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Peace Monuments
Dedicated in 1965-1969

Right click image to enlarge.


May 1965 - Kennedy Memorial Plaque, Kennedy Park, Hicksville, New York (USA). Inscribed with famous quote from President John F. Kennedy [1917-1963]"And so my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."

1965 - "Produktion im Frieden / Production in Peace," Eisenhüttenstadt (Germany). "East German artist Walter Womacka [1925-2010] created this mosaic in 1965 for the exterior of the former Magnet Department Store. The building designed by Otto Lopp & Otto Schnabel was constructed in 1958-1960 & has since become the Linden Center, which houses a store & library. Originally known as Stalinstadt, Eisenhüttenstadt is a small industrial city on the border of Germany & Poland that was built in the 1950's by the Germany Democratic Republic (GDR)." 1975 - The stamp of Walter Womacka's Produktion im Frieden was issued in 1975.
About 1965 - Open Hand Monument, in "The Ditch of Consideration," Chandigahr, Punjab (India). Heavy copper hand 100 feet high rotates in the wind. Also looks like dove of peace. By French architect Le Corbusier [1887-1965] who said, "This sign of the Open Hand is a sign of peace and of reconciliation. [It] is meant to receive the created riches, and to distribute them to the peoples of the world. That should be the symbol of our epoch." Corbu made the overall plan for Chandigahr and designed some of the original buildings. Click here for air view.

August 6, 1965 - World Friendship Center (WFC), 8-10 Higashi Kan-on, Nishi-ku, Hiroshima (Japan). Founded on 20th anniversary of the bomb by American Barbara Leonard Reynolds [1915-1990] who also founded the Peace Resources Center (PRC) at Wilmington College of Ohio (USA) in 1975. "Not only a 'home away from home' for travelers to Hiroshima, it is a place where local Hiroshima residents volunteer their hospitality of peace in a variety of activities." Supported by Brethren Volunteer Service (BVS) & by the American Committee of the WFC, currently chaired by Mary Ann Albert of Warsaw, Indiana (USA).


April 15, 1966 - Statue of Abraham Lincoln, Luis G. Urbina Park (since renamed Parque Lincoln), Polanco, Mexico City (Mexico). Gift of the United States presented by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Reproduction of a satue made in 1887 by Augustus Saint-Gaudens for Chicago's Lincoln Park.
1969 - Statue of Benito Juarez, Foggy Bottom, Virginia & New Hampshire Avenues, Washington, DC. (USA). Sculpted by Enrique Alciati. Gift from Mexico in exchange for a statue of Abraham Lincoln. Juarez is the 'George Washington of Mexico,' and the statue points to the bust of Washington at George Washington University. Benito Pablo Juarez Garcia [1806-1872] was a full-blooded Zapotec Indian who became the first president of Mexico. He corresponded with Abraham Lincoln to get advice on how to establish a democracy, particularly one plagued with interracial problems.

May 9, 1966 - Statue of Peace ("New Leaves"), in front of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima (Japan). By sculptor Katsuzo Entsuba. Built by Hiroshima South District Rotary Club. Inscribed with poem by Dr. Hideki Yukawa (first Nobel laureate from Japan): "O god of evil, do not come this way again. This place is reserved for those who pray for peace." #32 of 56 "cenotaphs & monuments" on the Virtual E-Tour.

1966 - Monument to Eternal Peace Between Japan & China, Hanaoka, Nagano Prefecture (Japan). "In the 1950s, the Japan-China Friendship Association (Nit-Chu Yuko Kyokai) excavated remains of the forced laborers who died in Hanaoka, sent them to the People’s Republic of China, and built a monument to remember the victims and atone for the atrocity."

1966 - Peace Pagoda, on hill north of railway station, Hiroshima (Japan). Nipponzan Myohoji Buddhist Order. Commemorates lives lost in the A-bomb blast, and contains gifts of Buddha's ashes from the then Prime Minister of India and from Mongolian Buddhists. Right image is view of Hiroshima from the peace pagoda. Visited by Ralph Hutchison.

1966 - "Der Rufer / The Caller," 17th June Street, Berlin (Germany). "I wander through the world and cry ‘Peace, Peace, Peace.'" This quotation from the Italian poet Francesco Petrarch [1304-1374] is inscribed on the base of the sculpture. This bronze sculpture is 3 meters tall and was created by the sculptor and graphic artist Gerhard Marcks [1889-1981]."

1966 - Pacim in Terris, 96 Covered Bridge Road, Warwick, New York (USA). Sculptures & sculpture garden created by Dutch-born Dr. Frederick Franck [1909-2006]. Dedicated to Dr. Albert Schweitzer (with whom Dr. Franck practiced dentistry in Gabon 1958-1961), Pope John XXIII (whom he sketched during the Second Vatican Council), and the Buddhist sage Daisetz T. Suzuki (who "taught me to think"). Images show entrance sculpture, St. Francis sculpture, Seven Generations, & Hiroshima--The Unkillable Human.

July 31, 1966 - Merciful Consoling Kannon for Mobilized A-bomb Victim Students, on left bank of Motoyasu-gawa River, Hiroshima (Japan). Kannon = Goddess of Mercy. #51 of 56 "cenotaphs & monuments" on the Virtual E-Tour. Photo by EWL. Note stone lantern & peace pole. Statue of the Consoling Kannon is virtually covered with garlands of origami peace cranes.

September 28, 1966 - T.M.C. Asser Instituut, The Hague (Netherlands). "A leading research institute in the fields of Private and Public International Law, European Law and International Commercial Arbitration." Tobias Michael Carel Asser [1838-1913] & Alfred Fried [1864-1921] shared the 1911 Nobel Peace Prize.


February 15, 1967 - Memorial to the Civilian Victims of the Japanese Occupation, War Memorial Park (Singapore). "One of Singapore's most famous heritage landmarks... Has also been affectionately described by some as resembling four giant chopsticks. Unseen to the eye, the remains of unidentified war victims are buried beneath the monument..."

April 30, 1967 - Protestant Church of Reconcilliation, Dachau Concentration Camp, Dachau (Germany). Designed by Helmut Striffler. Dedicated by the Rev. Martin Niemöller [1892-1984], one of the most famous prisoners in the Dachau camp and the first sent to the Sachsenhausen camp after he was tried and convicted of treason for preaching against the Nazi-controlled government.

1967 - Hiroshima Peace Bell, Peace Memorial Museum (East Building), Hiroshima (Japan). Small bell, displayed indoors (left image), and rung outdoors (right image) during the annual Peace Memorial Ceremony on August 6 (Hiroshima Day). Designed by Masahiko Katori [1899-1988]. Has calligraphy by Shigeru Yoshida [1878-1967], former prime minister of Japan. Cast by Oigo Bell Works, Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture (Japan). Left image by Satoko Nishizawa.

1967 - Maruki Gallery for the Hiroshima Panels, 1401 Shimoarako, Higashi Matuyama, Saitama Prefecture (Japan). Preserves 14 of the 15 panels painted by Iri & Toshi Maruki between 1950 & 1982 to show the atomic boming of Hiroshima & Nagasaki. Museum includes paintings of Auschwitz, Minamata & Nanking. Click here for Wikipedia article.

1967 - Friendship Bell, Nikka Yuko Japanese Garden, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada). "Established during Canada's Centennial in 1967, Nikka Yuko was built to recognize contributions made by citizens of Japanese ancestry to the multi-cultural community of Lethbridge & as a symbol of international friendship. Its name was created from the Japanese words Ni (from Nihon meaning Japan), ka from Kanada or Canada, & Yuko, which translates as 'friendship' to mean 'Japan-Canada friendship'... The bronze Friendship Bell, which hangs in the bell tower, was commissioned specifically for Nikka Yuko & cast in Kyoto [by Iwasawa?]. The bell's deep tones ring a friendship call to all visitors."

1967 - "Hand of Peace," Walnut Creek, California (USA). "A monument to peace by a famous artist, who reportedly cut off his trigger finger and sent it to President Woodrow Wilson to protest World War I, may soon adorn a Walnut Creek park. The nearly 5-ton sculpture is made of copper, mosaic & stained glass. The 30-foot-tall open-hand figure has stained glass around the fingers & a mural in the middle of the palm featuring a group of children. Above them, an inscription reads, "The children of the world shall inherit the earth." The sculpture sat relatively unnoticed in an office park in Walnut Creek on Quail Court from 1967 to 2009, when it was taken down for restoration. Four years after Italian-born artist Beniamino Bufano [1890-1970] installed his massive sculpture in Walnut Creek, he died. But now [2012] the family that owns the sculpture has offered to let the city display it prominently for at least the next 25 years. The chosen spot is in downtown's Civic Park."

1967 - Musée Albert Schwietzer / Albert Schweitzer Museum, Gunsbach, Département de Haut-Rhin (France). "Albert Schweitzer [1875-1965] fit construire cette maison en 1928 avec l'argent du Prix Goethe de la ville de Francfort." Albert Schweitzer [1875-1965] received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize.

1967 - Lester B. Pearson Peace Park, 108087 Highway 7 (Trans Canada Highway), Tweed, Ontario (Canada). "The Centennial project of Roy Cadwell & Priscilla Cadwell who donated the land. It was part of the Madoc/Tweed Art Centre of which they were the owners & directors." /// "The site of war memorials, trails & flower gardens that a 5-member board headed by Jim Burns (613-478-2744) has been slowly restoring since 2002." Lester B. Pearson [1897-1972] was a Canadian professor, historian, civil servant, statesman, diplomat & politician, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the UN Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis. Entry #1336 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Statue of Lester B. Pearson, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Lester Bowles Pearson [1897-1972] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.

1967 - Knights of Columbus Peace Monument, West End of Dieppe Park, Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Three modernistic columns representing the three persons of the Trinity as they look down on a troubled, war-torn world. Inscribed "Pray for Peace." Designed by Donald Ailles & produced by the Smith Monument Company of Toronto. Erected in Canada's Centennial Year of 1967 by the Knights of Columbus of Ontario "as an inspiration to world peace, 1867-1967."

1967 - Holocaust Memorial, Bahnhof Wittenbergplatz, Berlin (Germany). Erected by League for Human Rights. Text is "Orte des Schreckens, die wir niemals vergessen durfen / Places of terror which we must never forget" followed by the names of Hitler’s 12 most notorious concentration camps, including Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen &Treblinka. /// "Wittenbergplatz is known for KaDeWe ("Kaufhaus des Westens"), which claims to be the largest department store of the West. Across the square is the neo-classical entrance to the S-Bahn station. And almost lost between these two impressive Berlin landmarks stands a discrete but powerful Holocaust Memorial. It is a 10-foot high steel sign that gets lost in the urban jungle of signs. It looks like a directory at the entrance of a shopping mall, or a list of sponsors. As much as the memorial felt swallowed in traffic, its violent simplicity reveals outstanding depth & efficiency. Once struck by its presence and its content, the visitor can only draw connections between the camps & the S-Bahn station, which must have served for deportations of Berlin Jews. And then there's the juxtaposition of the Holocaust & the fancy shopping center. That's also heavy loaded. While Jews were being deported on trains, it was business as usual at KaDeWe: fine cheese, train of Jews, expensive wines, train of Jews, spicy salami, train of Jews... The Wittenberg Platz Holocaust memorial is successful because of the trilogy Holocaust-train station-Department Store. It plays on our sense of familiarity & our surprise, our tendency not to see things that blend so well in the surroundings & our need to be (violently) reminded of History's dirty pages." /// Information courtesy of Christian Bartolf

1967? - Mansion House Hotel, 45 High Street, Holbeach, Lincs., England (UK). This is the birthplace of Sir Norman Angell [1872-1967] who received the 1933 Nobel Peace Prize. A plaque honoring him was unveiled December 6, 2008, by the lord mayor of Bradford at The Peace Museum, Bradford, England (UK). The plaque is location #26 on the Bradford Peace Trail: A Walk Around Bradford, City of Peace. Click here for a 7-minute video of the trail on YouTube.

1967? - Statue of Albert Lutuli, Nobel Square, Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, Cape Town.(South Africa). Albert Lutuli [1898-1967] received the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize.

July 15, 1967 - Memorial Tower to the Mobilized Students, on left bank of Motoyasu-gawa River, Hiroshima (Japan). #42 of 56 "cenotaphs & monuments" on the Virtual E-Tour.

August 1967 - Statue of the Praying Child, near the Hypocenter, Nagasaki Peace Park, Nagasaki (Japan). "It is estimated that about 10,000 children died in the atomic bombing. This memorial was erected to symbolize the aspirations for lasting world peace held by the citizens of Nagasaki, with the sympathy and support of peace-lovers and children all over Japan and the world. The base of the memorial is constructed using stones from each prefecture in Japan and from 15 foreign countries."

August 1967 - Nagasaki Korean Atomic Bomb Victims' Memorial, near the Hypocenter, Nagasaki Peace Park, Nagasaki (Japan). "Inspired by the July 1967 discovery of the bones of Korean bomb victims at Seikoin in the Oura Motomachi district, this memorial is dedicated to the many Koreans who, having been forced into hard labor by the Japanese military, were killed in the atomic bombing of Nagasaki."

August 6, 1967 - Cherry Tree, Tavistock Square, London (England). "Planted by the mayor of Camden in memory of the victims of Hiroshima. On each anniversary, meetings are held to remember the victims of the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan. In 1986 to mark the UN International Year of Peace, a field maple was planted by the League of Jewish Women." One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website. Named in "A Peace Trail Through London" by Valerie Flessati (1998).

October 15, 1967 - Friedland Gedächnisstätte / All Nations Peace and Reconciliation Memorial, Above Friedland, District of Göttingen, Lower Saxony, (Germany). Note persons standing at the foot of the monument! Friedland is situated on the river Leine, approximately 13 km south of Göttingen. Its seat is in the village Groß Schneen.

October 27, 1967 - Theodore Roosevelt Island National Memorial, Potomac River, Washington, DC (USA). Theodore Roosevelt [1858-1919] was US President 1901-1909 and received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. NB: There are many other Roosevelt memorials in the US not shown here.

October 28, 1967 - Clock Tower of Peace, Peace Memoial Park (northern end), Hiroshima (Japan). Constructed by the Hiroshima Rijo Lions Club. #07 of 56 "cenotaphs & monuments" on the Virtual E-Tour.


April 1968 - Armenian Genocide Martyrs Monument, Montebello, California (USA). "In Los Angeles metropolitan area. Better known as Montebello Genocide Memorial. Dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide of 1915. A tower of eight arches supported on 75-foot-tall (23 m) white concrete columns. Designed by Hrant Agbabian. The oldest & largest memorial in the USA dedicated to the Armenian Genocide victims."

June 15, 1968 - Acorns for Peace, Unity Lawn, Coventry Cathedral, Coventry (England). "John Lennon and Yoko Ono visited Coventry Cathedral in 1968 to plant acorns as part of their Acorns For Peace tour (as mentioned in The Ballad of John and Yoko). The acorns were, sadly, stolen." "The couple's very first peace event and as part of the cathedral's sculptural exhibition. The acorns were planted on an east-west axis, symbolizing both John and Yoko's love and peace between east and west." Click here for more information.

June 1968 - Ruta de la Amistad / Route of Friendship, Olympics, Mexico City (Mexico). Nineteen sculptures along a 17 kilometer segment of the Anillo Periferico / Preferential Highway. Designed by international artists for the 1968 Olympic Games.
1968 - Campana de Dolores / Bell of Dolores, Los Angeles, California (USA). Replica of the famous bell which hangs in the Zocolo in Mexico City (Mexico).

1968 - St. Francis of the Guns," Science Building, City College of San Francisco, San Francisco, California (USA). After the 1968 shootings of Bobby Kennedy & Martin Luther King Jr, San Francisco's Mayor Joseph Alioto led a voluntary gun turn-in program that accumulated a conveniently symbolic 1,968 weapons. Benny Bufano [1890-1970], an Italian-born Bay Area artist, was tapped to sculpt something with the melted gun metal (he mixed in some bronze so it wouldn't rust in the S.F. Bay dampness). Bufano sculpted "St. Francis of the Guns," a nearly 9-ft tall figure of a robed Catholic saint, his arms spread in peaceful greeting. On his robe, Benny created a mosaic mural showing the glowing heads of four of America's greatest assassinated leaders: Abe Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Robert Kennedy & John F. Kennedy. The naive caricatures capture all four with worried frowns.

1968 - Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Tavistock Square, London (England). Unveiled by Prime Minister Harold Wilson. The square also contains a conscientious objectors monument and a Hiroshima cherry tree (qv). One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website. Named in "A Peace Trail Through London" by Valerie Flessati (1998). Click here for other Gandhi monuments.

1968 - Peace Pagoda, Peace Plaza, Nihonmachi/Japantown, San Francisco, California (USA). Designed by Japanese architect Yoshiro Taniguchi [1900-1955] and presented to San Francisco by the people of Osaka (Japan).

1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Includes King's tomb (in lake in photo), an eternal flame, Rosa Parks room, and Mahatma Gandhi room. Click here for additional information. Entry #242 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). (Martin Luther King, Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968.)

1968 - "The Hawk for Peace," Berkeley Art Museum & Pacific Film Archive, University of California, Berkeley, California (USA). By Alexander Calder [1898-1976]. Click here for list of Calder sculptures in the USA, of which only the one in Berkeley is named for peace.

1968 - Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, One Woodrow Wilson Plaza, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "Established by an act of Congress. Our nation's official living memorial to President Woodrow Wilson." Woodrow Wilson [1856-1924] was president of Princeton University 1902-1910 & president of the USA 1913-1921. He received the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize.

1968? - Memorial to René Cassin, Forbach, Moselle (France). René Cassin [1887-1976] received the 1968 Nobel Peace Prize. 1968


May 1969 - Bust of Ralph Bunche, Bunche Hall, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (USA). Has 25 General Assigment Classrooms, of which 16 are Media-Equipped. Images show Palm Court inside the hall & Bunche with Chancellor Charles Young at the hall's dedication. Ralph Bunche [1903-1971], was graduated from UCLA in 1927, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950, & died December 10, 1971, at age 68. 1950

May 17, 1969 - Sloop "Clearwater," Hudson River, New York (USA). 106 feet/32 meters overall. Built in Harvey Gamage Shipyard, South Bristol, Maine, for Pete Seeger [1919-2014]. "Starting in the 1970's, used to force a clean-up of PCB contamination of the Hudson River caused by industrial manufacturing by General Electric & other companies on the river's edge. Other specific Hudson watershed issues with which Clearwater is concerned are development pressures in the southern half of the Hudson Valley, pesticide runoff, the Manhattan west side waterfront, Indian Point nuclear reactors & New York/New Jersey Harbor dredge spoil disposal. Clearwater has gained worldwide recognition for its leadership in helping to pass landmark environmental laws, both state & federal, including the Clean Water Act." /// Image shows the Clearwater sailing south, past Manhattan's Grant's Tomb & Riverside Church.

1969 - Earth Day Flag. "Designed by John McConnell [1915-2012] for the first Earth Day in 1969. A dark blue field charged with The Blue Marble, a famous NASA photo of the Earth as seen from outer space. The first edition of McConnell's flag used screen-printing and used different colors: ocean & land were white and the clouds were blue. McConnell presented his flag to the United Nations as a symbol for consideration. Because of the political views of its creator and its having become a symbol of Earth Day, the flag is associated with environmental awareness, and the celebration of the global community. It was offered for sale originally in the Whole Earth Catalog, and is the only flag which is currently endorsed by McConnell. The Blue Marble image was placed in the public domain where it remains to this day. The public nature of this image was the basis of a legal battle that resulted in the invalidation of a trademark and copyright that was originally issued to the Earth Day flag through its original promotional entity, World Equity, Inc. This does not invalidate the official history of McConnell's flag, only the official patent that was issued on it."

1969 - "The Sphere" (World Peace Monument), Battery Park, New York City, New York (USA). Designed by Fritz Koenig of Germany. Commissioned by Port Authority of New York & New Jersey to symbolize world peace through world trade. Stood in the plaza between the two World Trade Center (WTC) towers. Damaged on September 11, 2001. Left unrepaired & moved to Battery Park as a memorial to victims of 9/11. September 11, 2002, "Mayor Michael Bloomberg joined Afghan President Hamid Karzai & officials from about 90 foreign nations at its base to light an eternal flame. Nearly a decade later, the flame could possibly be snuffed out, and there is no permanent plan for the 25-foot-high structure made of bronze & steel. Officials said [in early April 2012] that it will be removed by the end of the month to make way for renovations to Battery Park. Some family members of those killed have gathered thousands of signatures in an online petition urging officials to incorporate the sculpture into the 9/11 memorial & return it to the spot where it once stood as a centerpiece of a 5-acre plaza."

1969 - Amistad Dam, between Del Rio, Texas (USA). & Cuidad Acuna (Mexico). Image shows both national emblems on the border in the middle of the dam.

1969 - Henri Dunant Museum, Asylstrasse 2, Heiden (Switzerland). In the nursing home where he lived from 1892 until his death in 1910. "A special room is devoted to his vision of a world without war & social need." Henry Dunant [1828-1910] founded the International Red Cross. He & Frédéric Passy [1822-1912] received the first (1901) Nobel Peace Prize. 1901

1969 - Monument d'Albert Schweitzer / Albert Schweitzer Monument, Le Kanzrain, Gunsbach, Alsace (France). "A cinq minutes à pied de la maison se trouve le Kanzrain, un rocher du haut duquel on jouit d'une magnifique vue sur la vallée de Munster. C'est là qu'a été érigé, en 1969 le monument que le disciple de Rodin, Fritz Behn a taillé dans la pierre rouge des Vosges. En 1958, Albert Schweitzer [1875-1965] écrit à ce sujet : "C'est la-haut que taillé dans la pierre, je voudrais pouvoir accueillir mes amis, c'est la qu'ils voudront bien avoir une pensée pour moi et écouter le murmure de la rivière qui a, si souvent, accompagné le vol de mes pensées. C'est la qu'est née ma philosophie culturelle, c'est la que j'ai compris Jésus en son temps. C'est la que je me sentais totalement chez moi." 1952

Date? - Sentier Albert Schweitzer / Albert Schweitzer Footpath, Gunsbach, Alsace (France). "A footpath for walking and meditating about the thought of Albert Schweitzer [1875-1965] . It starts at the old presbytery, 3 rue du docteur Albert Schweitzer, and leads us across the village of Gunsback to the Albert Schweitzer house [museum], 8 route de Munster, passing by the rock of Kanzrain. It is lined with 16 panels [in German & French], which recall important moments in the life of the doctor. The whole route is approximately 920 m, the walking time takes about one hour." 1952

1969 - Aga Kahn Palace, Pune, Maharashtra (India). Where Gandhi, his wife Kasturba & his secretary Mahadevbhai Desai were interned by the British from August 9, 1942 to May 6, 1944 (& where the latter two died). Palace of the Aga Khan constructed in 1892. Museum management transferred to the Gandhi Memorial Society in 1980.

1969? - Gandhi Darshan or Gandhi Samadhi, Rajghat, New Delhi (India). Merged in September 1984 with Gandhi Smriti (qv) to form "Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti" (GSDS).

1969 - Winston Churchill Memorial & Library in the United States, Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri (USA). Includes a "museum for peace" in the undercroft of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury (12th century) from the middle of London. Redesigned by Sir Christopher Wren [1632-1723] in 1677, bombed out during World War II, & recated to Fulton in the 1960's. Right image shows section of the Berlin Wall erected outside the church. Churchill made his famous "Iron Curtain" speech at Westminster College in 1946, & Mikhail Gorbachev gave a speech there in 1992 declaring the end of the Cold War.

July 1969 - Mainanek Memorial, Lublin (Poland). Least changed of the Nazi extermination camps. "On the 25th anniversary of its liberation [by the Russian army], a large monument designed by Victor Tolkin was constructed at the site. It consists of two parts: a large gate monument at the camp's entrance (left image) & a large mausoleum (right image) holding ashes of the victims at its opposite end."

July 20, 1969 - Apollo 11 plaque on the Moon. Text: "Here man from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon, July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." Signed by three astronauts & President Richard Nixon. "Stainless steel commemorative plaques measuring 9 by 7 5/8 inches (22.9 by 19.4 cm) were attached to the ladders on the descent stages of the US Apollo Lunar Modules flown on lunar landing missions Apollo 11 through Apollo 17, to be left permanently on the lunar surface." /// They also left behind a memorial bag containing a gold replica of an olive branch as a traditional symbol of peace & a silicon message disk. The disk carries the goodwill statements by Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson & Nixon & messages from leaders of 73 countries around the world."

August 1969 - Fountain of Peace, Nagasaki Peace Park, Nagasaki (Japan). Sprays water in the shape of a dove’s wings. Erected by Nagasaki City & the National Council for World Peace & the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons with donations from all over Japan. Signifies pity on people who died begging for water in 1945.

Please email your comments & questions to geovisual at Thank you.

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