is destroyed by the first atomic bomb. Nagasaki follows three days later. Click here for a detailed account of Hiroshima's reconstruction & subsequent monument building. Click here for similar information about Nagasaki. /// N.B.: The information shows the early use of "Peace Memorial" for post-war memorial building. I do NOT know the extent to which this was literally translated from Japanese or the exent to which the phrase was borrowed from English.

August 6, 1949 - The Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law is promulgated after receiving over 90 percent support in Japan's first public referendum. /// "The first clause of the law merely states, 'This law aims to construct the city of Hiroshima as a Peace Memorial City, a symbol of the ideal to earnesly realize eternal peace.' With respect to the mayor's role, the sixth clause reads: 'Relying upon citizens' cooperation and the support of related institutions, the mayor of Hiroshima city must constantly exert efforts to complete the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City.' When the bill for the 'Hiroshima Peace Memorial City' was submitted to the Diet, lobbyists attached the following statement explaining their rationale: 'To build Hiroshima city into a Peace Memorial City -- which symbolizes at once the human ideal for the realization of eternal peace and for renunciation of war -- is to respond to the world's hopes for the recovery of Hiroshima [written in katakana]. It also means to encourage its reconsturction. For this cause, a legal measure is necessary. We therefore propose this law.'" [Quoted from "Hiroshima Traces: Time, Space & the Dialectics of Memory," by Lisa Yoneyama, University of California Press, 1999.]

1937? - Peace Memorial Evangelical Presbyterian Church, 4431 South 6th Street, Klamath Falls, Oregon (USA). "[The church] has been a Christian presence to this community since it was a Sunday school at the old Altamont Elementary School in 1926. The church was chartered on December 17, 1937. On July 27, 1947 the cornerstone was laid on South Sixth Street where the church currently stands."

Date? - Peace Memorial United Church of Christ, 10300 West 131st Street, Palos Park, Illinois (USA). Near Chicago. Has organ from Berghaus Organ Company (1979).
Before 1950 - Peace Memorial Church, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Has organ from Wicks Organ Company (1950).

August 20, 1950 - Gandhi World Peace Memorial, Lake Shrine, Self-Realization Fellowship, Pacific Palisades, California (USA). The focal point of the memorial is a thousand-year-old stone sarcophagus from China, in which a portion of Gandhi's ashes are encased in a brass and silver coffer. The sarcophagus is flanked by two statues of Guan Yin.

October 22, 1950 - Peace Memorial Rose Garden, Stirling Highway, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia). Near Perth. "Dedicated to the glorius memory of all who sacrificed their lives on active service in their country's cause. This garden was created by the Nedlands Road Board of the National Rose Sociey of W.A."
1953-2009 - Alfrick Peace Memorial Hall, Clay Green, Alfrick & Lulsley (England). Adjacent to the Village Playing Field.

December 7, 1951 - Peace Memorial Hall ("Peace Mo"), Murray Road, near Kingstown (Saint Vincent & the Grenadines). In the Lesser Antilles. "Provides space for the comfort of patrons for conventions & the art, & to act as a home for the preservation of the culture heritage of St. Vincent of the Grenadines. [sic]" Right image shows "the section of Murray Road close to Kingstown. The pink building in the center is Peace Memorial Hall & the open area to the right has playing fields." /// "Just up Murray Road...from French's Gate." /// "Peace Memorial Hall which gone to the dogs, it is new we start to repair it already and it would be completed next year [sic]."


August 6, 1955 -- Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima (Japan). Click here for Wikipedia article. The Genbaku Dome (severly damaged by the bomb) was designated a World Heritage Site in 1996. The Park also contains the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, the Hiroshima Peace Bell, and many other peace monuments. Left image is air view. Right image shows the cenotaph (right) & Hiroshima Boys Choir (left) during the annual Peace Memorial Ceremony on August 6 (Hiroshima Day).

August 6, 1955 - Peace Memorial Museum, 1-2 Nakajima-cho, Naka-ku, Hiroshima (Japan). At site of the atomic bomb on August 6, 1945. Two buildings. One of 3 institutions hosting 6th International Conference of the International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP) in October 2008. One of 9 Japanese institutions described in brochure for 6th International Conference of the INMP in 2008. Click here for Wikipedia article.

September 26, 1955 - Peace Memorial Auditorium, City Hall, Manhattan, Kansas (USA). "A living memorial to the 2,610 Riley County veterans who served & the 101 soldiers who died in World War II. A plaque in its hall dedicates the auditorium, in part, to 'those patriotic citizens who sacrificed their lives so that American democracy might be preserved.'"/// Click here for historic documents. /// Third image: "Manhattan resident Randi Dale points to the ceiling in Peace Memorial Auditorium in Manhattan where floodlights that illuminated the stage have been removed. Dale said a plan to renovate the auditorium will remove seating & the stage where she has scheduled yearly dance recitals." -- July 2013."

1968 - Lusitania Peace Memorial, Casement Square, Queenstown renamed Cobh (Ireland). "Since 1968 this sculptural masterpiece has honoured ‘all who perished’ on 7 May 1915. Kerry-born Jerome Connor [1874–1943], after a career in Washington, DC, was asked in 1925 to create a design recalling the Lusitania tragedy & promoting a vision of world peace. The memorial’s ‘mourning fishermen’ evoke the grief of the local rescuers, while its ‘angel’, her foot on a sword, embodies the broader appeal for an end to all wars."

May 1972 - Okinawa Peace Memorial Park, Mabuni Hill, Okinawa (Japan). Click here for many Okinawa peace monuments.
1979 - Toda Peace Memorial Hall, Yamashita Park, Yokohama (Japan). "One of seven established across the country as part of Soka Gakkai's effort to promote the message of peace in Japan." Named for Josai Toda [1900-1958]. House was originally constructed in 1922 for the British delegation to Japan.

Date? - Peace Memorial Carillon, in front of Tokyo Station, Tokyo (Japan). What's the story of these bells?
October 25, 1980 - Japanese Peace Memorial, Mt. Austin (1353 feet), Guadalcanal Island ( Solomon Islands). Has view of Honiara, Iron Bottom Sound & the Florida Islands.

1985? - Hiroshima & Nagasaki Peace Memorial flower bed 1945 - 1985, Memorial Gardens behind St. Georges Hall, William Brown Street, Liverpool (England).
1993 - Saiki Peace Memorial Park, Tsuruyamachi Saiki-city, Oita (Japan). "The old naval facilities on this site, which was a former naval port, were dismantled & the area transformed into a park. The large open air is covered by grass and the main spaces are defined as geometric forms by the white paths cutting through it. These simple pathways are dressed with such things as river boulders as well as bout forms [sic], and abstract interpretations of natural flow patterns in Saiki. To these, we constructed mounds, pools & monuments to form a harmonious whole through which the movement of people would become organically involved. That park was solo project by Eiki Danzuka who is director of EARTHSCAPE."

October 7, 1994 - India Peace Memorial, Tiddim Road, Lokpaching, Imphal, Manipur (India). "Built in 1994 by the Japanese Government to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Battle of Imphal [March-July 1944]. The only recent memorial in India built by the Japanese. Near the village of Maibam. On the site of the Battle of Red Hill - a nine day skirmish between the British & the Japanese as part of the much larger campaign for Imphal."

Date? - Philippine-Japan Peace Memorial Park, Carlota Hills, Ormoc City, Leyte (Philippines). "Put up by the Nagoya & Gifu Prefectures as a token of friendship of Japanese & Filipinos after World War II." /// "A marker set by families of Japanese soldiers..." /// "Good for those who like WWII history its being well kept...good for those who likes WWII history....its a small place though...but its is very memorable."


1995 - 228 Peace Memorial Park, 3 Ketagalan Boulevard, Zhongzheng District, Taipei, Taipei (Taiwan). Former Taihoku Park renamed in 1996. Contains the National Taiwan Museum, the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum (at the site of a former radio station that operated under Japanese & Kuomintang rule), & memorials of the 1947 228 Incident, including the Taipei 228 Memorial that stands at the center of the park (as shown in both images).

October 18, 1999 - Rudy Macina Peace Memorial Plaza, Williamsbridge Road, Laconia Avenue & Pelham Parkway North, The Bronx, New York City, New York (USA). "The unusual Peace Memorial Plaza/Rudy Macina Square gathers 5 memorials resembling tombstones, memorializing war dead in the Gulf War, Vietnam War, Korean War & World Wars I & II." /// "Remarks By Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani At Public Hearing On Local Laws: '...Rudy Macina was born on January 1, 1923 in the Morris Park section of the Bronx. He was educated at local schools and went on to enlist in the Marine Corps. In World War II he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal. After the War, Rudy returned to the Bronx and became a community activist. He was instrumental in the revitalization of the Bronx Columbus Day Parade from a small event to an extravaganza. He and his friends adopted two subway stations on the Dyer Avenue Line and worked to remove graffiti and paint in the stations in order to keep them clean and attractive. He was also the driving force behind a movement to dedicate the traffic triangle at the convergence of Williamsbridge Road, Laconia Avenue and Pelham Parkway North as a veterans memorial. For his many patriotic and civic activities Rudy Macina was awarded the "Congressional Medal of Merit." Unfortunately, Rudy Macina died on June 25, 1993 at the age of 70...'"

2001 - Peace Memorial Multiplex, Wainwright, Alberta (Canada). Relatively new ice skating facility; did it receive its name earlier?

2002 - Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima (Japan). Largely underground. Includes fountain, Hall of Remembrance, Victims' Information Area, temporary exhibition area, and library. Click here for the Wikpedia article.
2002 - Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims, Nagasaki (Japan). Click here for the Wikpedia article.

November 1, 2002 - Peace Memorial Gymnasium, St. John the Theologian Greek Orthodox Cathedral, 353 East Clinton Avenue, Tenafly, New Jersey (USA). "Sporting new art & a new name [sic], Peace Memorial Gymnasium is adorned with 63 recently unveiled gold plaques etched with well-known words of peace from Greek Orthodox & other leaders..., circular stained-glass windows, and a 60-by-16-foot mural, its centerpiece a large white dove outlined in 24 karat gold & painted in oil. The dove, carrying an olive branch, was painted by Guillermo Esparza of New York City. Esparza, whose sculptures & paintings are found in museums, churches & cathedrals, was working on the dove in his studio when the World Trade Center was attacked [in 2001]." has also worked closely with another important supporter & patron of his studio: businessman & philanthropist Michael Parlamis [1940-2013] of New Jersey. One of their projects is a 60-foot Peace Dove mural that is installed at the Peace Memorial Gymnasium. The mural was commissioned by Mr. Parlamis & his relatives to commemorate the victims of the Lockerbie terrorist attack. Mr. Parlamis' niece, Alexia Tsairis, died aboard Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988."

November 11, 2002 - Patriots Peace Memorial, River Road east of Zorn Avenue (next to Thurman-Hutchins Park), Louisville, Kentucky (USA). "Honors fallen patriots from all the military services... An international design competition received over 120 entries. The winning design was by David D. Quillin Architecture, a small firm in Berlin, Maryland. The monument includes an elevated, 4-sided structure with brick walls. Each time a new fallen patriot is inscribed, a brick is removed from the wall & replaced with a personalized etched glass identifying each patriot, signifying our loss. This void in an otherwise solid wall becomes a portal of light transforming the interior by day & radiating outward at night... Each name [is] a reminder to celebrate daily the joy of freedom purchased & safeguarded by these brave men & women. When a visitor walks under the four walls & ascends the pyramidical steps, the walls visually descend until, once at the topmost viewing pad, the busy park & highway nearby are obscured..."

April 18, 2005 - Handshake for Peace Memorial, Lone Pine, Leura, New South Wales (Australia). "An initiative of Tom Colless OAM & Central Blue Mountains Rotary, in conjunction with the Ambassador of Turkey, His Excellency Mr Reha Keskintepe & Katoomba RSL. To honour the 100th anniversary of ANZAC the two metre high sandstone memorial, depicts two military hands shaking, one representing Turkey & the other Australia, celebrating peace between our two nations. There are also two inscriptions of Ataturk’s poem to mothers in both Turkish & English."

Memorial Day 2005 - LZ Peace Memorial, Midway Village Museum, 6799 Guilford Road, Rockford, Illinois (USA). "The names of dozens of fallen Vietnam veterans are etched in the v-shaped wall. A Huey helicopter is mounted on a landing pad above the wall to symbolize the veterans coming home." /// According to "Glossary of Military Terms & Slang from the Vietnam War," LZ = "Landing zone. Usually a small clearing secured temporarily for the landing of resupply helicopters. Some become more permanent & eventually become base camps."

2005 - Road Peace Memorial, St John’s Gardens, Liverpool (England). Behind St George’s Hall. "To those injured or killed on the road, by the sculptor Tom Murphy. A stubby traffic sign in bronze accompanied by the paraphernalia of the pedestrian – a stick, handbag, boot, small electrical devices, teddy bear & child’s doll."

October 8, 2005 - Tree of Life Peace Memorial, Bullring, Edgbaston Street, Birmingham (England). For victims of the Blitz during World War II. HANDS
Date? - Peace Memorial Seat, Ashford in the Water, Peak District, Derbyshire (England). FURNITURE

May 31, 2006 - Portland Peace Memorial Park, just south of Steele Bridge, Portland, Oregon (USA). Surrounded by expressways. Dedicated on Memorial Day. "Orchestrated by the Oregon chapter of Veterans for Peace. ...thought to be the largest memorial to the idea of peace in America [sic!]." Or called Portland Memorial Peace Park?

November 2006 - Chukiren Heiwakinenkan / Chukiren Peace Memorial Museum, Kawagoe, Saitama Prefecture (Japan). "The core of the museum’s collection, housed in a 180-sq meter warehouse, is the testimony of 300 Japanese veterans who confessed while in custody in China to committing atrocities there, including rape, torture and infanticide. Graphic video and photographic evidence showing some of the most brutal crimes of the Imperial Japanese Army is held in the archives as a resource for scholars." /// Museum website & image are no longer on-line?

2008 - Peace Memorial Park, 85 East 36th Street, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). "This 2.17 hectare (5.37 acre) former Peace Memorial School site [qv] was re-developed as a passive neighbourhood park. Peace Memorial School [qv] was constructed in 1918 [sic] as a memorial to those who gave their lives during the First World War." /// "The memorial bricks at Peace Memorial Park are being replaced this spring [2017] with brass plaques. Over time, the wording on many of the engraved markers has worn away due to weather, snow shovelling, foot traffic & skateboarders, said Fayne Downie of the city’s parks department. 'There are some you can barely read anymore & that’s really a shame,' she said."

July 3, 2010 - Bridgnorth/RAF Peace Memorial - Bridgnorth, Shropshire, West Midlands (England). "Commemorates the bond that exists between the people of Bridgnorth & the former Royal Air Force Station Bridgnorth (1939-1963). Records the contribution to world peace during those years of conflict by the men & women who were trained there." STONES

2013 - Korean Peace Memorial, Mt. Marpi ( Suicide Cliff), North Side of Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands). "During the three week Battle of Saipan which began on June 15, 1944, approximately 55,000 Japanese soldiers & civilians died in the fighting. Up to 1,000 of the war dead are believed to be Korean civilians that were brought to Saipan to work in the sugar industry. Korea became a colony of Imperial Japan in 1910 & just like Saipan only became free of Japanese rule at the end of World War II. /// Mt. Marpi is an 800 foot cliff more commonly referred to as 'Suicide Cliff' since it is where hundreds of Japanese soldiers & civilians jumped to their deaths instead of surren (dering to US forces."

October 15, 2015 - Chilgok Patriots & Peace Memorial, 1580 Gangbyeon-daero, Seokjeok-eup, Chilgok-gun, Gyuongsangbuk-do (South Korea). "A memorial museum dedicated to the soldiers who seized victory by holding up a fierce battle at Nakdonggang River's line of defense for 55 days in Chilgok during the Korean War. Consists of a spacious 4-story high building with 2 basement floors & an outdoor exhibition with a variety of artifacts. Also has battle miniatures & experience facilities to help foster patriotism & appreciation for the soldiers who gave their lives to protect the country."

August 19, 2017 - Peace Memorial & Garden, behind the Johnson-Phinney building, 117 Cass Street, Monroe, Michigan (USA). From Monroe News, February 18, 2016: " The Monroe County Historical Society is raising money to construct a peace memorial & garden honoring the 200 years of peace between the United States, Canada & Britain. “Two hundred years of peace is unusual,” Mrs. Guyor said. “Even though we were enemies then, since that time we have fought as brothers in arms in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm & now.” The relationship should be acknowledged & celebrated, Mrs. Guyor said. “We have been more than allies,” she said. “Why do we not want to celebrate that?” A bronze sculpture, which already has been created, will sit atop a black granite base. The sculpture was made by Joseph de Angelis, who created a similar piece in the Navy Yard Garden [King's Navy Yard Park] in Amherstburg, Ontario, Monroe’s sister city. [See other de Angelis sculpture in China.] The bronze piece, which stands more than 5 feet tall, includes three intertwining muskets that sprout five roses at the top. A Native American feather is featured on one of the muskets. “Roses are a sign of peace,” Mrs. Guyor explained. “The feather is very important because of the Native American contribution.” Local artist Darlene Belair designed the monument, which will stand about 14 feet overall. Along the sides of the granite are cannon barrels, Mrs. Belair said. “We wanted to tie in the war & peace,” she said. "

Future? - Peace Memorial Complex, Chengy Valley, Khagrachari District (Bangladesh). "The main purpose of this Memorial is to highlight the unforgettable moment of “PEACE TREATY” that occurred in 1997 -- a revolutionary step taken by our government for the well being of both Jumma people & Bangladeshi settlers." Is this a student project? See "Peace Memorials" on Pinterest.

Please email your comments & questions to geovisual at Thank you.

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