in Ohio (USA)
Right click image to enlarge.
1654 - "Landscape with Peace & Justice Embracing," Toledo Museum of Art (TMA), Toledo, Ohio (USA). By French painter Laurent de La Hyre [1606-1656].
1840 - "The Slave Trade" by French painter Auguste-Francois Biard [1800-1882]. As of June 2007, it hangs at the entrance to the "From Slavery to Freedom" exhibit at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA).
After 1852 - Grave of Frances Wright, Spring Grove Cemetery, 4521 Spring Grove Avenue, Cincinnati, Hamilton County Ohio 45232 (USA). Frances (Fanny) Wright [1795-1852] was "a Scottish-born lecturer, writer, freethinker, feminist, abolitionist & social reformer, who became a US citizen in 1825. That year she founded the Nashoba Commune in Germantown, Tennessee, as a utopian community to prepare slaves for emancipation, intending to create an egalitarian place, but it lasted only three years. Her 'Views of Society & Manners in America' (1821) brought her the most attention as a critique of the new nation." Fanny did many remarkable things: She visited Monticello with the Marquis de Lafayette, lived in New Harmony, Indiana, lectured in New York City, published a newspaper in Cincinatti, freed slaves in Haiti, bore one child out of wedlock & lived at La Grange, LaFayette's estate near Paris (France). 1950's - Nashoba Marker, Germantown, near Memphis, Tennessee (USA).
1856 - Wilberforce University, Wilburforce, Ohio (USA). "A a private, coed, liberal arts historically black university (HBCU). Affiliated with African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. The first college to be owned & operated by African Americans." /// NB: Town & university "named for the English statesman William Wilberforce [1759-1833], who worked for abolition of slavery & achieved the end of the slave trade in the United Kingdom & its empire [in 1833]."
June 5, 1872 - Gnadenhütten Monument & Museum, Gnadenhütten, Ohio (USA). 37 foot (11 m) monument, located next to a reconstructed cabin in what was the center of the original village. Inscribed "Here triumphed in death ninety Christian Indians, March 8, 1782." Memorializes victims of the Gnadenhütten Massacre, "the murder of 96 Indians, mostly Delawares, by American troops at an Ohio village during the American Revolution. The Indians, converted peaceful Christians, were under suspicion because of their neutrality in the war. An American officer, David Williamson, and his militia, seeking revenge for Indian raids on frontier settlements, pretended friendship with the Indians, then disarmed them and returned to kill them in cold blood; two scalped boys escaped to relate the slayings.'
September 4, 1906 - William McKinley Memorial, Capitol Square, Columbus, Ohio (USA). Contains symbols of peace representing the presidency of William McKinley [1843-1901]. September 30, 1907 - William McKinley Memorial Mausoleum, Canton, Ohio (USA). Contains symbols of peace representing the presidency of William McKinley [1843-1901].
1917 - Ohio Peace Monument, Cravens House, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Tennessee (USA). Base of monument depicts a female figure surrounded with grain, machinery, & other fruits of peace. Not in Ohio but erected by the state of Ohio.
June 26, 1923 - "Peace," Capitol Grounds, Columbus, Ohio (USA). 13 foot bronze winged angel of peace holding an olive branch aloft. SculptedBruce Wilder Saville [b.1893]. An inscription says the monument commemorates “the sacrifice of Ohio’s heroes of 1861-65 and the brave women of the period.” It includes two bronze plaques -- one for soldiers & one for those on the home front: "Men win glory in the fierce heat of conflict but the glory of woman is more hardly won. Upon her falls the burden of maintaining the family and the home, nursing the sick and wounded, and restoring the courage of the broken. She endures the suspense of battle without its exaltation. The memorial is erected in grateful tribute to the loyal women of 61-65, without whose help no victory or lasting peace could ever have been won." /// "The dedication was the high point of that year’s Grand Army of the Republic [GAR] encampment, a reunion of about 1,500 Ohio veterans of the Civil War & capped 15 years of work by the Women’s Relief Corps [WRC] of Ohio, a GAR auxiliary. "This peace memorial is but another evidence of the patriotic devotion and self-sacrifice of womanhood," Gov. A. Victor Donahey declared at the dedication. “It shall ever remain a continuing influence of the good women of ’61 to ’65, and the influence of good women is always the fair test & measure of civilization.” At the dedication, Brunella Miesse, the president of the corps’ Ohio department, said, “The womanhood of America is crying for peace. Let there be no more wars.” She closed by quoting assassinated President William McKinley, an Ohioan who also had served in the Civil War: “Let us remember our interest is in concord, not conquest, and our real eminence rests in the victories of peace, not those of war.” Donahey responded, 'Let there be peace,' as a string of flags that had covered the monument fell away & doves of peace were released. The doves circled above the monument while the crowd sang Hallelujah." Click here for Civil War monuments of Ohio.
July 4, 1928 - Madonna of the Trail, Springfield, Ohio (USA). "First of 12 monuments dedicated to the spirit of pioneer women in the USA. The series was commissioned by the National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution (NSDAR) and placed along the National Old Trails Highway, extending from Bethesda, Maryland, to Upland, California, in each of the 12 states the road passed through [sic]." Created by Geman-American sculptor August Leimbach [1882-1965].
June 31, 1931 - Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio (USA). "Honors those who fought in the Battle of Lake Erie, during the war of 1812, but in equal part it is here to celebrate the long-lasting peace between Britain, Canada & the USA." /// "352 foot (107 m) - the world's most massive Doric column. Fourth tallest monument in USA (only Gateway Arch, San Jacinto Monument, & Washington Monument are taller). Beneath the stone floor lie the remains of three American officers & three British officers. Constructed by a multi-state commission 1912-1915 "to inculcate the lessons of international peace by arbitration & disarmament." Although substantially completed in 1915, funding problems prevented the proper completion. In 1919, the federal government assumed control of the monument & provided additional funding. Official dedication was celebrated on July 31, 1931. In 2002, 2.4 million dollars was spent on a new visitor center. Visited by 200,000 people each year." Closed for repairs 2009-2012. Entry #818 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). 2011 - New Baltimore, Michigan (USA). North of Detroit. "Lynn & Wayne Bell stand behind the 10 foot scaled replica of the Perry's Victory & International Peace monument at their home on September 15, 2011. Wayne Bell recently had it made for his wife; he proposed to her at that monument about 20 years ago."
1930's - "Swords Into Plowshares," Klassen Court, Bluffton College, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). Bronze plaque by Ukranian-American sculptor (and Bluffton College art instructor) John Peter Klassen [1888-1975]. Based on Issiah 2:4: "They shall beat their swords into plowshares." Photo by EWL.
1939 - American Legion Peace Gardens, Cleveland Cultural Gardens, Rockefeller Park, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Created by the American Legion after World War I. Inscription: "Here may the intermingeld soil from historic shrines of the nations of the world...symbolize the united effort of their peoples as they advance to a better understanding. These gardens, planned by men who know the horrors of war, are dedicated to the brotherhood of men and peace throughout the world."
September 19-20, 1957 - Cairn of Peace, Main Street, Peebles, Ohio (USA). Upper plaque: "CAIRN OF PEACE. Dedicated at World's Conservation Exposition and 5th World Plowing Context, September 19-20, 1957." Lower plaque names competitors from Northern Ieland, Denmark, Italy, Netherland [sic], Belgium, Germany, France, Finland, Sweden, Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand & United States.
1964 - Peace Arising from the Flames of War, Fountain of Eternal Life, Veterans’ Memorial Plaza, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). 46-foot sculpture by Marshall Fredericks [1908-1998] which took 19 years to complete. Surrounded by four carved blocks of granite representing the four corners of the earth. Also known as "War Memorial Fountain" and "Peace Memorial Fountain."
1970 - Peace Park, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri (USA). After the shootings at Kent State University [in Ohio on May 4, 1970], students named an area of MacAlester Park "Peace Park." Image shows the bridge.
1975 - Peace Memorial, Linndale, Ohio (USA). Monument to war dead by sculptor Savo Savich. Inscribed "Through Knowledge Peace," "Peace to Mankind," and "Peace on Earth." At time of dedication, Linndale's main street was renamed Avenue of Peace.
August 6, 1975 - Peace Resource Center (PRC), Wilmington College of Ohio, Wilmington, Ohio (USA). "Has "the world's largest collection (outside of Japan) of reference materials related to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki." Founded by Barbara Leonard Reynolds who also founded the World Friendship Center (WFC) in Hiroshima (Japan) in 1965. Entry #820 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). One of 27 US museums in "Museums for Peace Worldwide" edited by Kazuyo Yamane (2008).
1977 - "The Passage to Freedom," near Talbot Hall, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio (USA). "Commemorates Oberlin as a major stop on the Underground Railroad, the secret route by which abolitionists helped slaves escape to freedom in the Civil War era. Cameron Armstrong (then a senior at Oberlin College) constructed the piece as part of a class art project."
1981 - Temple of Tolerance, 203 South Wood Street, Wapakoneta, Ohio (USA). "I've seen many amazing visionary art sites, but none quite like the one James R. (Jim) Bowsher has created. His home is an incredible museum -- a Grand Central Terminal for the Underground Railroad, an invisible library of unwritten books on Freemasons, Harry Houdini & and Neil Armstrong. Over several backyards are massive glacial boulders forming the central monument dedicated to tolerance, a stage for summer music performances, a Vietnam War memorial, and a Tree of Life. Throughout the grounds you'll also find the archeology of good and evil -- Boundary markers from a Shawnee Indian reservation, slab steps from a Klan meetinghouse, stone dragons from Ireland, fragments from the first baseball park in Cincinnati, even a marble countertop from a bank that John Dillinger robbed. Perhaps more than anything, the Temple stands to remind us, as well as future generations, to have compassion for others as we continue to explore our dreams, follow our spirit, and search for answers in the hope of scaling new heights." [Cathy J. Schreima, Wapakoneta Evening Ledger, April 7, 2001.] /// Bowsher's temple is further described & illustrated on NarrowLarry's World of the Outstanding & RareVisions Road Trip.com. For YouTube videos of the temple, click here for 11 minutes on a sunny day, and click here for 5 minutes in the snow. Also click to see Bowsher explaining why he believes in innate goodness and telling the story of rivets.
1984 - Constellation Earth, Snyder Traffic Circle, Bluffton College, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). "An eight-foot sphere celebrating the global family." Duplicate of bronze sculpture by Paul Theodore Granlund [1925-2003] which the City of St. Paul, Minnesota (USA), presented in 1992 to Nagasaki (Japan) for the "Peace Symbols Zone" in Nagasaki Peace Park. Photo by EWL.
1987 - Lion & Lamb Peace Arts Center, Bluffton University, Riley Court (Lower Level), Spring Street, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). Several other peace monuments are on the grounds of the center. Director is Louise Matthews. Entry #790 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Member of International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP).
1990 - May 4 Memorial, Daffodil Hill, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (USA). Memorializes the 11 unarmed victims (4 dead & 9 injured) of the shootings by National Guard troops on May 4, 1970, during the Viet-Nam War. "Some of the students who were shot had been protesting the Cambodian Campaign, which President Richard Nixon announced during a television address on April 30. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance."
1994 - Peace Thrones, below Sauder Visual Arts Center near Riley Creek, Bluffton University, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). Created by B. Amore & Woody Dorsey. Stone seats for conversation or meditation. "Based on legends found in many cultures, the three large granite rocks create a neutral space to foster dialogue and listening in an effort to resolve conflict through dialogue without resorting to violence." Image scanned from university brochure.
May 5, 1995 - Fort Hayes "Celebration of Peace" Plaque, Shot Tower Gallery, Columbus, Ohio (USA). A plaque titled "A Call to Arms" located inside the shot tower at historic Fort Hayes in Columbus, Ohio, USA, calls for a "Celebration of Peace." Text: "'A CALL TO ARMS' The Advisory Board, Faculty, and Students of the Fort Hayes Education Metropolitan Center present this commemorative plaue for the 50th Anniversary of W.W. II and a 'Celebration of Peace.' We especially honor all For Hayes industees for their bravery, ensuring peace for the world to share. May 5, 1995."
1997 - Peace Wall & Moon Gate, Lion & Lamb Peace Arts Center, Bluffton University, Riley Court (Lower Level), Spring Street, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). By Jon Barlow Hudson. "Replicates the Berlin Wall, a prison wall, a stockade wall & a memorial wall as an interactive art experience representing how we close people out, hold them in, or immortalize them with walls of various kinds." Names 68 peace activists. Entry #793 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1997 - Peace House, Lion & Lamb Peace Arts Center, Bluffton University, Riley Court (Lower Level), Spring Street, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). By Jack Mann, art professor at Wittenburg University. Stainless steel sculpture intended to evoke "the peaceful and not-so-peacefull world of 'home.'"
1997 - Jonah & the Whale, Lion & Lamb Peace Arts Center, Bluffton University, Riley Court (Lower Level), Spring Street, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). By Gregg Luginbuhl, art professor at Bluffton University. Invites viewers "to sit and ponder their own experiences of transformation from chaos to peace."
December 31, 1999 - World Peace Bell, 425 York Street (4th & York), Newport, Kentucky (USA) -- just across Ohio River from Cincinnati, Ohio. "World's largest free-swinging bell." Dedicated on the eve of the new millenium. Cast in France in 1998 for the Verdin Company of Cincinnatti. Not related to World Peace Bell Association (qv). Entry #355 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Click here for air view.
July 4, 2000 - "Cairn: A Monolith for Peace in the 21st Century," Sylvania, Lucas County, Ohio (USA). Sylvania is a suburb of Toledo on the Michigan border.
2002 - Viet Nam Peace Arch Memorial & Plaza, Civic Center Mall, Toledo, Ohio (USA). Honors Vietnam War veterans. By local artist Kenneth M. Thompson. One of a series of archways that include 'Reclamation Archway' for Blue Cross/Blue Shield in Detroit and 'Ferris Arch; at Ferris State University in Big Rapids, Michigan. According to Thompson, the arch's two stacked limestone columns and limestone lintel have 'a monumental solitude that conveys strength and peace.'"
May 17, 2003 - Theodore M. Berry International Friendship Park, Downtown Eastern Ohio Riverfront, Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). "A group of design professionals, artists, educators and sister city representatives - which was formed to promote a 'peace park' - asked the Cincinnati Park Board to name the property International Friendship Park, to commemorate international understanding and friendship." Theodore M. Berry [1905-2000] was Cincinnati's first African American mayor (December 1972 to November 1975).
2003 - World's Children Peace Monument (WCPM), Coe Lake Park, Berea, Ohio. "Designed at the ARK in Berea as a project of the International Center for Environmental Arts (ICEA)... Will become the largest art work dedicated to a sustainable Culture of Peace as Peace Stones are added annualy to cities around the World. Officially inaugurated in 2003 at the 3rd World Peace Conference, Children of the Earth, in Verbania, Lago Maggiore, Italy, by American Cultural Ambassadors David and Renate Jakupca, where they received an Italian Medal of Arts."
July 2003 - Peace Pole, Riverscape MetroPark, Deeds Point, Webster Street, Dayton, Ohio (USA). Donated by Friendship Force of Dayton to outdoor "Centennial of Flight" exhibit (which -- according to the exhibit -- climaxed with the Dayton Peace Accords on December 24, 1995).
August 2004 - National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 50 East Freedom Way, Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). Interprets the Underground Railroad and "pays tribute to all efforts to abolish human enslavement and secure freedom for all people." Described on pages 348-349 of "A Traveller's Guide to the Civil Rights Movement" by Jim Carrier (2004). One of 27 US museums in "Museums for Peace Worldwide" edited by Kazuyo Yamane (2008). to see Wikipedia article.
September 25, 2005 - "Peace Pole Garden," Beech Acres Park, Anderson Township, Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). A project of Greater Anderson Promotes Peace (GAPP). "The Peace Pole Garden is a peaceful area, with a winding path and 6 granite benches inscribed with "Let peace prevail on the Earth" in Arabic, Cherokee, Chinese, English, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Russian, Spanish and Swahili." By landscape architect David P. Whittiker, ASLA.
October 14, 2005 - Dayton International Peace Museum, Pollack House, Dayton, Ohio (USA). Founded by Christine & Ralph Dull, Fred Arment, Lisa Wolters & Steve Fryburg. Click here for Wikipedia article. Associated with the Future Energy & Conservation Center, Dull Homestead, Brookville, Ohio. Member of International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP). Date? - Green Energy Information Center (GEC), Dull Homestead Farm 17, 10404 National Road (US-40), Brookville, Ohio (USA). Environmental branch of the Dayton International Peace Museum. Visitors’ hours are every day from 8am to 8pm. Phone 937-832-6365. "Has six 120 foot wind turbines that life-long farmer & environmentalist Ralph Dull constructed to provide reliable energy for the Dull family farm... Features exhibits on alternative energy technologies & ways to conserve resources & preserve the environment. The facility is part of a working family farm that is serviced by a residential hydrogen generator that was developed in the Dayton area."
Late 2005 - Dove and Gandhi on billboard for Dayton International Peace Museum, Ludlow at Fifth Street (facing southbound traffic), Dayton, Ohio (USA). Other billboards featured Albert Einstein, Martin Luther King, Jr., Mother Teresa, and "Peace is Love"
October 1, 2006 - Gandhi Statue, Indian Cultural Garden, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). At the unveiling, Indian Ambassador Sen welcomed the crowd on behalf of India, the world's largest democracy and home of 1.1 billion people. He told how when Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. visited India that he was greeted more enthusiastically than any head of state. When asked about this visit to India, Dr King replied that it was not a visit. "I've come here on a pilgrimage to the land of Gandhi."
June 15, 2007 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Memorial & Statue, Central Park, Mansfield, Ohio (USA). Image shows snow & some of the yellow paint poured on the statue by vandals in January 2009.
August 6, 2008 - "Stories of Hope," permanent exhibit at Peace Resource Center (PRC), Wilmington College of Ohio, Wilmington, Ohio (USA). Highlights four stories: PRC founder Barbara Leonard Reynolds [1915-1990], Sadako Sasaki [1943-1955], the Hiroshima Maidens, and Dr. Takashi Nagai [1908-1951], the first published writer of the A-Bomb experience. The PRC has "the world's largest collection (outside of Japan) of reference materials related to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Entry #820 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). One of 27 US museums in "Museums for Peace Worldwide" edited by Kazuyo Yamane (2008).
2008 - "The Mahatma" (Gandhi Statue), Toledo Area Sculptors Guild, 211 Cedar Street, Gibsonburg, Ohio (USA). Sculpted by James Havens. On sale for $60,000. Havens also made Peace Sculpture (qv) at Woodstock School, Mussoorie, Uttarakhand (India).
September 4, 2009 - Missing Peace Art Space," 234 South Dutoit Street, Dayton Ohio (USA). "A non-profit art gallery exploring the use of art in all forms as a means to communicate the human desire for peace." Gabriela Pickett, owner, & Steve Fryburg, director. Image on far right shows "Peace March" by Max Ginsburg (2007) from the gallery's first exhibition, "Know Justice, Know Peace." Member of International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP).
September 20, 2009 - "Who Sends Thee?," between Watson Library and the Meriam R. Hare Quaker Heritage Center, Wilmington College, Wilmington, Ohio (USA). "750-pound bronze statue features Quakers and tells a uniquely Quaker story. Indeed, members of the Society of Friends were behind much of its $84,000 fundraising effort... Reflects the Quaker Testimonies of peace, integrity, simplicity, community and equality. Depicts local Quakers, Isaac and Sarah Harvey, on their way to Washington D.C. to speak with President Abraham Lincoln about the emancipation of enslaved persons in 1862."
Date? - Peace Gardens, Perry Victory & International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio (USA). "'Planting the Seeds of Peace' is an annual event [on the Canadian holiday of Queen Victoria Day] at Perry's Victory that commemorates the long-lasting peace between Canada, Great Britain & the United States through the arts, music, gardening & educational activities for all ages. In the afternoon, area gardeners young & old are invited to help plant the park's new peace gardens on the corner of Toledo & Bay View Avenues & the corner of Hartford & Bay View Avenues." /// "Park Superintendent Blanca Alvarez Stransky explains 'Gardens are synonymous with peace & transcend all language barriers. The planting of a peace garden at the Memorial is the perfect method for expressing the park’s dual mission - commemorating the War of 1812 & honoring the long-lasting peace between countries.'" /// When were "the park's new peace gardens" first created?
March 16, 2011 - Ambassador Richard Holbrooke Memorial Bridge, Salem Avenue, Dayton, Ohio (USA). "The Dayton City Commission unanimously agreed to honorarily name the Salem Avenue Bridge as Ambassador Richard Holbrooke Memorial Bridge in honor of [Richard Holbrooke [1941-2010],] the deceased [American] diplomat who negotiated the Dayton [Peace] Accords at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in 1995. Holbrooke died in December 2010."
July 4-14, 2012 - Peace Bell, World Choir Games (WCG), Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). "Will be 3 feet in diameter at its base & 34 inches tall. Will be etched with iconic Cincinnati buildings & landmarks that will serve as World Choir Games venues, such as Music Hall & Fountain Square. Workers at Verdin's foundry on Kellogg Avenue will begin casting the bell in October 2011 & likely will finish making it about three months later, Jim Verdin said. Once completed, the bell will be installed in a 10-foot tall framework & weigh about 1,000 pounds." /// "The Peace Bell is rung at the opening & closing ceremonies & is a call for all nations to join together in song & celebration. INTERKULTUR, Germany-based founder & operator of the World Choir Games, initiated the concept for the bell in 2000 when the first Games were held in Linz (Austria). Cincinnati-based Verdin Co. will design & manufacture the bell. 'This is a great fit for us,' President Jim Verdin said. 'We are honored to create a special Peace Bell for what promises to be one of the great events in the history of our city.' Cincinnati was selected as the first US city to host the World Choir Games, which are expected to bring 20,000 participants & tens of thousands of visitors from more than 70 countries to the area." /// Lower image shows bell at the closing ceremony. Where is the bell now?
June 2, 2014 - Ohio Holocaust & Liberators Memorial, Statehouse Grounds, Capitol Square, Columbus, Ohio (USA). Unveiled by Governor John Kasich & architect Daniel Libeskind. "Visitors enter a sloped platform of smooth reddish-grey granite that leads to the monument. The pathway is flanked by benches & a descending wall of Columbus limestone. The top of the wall is inscribed with the words [from the Talmud], "If you save one life, it is as if you saved the world..." Below is a quote by Auschwitz survivor [sic] Avner Shalev [chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate in Israel] that reads: "Every human being who chooses to remember this chapter of history and to infuse it with meaning is thereby choosing to struggle for the preservation of the bedrock moral values that alone make possible the existence of a well-ordered society. This is a commitment to uphold human rights, above all, freedom and the sanctity of life, and the opportunity for people to live side by side in harmony."
Future - Kawashima Japanese Peace Garden, Simpson Garden Park, Bowling Green, Ohio (USA). Half acre. Designed by Mark J. Cyr, a leading designer of Japanese gardens in the United States. "Intended to open minds to a different culture while offering visitors a place of peace & tranquility, where they will find hdealing, renewal & inspiration... Will honor Dr. Fujiya (Fuji) Kawashima, a widely respectred professor of Asian History at Bowling Green State Univerisity who passed away in 2006." Image shows Kawashima's grave, not the garden.
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