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Peace Monuments
Dedicated in 1935-1939

Right click image to enlarge.


1930's - "Swords Into Plowshares," Klassen Court, Bluffton College, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). Bronze plaque by Ukrainian-born John Peter Klassen [1888-1975]. Based on Issiah 2:4: "They shall beat their swords into plowshares." Photo by EWL. .

April 15, 1935 - Banner of Peace, Washington, DC (USA). The Roerich Pact was proposed by Russian artist and humanitarian Nicholas Roerich [1874-1947] in response to the destruction of World War I and the Russian Revolution. It was signed by 21 nations of the Americas in the White House, in the presence of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (and later by other countries) The pact calls for an internationally recognized Banner of Peace to protect monuments of cultural and historic importance.

April 29, 1935 - Rush-Bagot Memorial Tablet, Columbia Residences (former Columbia Hospital for Women), 2425 L Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Marks place where the Rush-Bagot agreement was signed April 18-19, 1817, to bring about the removal of armed vessels from the Great Lakes. Erected by Kiwanis International. One of 40 peace monuments on Zonia Baber's world map c.1948. Entry #1162 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Rush-Bagot Treaty plaque, Royal Military College of Canada, General Crerar Crescent & Valour Road, Point Frederick, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Placed by Ontario Heritage Trust.

May 29, 1935 - Statute of "La Paix / Peace," "Garden of Normandie," Pinelawn Memorial Park (aka Long Island National Cemetery), Framingdale, Long Island, New York (USA). "Thirteen feet tall gilded statue of a toga-clad woman, one arm raised & offering an olive branch, by Louis Dejean [1872-1954]. [Originally] dominated the center of the [305-foot long] first class dining room of the French liner Normandie [1935-1942]" -- which sank in New York City during World War II.

1935 - Frederick Douglass Memorial Hall, 2441 6th-Street, NW, Howard University, Washington, DC (USA). "Named in honor of abolitionist, diplomat & university trustee Frederick Douglass [1818-1895]. Completed under the direction of university architect Albert I. Cassell [1895-1969]. The U-shaped Neoclassical building looks out upon the main yard of the university." Click here for all Douglass monuments.

1935 - "Freedom of Conscience" statue, St. Mary's College of Maryland, 47645 College Drive, St. Mary's City, Maryland (USA). For tercentenary of Maryland. Inscribed "Presented by the [original] counties of Maryland." Sculpted by Maryland sculptor Hans Schuler [1874-1951].

1935 - Garden of Peace, Theodore Roosevelt Senior High School, 456 South Mathews Street, Los Angeles, California (USA). Inscription on plaque: "GARDEN OF PEACE. A dedication ceremony was held in June 2005 to commemorate the naming of the restored Japanese Garden built in 1996 by Roosevelt HS Alumni and friends. The gardern was named "HEIWA-EN", garden of peace, to reflect our hope for future generations. The original garden was build by the RHS Japanese Club students in 1935, led by Shigeo Takayama, Club president. // Through Mr. Saigeo Tskayama's generosity the garden underwent a major upgrade in 2005, designed by Haroo Yamashira, an award winning landscape contractor..."

1935 - Grave of Jane Addams, Cedarville, Illinois (USA). She died in Chicago, Illinois (USA). The obilisk at her grave was restored in 2004. Jane Addams [1860-1935] was president of the Women's International League for Peace & Freedom (WILPF). She & Nicholas Murray Butler [1862-1947] shared the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. "As the first U.S. woman to win the prize, Addams was applauded for her 'expression of an essentially American democracy.'"


1936 - International Friendship Gardens, US Highway 12, Michigan City, Indiana (USA). Permanent spinoff of the "Old Mill Garden" at the Chicago World’s Fair (“A Century of Progress International Exposition.”) in 1933-34. Theme of the "Old Mill Garden" was "Peace and Friendship To All Nations." Has Chinese, German, Native American, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian & Scottish gardens. Right image shows Rotary Gerden with Rotary International logo at left & peace pole in center. Photo by EWL.

1936? - Peace Bell, International Friendship Gardens, US Highway 12, Michigan City, Indiana (USA). Before & after deterioration of the frame holding the bell. Right photo by EWL.

1936 - Palais des Nations / Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). Built for the League of Nations. Since the 1950s, it has served as the home of the UN Office at Geneva.
August 1939 - "Armillary Sphere," Ariana Park, Palais des Nations / Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). 410 cm in diameter. Weighs some 5,800 kg. Also called Celestial Sphere. By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. Presented by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation in memory of the founder of the League of Nations.

1936 - "Vision of Peace," Memorial Concouse, St. Paul City Hall, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Largest carved onyx figure in the world. Weighs 60 tons & oscillates 66 degrees left & right. Although dedicated in 1936 to the war veterans of Ramsey County, pacifist sculptor Carl Milles [1875-1955] sipulated that it should symbolize world peace. Officially named "Vision of Peace" in 1994. Entry #542 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1936 - Stone Bomb Anti-War Monument, NW of Mornington Road & the High Road, Woodford Green, London, (England). Created by Sylvia Pankfurtst [1882-1960] as a protest against aerial warfare. One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website. Named in "A Peace Trail Through London" by Valerie Flessati (1998). Compare 1938 monument by Hamilton Holt at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida (USA).

1936 or 1939 - American Legion Peace Gardens, Cleveland Cultural Gardens, Rockefeller Park, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Created by the American Legion after World War I. Inscription: "Here may the intermingled soil from historic shrines of the nations of the world...symbolize the united effort of their peoples as they advance to a better understanding. These gardens, planned by men who know the horrors of war, are dedicated to the brotherhood of men and peace throughout the world." (Rockefeller Park opened in 1897, & the first of more than two dozen "Cultural Gardens" opened in 1916 or 1926.)

July 26, 1936 - Statue of Peace, Canadian National Vimy Memorial, Vimy (France). Uppermost sculpture on the memorial. "At the front of the monument [is] a woman, cloaked and hooded, facing eastward toward the new day. Her eyes are cast down, & her chin is resting on her hand. Below her is a tomb, draped in laurel branches & bearing a helmet. This saddened figure represents Canada - a young nation mourning her fallen sons. This figure was carved from a single, 30-tonne block of stone - the largest piece in the monument. Turning from this figure to look up at the pylons, you will see at the highest points, Justice and Peace [and Hope?]. Arranged below them are other figures representing Truth, Knowledge, Gallantry and Sympathy. Around these figures are shields of Canada, Britain and France." /// Red circle shows enlargement of new Canadian $20 bill. Click here for "'Three topless women & the Twin Towers: Canadians baffled by picture of WW-I memorial on their new $20 dollar bill. Banknote shows the Vimy Memorial - a statue in France representing the bravery and sacrifice of Canadian soldiers in the First World War. Concern from focus groups during 5-year consultation over design."


March 15, 1937 - Nagoya Pan-Pacific Peace Exposition, Minami Ward , Nagoya (Japan). A world's fair held from 15 March to 31 May 1937. Twenty-eight countries were represented, including Canada & USA. Click here for YouTube animation of exposition buildings in Japanese. Higashiyama Zoo & Botanical Gardens was opened the same year.

1937 - Guernica, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS), Madrid (SpaIn). Painted by Pablo Picasso [1881-1973]. Commisisoned by the government of Spain for the Paris International Exposition. Full sized copy at the United Nations in New York City.


1938 - Anti-War Monument, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida (USA). Artillery shell made into a monument by Hamilton Holt [1872-1951], president of Rollins College. Top inscription: "Pause, passer by, and hang your head in shame." Right image shows Holt (far right> visiting Belgian trenches during World War I. Compare 1936 monument of Sylvaia Pankhurst in London, England (UK).

1938 - Monument à la Paix, Rue de Rome, Marseille (France). " Statues féminines aux yeux bandés, tenant les portraits des victimes... Erigé en 1938 en mémoire de l'attentat du 9 octobre 1934 à Marseille qui coûte la vie au ministre des Affaires étrangères Louis Barthou [1862-1934] et au roi Alexandre 1er de Yougoslavie [1888-1934]." /// Inscription: "PAX -- La JUSTICE et le DROIT la LIBERTE et le TRAVAIL a l'ombre de la force des deux peuples s'unissent dans le souvenir du Roi Alexandre 1 et du President Barthou tombé pour la paix." 1938 YUGOSLAVIA
June 21, 1941 - Monument à la Paix, Marseilles (France). Antoine Sartorio Louis Botinelly & Élie-Jean Vézien sculpteurs. "Aux victimes de l'attentat du 9 octobre 1934 à Marseille qui coûte la vie au ministre des Affaires étrangères Louis Barthou (1862-1934) et au roi Alexandre 1er de Yougoslavie (1888-1934)." -- WHICH DATE IS CORRECT -- 1938 OR 1941?

1938-2008 - Nationality Classrooms, Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). A collection of 27 classrooms depicting (and donated by) ethnic groups that helped build the city of Pittsburgh: 1938 Early American, German, Russian, Scottish & Swedish. 1939 Chinese, Czechoslovak, Hungarian & Yugoslav. 1940 Lithuanian & Polish. 1941 Greek & Syrian-Lebanon. 1943 French & Romanian. 1948 Norwegian. 1949 Italian. 1952 English. 1957 Irish. 1987 Israel Heritage. 1988 Armenian. 1989 African Heritage. 1990 Ukrainian. 1996 Austrian. 1999 Japanese. 2000 Indian. 2008 Welsh. Proposed rooms: Danish, Finnish, Korean, Latin American & Caribbean. Philippine, Swiss, Thai & Turkish. Image shows Indian Room.

1938 - Roman Catholic Franciscan chapel, Mount of Beatitudes, between Capernaum & Gennesaret, northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee (Israel). Also known as Mount Eremos. Stained glass windows around the dome depict "Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God" [Matthew 5:9] & the other Beatitudes.

July 3, 1938 - Vandalized on January 8, 2009 - Peace Light Memorial, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (USA). Dedicated by President Franklin Deleno Roosevelt on 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg in presence of elderly veterans from both sides of the Civil War. Also known as Eternal Light Peace Memorial. Vandalized on January 8, 2009 (right image).

September 4, 1938, to May 30, 1942 - Monument à la gloire des Américains / Monument to the Glory of the Americans, Point-de-Grave (mouth of Gironde River), Le Verdon (France). Thanked US for help during World War I. 75 meters tall (vs. 45.5 meter Statue of Liberty). Cornerstone laid Sept. 6, 1919, by French President Raymond Poincaré [1860-1934]. Dedication (lower left image) attended by John F. Kennedy [1917-1963] representing his father, US Ambassador in London. Lower right image shows a stele (plaque) about 10 meters high erected in 1947. Its inscription reads: "Ici s'élevait le monument érigé à la gloire des Américains - Aux soldats du général Pershing défenseurs du même idéal de droit et de liberté qui conduisit en Amérique La Fayette et ses volontaires partis de ce rivage en 1777 - Le monument symbolisait la fraternité d'armes et l'amitié franco-américaine - Il fut détruit le 30 mai 1942 par les troupes d'occupation allemandes - Il sera réédifié par le peuple français - They have destroyed it, we shall restore it." Simultaneous 70th anniversary of Pershing's arrival & 210th of LaFayette's departure observed here in 1987.

November 23, 1938 - Welsh National Temple of Peace and Health (Temple of Peace), Cardiff (Wales). A non-religious civic building designed by the architect Sir Percy Thomas. Across the street from the National Assembly. One of 13 sites on the MAW Peace Map of the British Isles as of January 2009.


May 30, 1939 - "Peace" Fountain, Pulteney Park, Geneva, South Main Street, New York (USA). "White marble sculpture of a full-length female, on one knee while seated thrusting a Hoplite sword into the ground, allegorically symbolizing the cessation of hostilities. Inscribed 'Erected to the memory of Geneva Patriots who served our Nation in her wars that Freedom might remain our Most Cherished Heritage.' Created by Jean MacKay Henrich [1909-2002] who was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, graduate of Antioch College & University of Buffalo, studied in Vienna & Paris. head of the Sculpture Department at Art Institute of Buffalo." Carved by Georgia Marble Company of Tate, Georgia. Replaced when veining appeared on the sculpture's face & upper body. Original pink marble carving is displayed in West Jefferson County, North Carolina (since relocated). Also called "Veterans Memorial Fountain" & "The Lady of the Lake."

1939 - Birla Mandir / Birla Temple, New Delhi (India). Hindu temple created in harijan / untouchable neighborhood by Gandhi and Ghanshyam Das Birla [1894-1983] to be open to all people (which it still is).

1939 - Statue, ILO Headquarters, International Labour Organization, Geneva (Switzerland). Gift from the Government of Yugoslavia. The International Labour Organization (ILO) received the 1969 Nobel Peace Prize.

1939 - Liberty and Peace Monument, Newtown, Connecticut (USA). "Features three pillars rising from a base dominated by benches. A dedication on the west face of the monument’s base reads, 'Newtown remembers with grateful prayers and solemn vows her sacred dead [and] her honored living who ventured all unto death that we might live a republic with independence, a nation with union forever, a world with righteousness and peace for all.' // Surrounded by a series of Honor Roll plaques listing local residents who have served in the Civil War, the [1st] World War, the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War (in the 1840s), the Spanish-American War, the Mexican Border War (in 1915-16), the Persian Gulf War (1990-91); Vietnam; Korea; and World War II. // The helmeted allegorical figure atop the monument, representing Peace, stands with a flag, a laurel branch and a chain tucked in her arms. // Designed by Franklin L. Naylor, who was also responsible for a war memorial in Jersey City, N.J. More commonly known as the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument, but according to the Newtown Historical Society, the artist’s original blueprints list the name as the Liberty and Peace Monument."

August 1939 - "Armillary Sphere," Ariana Park, Palais des Nations / Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). 410 cm in diameter. Weighs some 5,800 kg. Also called Celestial Sphere. By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. Presented by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation in memory of the founder of the League of Nations.
June 1, 1950 - "Aero Memorial World War I 1917-18," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. "Proposed during WW-I by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania. Commissioned by Fairmount Park Art Association."

1939-1941 - Flag of the League of Nations / "Société des Nations". Click here for Wikipedia article on the League. Click here for article on the League's flag.

1939-1940 - Temple of Religion & Tower of Peace, Golden Gate International Exposition (California World's Fair), Treasure Island, San Francisco, California (USA). "Representation of various world religions certainly occurred at earlier expositions. What is notable about this exposition's presentation is the theme of religious unity. Along with more typical Christian groups, the Fair included representations of Buddhists, Bahai'is, Christian Scientists, Jews, Mormons, Protestants & others. This is particularly interesting in light of the impending World War that would embroil nations in a struggle that emphasized disunity & differences. Rabbi Rudolph I. Coffee states, 'Unitedly we embarked on this spiritual adventure, & in working together, we learned to know & love one another.'"

1939-1940 - "The Peacemakers" mural, Court of Pacifica, Golden Gate International Exposition (California World's Fair), Treasure Island, San Francisco, California (USA). By the three Bruton Sisters (Helen, Esther & Margaret) [1894-1992], as seen behind mural portion in the lower image. The fair lasted two years (1939-1940).

Please email your comments & questions to geovisual at Thank you.

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