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33 Peace Monuments
Dedicated in 1910-1914

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12 Peace Monuments in 1910


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April 26, 1910 - Organization of American States (OAS), 17th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "On April 14, 1890, delegates created the International Union of American Republics 'for the prompt collection and distribution of commercial information.' They also established the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics in Washington as the Union's secretariat, with the participation of 18 Western Hemisphere nations, including the USA. In 1910, the Commercial Bureau became the Pan American Union, and American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] donated $5 million to construct a permanent headquarters in Washington, DC, which is today the historic OAS building." Lower image shows interior courtyard.


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April 26, 1910 - Peace Tree, Organization of American States (OAS), 17th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "Prominent among the lush vegetation of the OAS patio. A hybrid of fig and rubber. Planted by President William Howard Taft [1857-1930] during the building's dedication ceremonies in 1910." Image shows John Barret (Director General), Bishop Harding, Amb. de la Barra (México), Andrew Carnegie, President Taft, Philander O. Knox (Secretary of State), Senator Elihu Root, James Cardinal Gibbons & Frederick D. Owen. On April 26, 2010, President Barak Obama "planted a new 'Peace Tree' as a symbol of the OAS’s renewed dedication to its core values of good faith and solidarity for the next 100 years." Left made 01Nov1011 by EWL.


May 7, 1910 - "Bringer of Peace," Friary Park, Friern Barnet, London (England). Statue by Sydney Simmons dedicated to the memory of King Edward VII [1841-1910] & erected on 7 May 1910, the day after his death. /// "Children used to love climbing up the little stone mountain but there is a small circular fence now to prevent people touching & sitting on it."


1910 - PAX / Peace Monument, Zaragosa (Spain). Honors Basilio Paraíso Lasús [1849-1930] who led Exposición Hispano-Francesa / Spanish-French Exposition in 1908. Has the city's lion & two naked charibs on top & bas reliefs of peaceful scenes on the sides.


1910 - "Goddess of Victory and Peace," atop Pennsylvania State Memorial, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (USA). "The pavilion is the largest monument on the Gettysburg Battlefield... In 1909-10, Samuel Murray created 'The Goddess of Victory and Peace' (Athena) from melted-down cannons."


1910 - Figure of Peace, Royal Artillery Boer War Memorial, London, (England). "The main statue, a female winged figure of peace, is calming a horse representing the spirit of war. The relief on the base includes images of the army in action, but nothing about the monument refers to the devastation and horror of the Boer War in South Africa. The narrative is selective and its message is clear: the Royal Artillery brought peace to the region. The nuances of the truth are unimportant."


1910 - New York Peace Monument, Point Park, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Tennessee (USA). Depicts soldiers from North and South shaking hands. Built by State of New York.


1910 - Grave of Henri Dunant, Friedhof Zürich-Sihlfeld (Switzerland). Henry Dunant [1828-1910] founded the International Red Cross. He & Frédéric Passy [1822-1912] received the first (1901) Nobel Peace Prize. He died in Heiden (Switzerland).

1910 - Garden of Peace, Hammersmith Park, Shepherd's Bush, London, England (UK). Created for the Japan-British Exposition. Being restored for its centennial in 2010.


1910 - Gippeswyk Park, Ipswich, Suffolk (England). 45-acres presented by Felix Thornley Cobbold MP JP [1841-1909] "to be maintained as a public park and recreation ground, and not to be used for the drilling, or instruction of soldiers, or for any military purposes whatsoever." "Gippeswick was a seventh-century town centred near the quay." Info & photo from Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi) 05/09.

1910 - Angel de la Independencia / Angel of Independence, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (Mexico). Commemorates the centennial of the beginning of Mexico's War of Independence [1910-1921]. One of the most recognizable landmarks in Mexico City. A focal point for both celebrations and protests. A lampera votiva / eternal flame (installed in 1929) burns in honor of the principal heroes whose remains are interred within. Base contains bronze sculptures symbolizing Law, War, Justice and Peace. The main face is a bronze statue of a giant lion led by a child representing strength and the innocence of youth during War but docility during Peace.

July 1910 - Royal Artillery Boer War Memorial. Near Admiralty Arch, at the corner of Horse Guards Parade and The Mall, London SW1. 1909. Bronze statue of war being controlled by peace by William Robert Colton, RA (1867-1921). Portland stone base designed by Sir Aston Webb. The inscription reads, "Erected by the officers and men of the Royal Artillery in memory of their honoured dead. South Africa. 1899-1902." It was unveiled by the Duke of Connaught in July 1910, the principal ceremony being held at St Paul's Cathedral (as reported, for example, in the New York Times)."

4 Peace Monuments in 1911


c.1911 - King Edward VII Memorial (aka Angel of Peace), Parade Gardens, Bath, Somerset (England). To the east of Bath Abbey. Outside the Bath rugby stadium. Erected at present site, c.1933. N.A. Irent, sculptor. "Commemorates King Edward VII's diplomatic tactics in Europe, particularly with his cousin the Kaiser in Germany, and his establishment of an entente cordiale with France. The memorial is by N. A. Irent, and was moved to its current site from Milsom Street in 1933. Many similar versions of this statue, known as 'The Peacemaker,' can be found in public parks & squares all over the country." /// "Not a good idea, using copper for a statue, as it stains the stonework green. The imposing building in the background is a hotel."


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October 10, 1911 - "The Triumph of Peace," 14th Street Entrance, Piedmont Park, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Also called Peace Monument to "The Old Guard." /// "Commemorates the historic 'Mission of Peace' to the North in 1879 by the Gate City Guard of Atlanta." Depicts a Civil War soldier lowering his rifle as the Angel of Peace holds an olive branch above his head. By New York sculptor Allen Newman [1875-1940]. His model for the angel of peace was "America's first supermodel" Audrey Munson [1891-1996] whose classic beauty attracted numerous sculptors & artists during the 1910's (15 statues in NY City alone), then spent 65 years in an upstate mental institution. See her biography "She inspired monuments and died in obscurity" by James Bone. /// 103rd rededication took place October 11, 2015.

October 15, 1911 - Goethe–Schiller Monument, Schiller Park, Syracuse, New York (USA). "Incorporates a copper double-statue of the German poets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe [1749–1832] & Friedrich Schiller [1759–1805]. Erected by the German-American organizations of Syracuse & Onondaga County. Schiller (on the reader's right in the photo) was called the 'poet of freedom' in the US & had an enormous 19th Century following. This was the last of 13 monuments to Schiller that were erected in US cities. Goethe was the 'supreme genius of modern German literature.' He & Schiller are paired in the statue because they had a 'friendship like no other known to literature or art.' Goethe is holding a laurel wreath in his right hand, and Schiller's right hand is reaching towards it. Modeled on the 1857 monument in Weimar (Germany). Ernst Rietschel had been commissioned to create a cast bronze double-statue for Weimar, which was exactly copied for the Syracuse & for three earlier US monuments... Schiller Park had been renamed in 1905, the centennial of Schiller's death. The statue tops a large black marble pedestal; it is at the top of a steep slope, and is approached by a formal stairway."


October 28, 1911

August 11, 2016
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- Statue of Robert Ingersoll, Glen Oak Park, Peoria, Illinois (USA). Robert G. Ingersoll [1833-1899] was a lawyer, Civil War veteran, political leader & orator during the Golden Age of Free Thought (roughly 1875-1914). Noted for his broad range of culture & his defense of agnosticism, Ingersoll was nicknamed "The Great Agnostic." Sculpted in 1909 by Fritz Triebel [1865-1948] in Genoa, Italy. "Eugene Baldwin [1843-1914], founder of The Peoria Star, labored long & hard to bring the statue to Peoria." The Freedom from Religion Foundation (FFRF) & Center for Inquiry (CFI) restored the statue & rededicated it on August 11, 2016 (Ingersoll's 183th birthday). See Ingersoll's restored birthplace in Dresden, New York.

5 Peace Monuments in 1912


May 24, 1912 - Statue of Edward the Peacemaker, Lowman Green, Tiverton Devon County (England). Two inscriptions: "Edward the Peacemaker, 1841-1910" & "Presented by Thomas Ford Esq. J.P. to His Native Town." /// From genealogy comment by MaryTurner: "Unveiled on Empire Day. T.Ford aged 94yrs was present. Mr Ford had already given the Clock Tower on the opposite side of Lowman Bridge. He also BUILT & ENDOWED Fords Almshouses plus he also BOUGHT OLD SCHOOL as an endowment for these Almshouses."

1912 - "Comely Bank," Ridge Historic District, Chicago, Illinois (USA). House constructed in 1905. Residence of Rotary founder Paul P. Harris [1868-1947] from 1912 until his death in 1947. Grounds included an International Friendship Garden. Purchased by Paul & Jean Harris Home Foundation (PJHHF) and opened to the public in 2005.


1912 - Pamatnik Mohyla Míru / Cairn of Peace & Muzeum Brnenska / Brno Regional Museum, Prace, Moravia (Czech Republic). "85-foot monument commemorates Battle of Austerlitz (aka Battle of the Three Emperors), December 2, 1805, when Napoleon defeated the Austrian & Russian coalition, leading to the Peace of Pressburg (Bratislava). Within the memorial there is a chapel and small museum (moderized in 2005), while on the outside, four female statues symbolize France, Austria, Russia and Moravia."

1912 - "Goddess of Peace," Quadriga, Wellington Arch, Hyde Park Corder, London (England). "Designed by Adrian Jones. Depicts the angel of peace descending on the chariot of war. The face of the charioteer leading the quadriga is that of a small boy (actually the son of Lord Michelham, the man who funded the sculpture). The statue is the largest bronze sculpture in Europe."


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October 12, 1912 - Peace Statue, Kings Road, Brighton/Hove (England). Depicts the Angel of Peace. Unveiled by the Duke of Norfolk. Commemorates King Edward VII [1841-1910] of England for bringing about peace between Argentina & Chile in 1902. See the 1904 statue Cristo Redentor de los Andes / Christ of the Andes in Uspallata Pass of the Andes Mountains between Argentina & Chile. Click here for information about a proposal to add new monuments to the Brighton/Hove seaside.

8 Peace Monuments in 1913


April 23, 1913 - King Edward VII Memorial, Centenary Square, Birmingham (England). "1910, the King was returned to the city centre for the first time in 60 years following 15 months of restoration work costing £114,000. Made by local sculptor Albert Toft."


May 30, 1913 - USS Maine National Monument Central Park, New York City, New York (USA). "A sculpture group of gilded bronze figures atop the pylon represent Columbia Triumphant, her seashell chariot being drawn by three hippocampi. The bronze for this group reportedly came from metal recovered from the guns of the Maine [in Havana harbor]." By Italian-American sculptor Attilio Piccirilli [1866-1945]. His model was "America's first supermodel" Audrey Munson [1891-1996] whose classic beauty attracted numerous sculptors & artists during the 1910's (15 statues in NY City alone), then spent 65 years in an upstate mental institution. See her biography "She inspired monuments and died in obscurity" by James Bone.

1913 - Les Bourgeois de Calais / The Burghers of Calais, Victoria Gardens, Parliament, London (England). Bronze casting of a sculpture made by Auguste Rodin [1840-1917] in 1884-86 and installed in Calais (France) in 1895. Depicts six leading citizens who offered their lives in 1347 to King Edward III of England as ransom for the protection of other townsfolk. One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website.

1913 - Nasionale Vrouemonument / National Women’s Monument, Bloemfontein (South Africa). "Dedicated to more than 27,000 martyr women who died during the Boer War [1899-1902] in British concentration camps. A 115 foot obelisk & two bas-relief panels depicting women being herded into a concentration camp clutching their few paltry possessions and a weakened child dying while a woman kneels at his bedside." "For 80 years the only monument in the world dedicated solely to women and children." A central bronze group sketched by Emily Hobhouse [1860-1926] and depicting her own experience of 15 May 1901, is of two sorrowing women and a dying child in the Springfontein camp. Hobhouse's ashes are distributed here.

August 28, 1913 - Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Constructed and still owned by the Carnegie Foundation. Now home of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), the Peace Palace Library, and the Hague Academy of International Law.

About August 28, 1913 - Peace Fountain, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands).
September 14, 1929 - Peace Fountain, Amsterdam Park, St. Clair Avenue W at Avenue Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Inscribed: "[Replica of] the fountain at [the Peace] Palace, The Hague. Presented by H.H. Williams... as a mark of his love [for peace]."

1913 - Vredesvlag / World Peace Flag of James William van Kirk, The Hague (Netherlands). The Rev. "James William van Kirk [1858-1946], a minister from Youngstown, Ohio (USA), designed a peace flag with rainbow stripes, stars & a globe. With this flag, he twice made a peace tour through Europe. The Universal Peace Congress adopted this flag as its World Peace Flag." /// "At the beginning of the 20th century, he conceived the plan to visit Europe & to place a bit to contribute to the world wide living for peace. He designed a rainbow flag that was to symbolize the international world. This silk made by the minister himself blue flag showed rainbow stripes, stars & planet Earth. His plan was to offer this banner all over the world rulers, presidents & politicians. In 1913 he came to The Hague (Netherlands) & gave at the opening of the Peace Palace at Andrew Carnegie are emblem of world peace. After returning to America was Reverend Van Kirk on his European tour many lectures & visited hundreds of schools to tell his story peace." [Google translation]


October 30, 1913 - Peace Monument, SW corner, Courthouse Square, Decatur, Adams County, Indiana (USA). Designed by Charles T. Mulligan [1866-1916]. Statue of "Peace" 12 feet 3 inches tall modeled by Margaret McMasters Van Slyke, "said to be Chicago's most perfectly formed woman" (local winner of Bernarr Macfadden's 13-city "best and most perfectly formed woman" contest in 1903-1904?). Side panels bear names of 1,276 Adams County veterans: Five of the War of 1812, eight of the Mexican War, 1,152 of 1861-1865 [sic], and 111 of the Spanish-American War. "The world's first monument dedicated exclusively to peace" (according to Wikipedia). Left photo by EWL 29Jul09. Right photo from 1935.


October 30, 1913 - Tribute to Women, back side of Peace Monument (qv), SW corner, Courthouse Square, Decatur, Adams County, Indiana (USA). Has bas relief sculpture of a nurse bandaging a wounded soldier, above a fountain (waterfall) behind which was mounted a fragment of the USS Maine (sunk in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898). Inscription: "To the women of our nation, as a tribute to their courage, devotion and sacrifice." May be restored for the monument's centennial in 2013. Left photo by EWL 29Jul09. Right photo from 1935.

4 Peace Monuments in 1914

June 4, 1914 - Confederate Monument, Confederate Section, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia (USA). 32-foot monument designed by Moses Ezekiel [1844-1917]. "Topped by a woman representing the South...crowed by olive leves, her left hand extending a laurel wreath toward the South,... her right hand holding a pruning hook resting on a plow stock... Inscribed at her feet: "And they shall beat their swords into plow shares and their spears into pruning hooks." "Many historians believe it was the national call to arms during the Spanish-American War [1898-1902] that brought Northerners and Southerners together at last... In June of 1900, in this spirit of national reconcilation, the US Congress authorized that a section of Arlington Naitonal Cemetery be set aside for the burial of Confederate dead." -- From "Arlington National Cemetery: Shrine to America's Heroes" by James Edward Peters (1986).

1914 - Olympic Flag - "Created by Baron Pierre de Coubertin [1863-1937] in 1914... The primary symbol of the Olympic Games is composed of five interlocking rings, colored blue, yellow, black, green & red on a white field, known as the 'Olympic rings.' This symbol was originally designed in 1912 by de Coubertin, co-founder of the modern Olympic Games. According to Coubertin, the ring colors with the white background stand for those colors that appeared on all the national flags that competed in the Olympic games at that time."

1914 - "Abolition of Serfdom in Russia in 1861: Freedom for Labour… A Charter for the Nation." From the cycle “The Slavonic Epic”, nr 19, by Bohemian Alfons Maria Mucha [1860-1939]. "Although the subject is one of the most contemporaneous to Mucha’s lifetime, this was one of the first of the Slav Epic canvases to be completed. Mucha visited Russia in 1913 & discovered that the great Slavic nation & ally that he so revered was in fact besieged with poverty & suffering and significantly less advanced than the rest of Europe. When Tsar Alexander II came to the throne in 1855, he instigated a number of reforms, including the Emancipation Edict in 1861 which gave Russian serfs personal freedom. For Mucha, this reform was too long overdue to be of any virtue. Uncertain of how the reform will improve their condition, Mucha’s subdued crowd of Russian peasants looks on anxiously as the official reads the edict. St. Basil’s cathedral & the Kremlin beyond are barely discernible through the thick shroud of fog which captures the uncertainty of the moment. The distant sun is just palpable through the cloud & offers a faint flicker of hope for a brighter future. Again, Mucha includes the figure of a mother & child to express both the fear & hope associated with future generations." /// Where is this painting today?


August 16, 1914 - Fredsmonument / Peace Monument, Morokulien, between Magnor (Norway) and Eda (Sweden). Morokulien is a tiny international territory commemorating the 1905 negotiations which created peace between Norway & Sweden and led to Norwegian independence ("dissolution of the union"). Both images show the 18-meter Fredsmonument. The name Morokulien combines the Norwegian & Swedish words for "fun."


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September 1914 - Japanese Monument to the Heroes of the Alamo, Alamo, San Antonio, Texas (USA). "Shigetaka Shiga [1863-1927], a Japanese geography professor, presented the monument to the Alamo. Etched on its face is a poem he composed that compares the Alamo and its heroes to a famous incident in Japanese history, the Siege of Nagashino Castle. Fought in 1575, the siege involved circumstances similar to those that took place at the Alamo in 1836."
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About 1992 - Live Oak Tree from the Alamo, Nagashino Castle ruins, Nagashinojou (Japan). "A living symbol of the friendship that links the Japanese and American peoples." "A grassy field is all that remains where the castle once stood."

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