63 Peace Monuments Dedicated Before 1800
Click here for classical peace art. | Click here for ancient olive trees.
Right click image to enlarge.
Ancient - Lion & Lamb Peak, Helm Crag, Grasmere, Cumbria, (England). "Two rock tors stand at either end of its summit ridge lending scope for tourist guides of former years to offer a plethora of descriptive names to entertain their passengers: Lion and Lamb, the Howitzer, Old Lady Playing an Organ. These tops are hard for the average hill-goer to climb..." Click here for lion & lamb monuments worldwide. /// When did "lion & lamb" become a metaphor for peace?
2600-2400 BCE - Peace Panel, Standard of Ur, British Museum, London (England). "Peace" [upper image & detail] portrays a banquet scene. Attendants parade animals, fish, and other goods (possibly war booty) before seated figures, while a lyrist entertains the throng." "The 'standard' is a hollow wooden box and a mosaic inlaid with red limestone, lapis lazuli and shells. Its original function is not understood, but it has been suggested it was born upon a pole as a standard, thus its common name, 'The Standard of Ur.' Another suggestion was its use as a carrying case for a musical instrument. Excavated in what was the old royal cemetery in what had been the ancient city of Ur, which was located in modern-day Iraq, south of Baghdad. There are two larger panels – one side depicting peace and the other side war [lower image]."
8th Century BCE - Shield of Achilles is the shield that Achilles uses in his fight with Hector, famously described in a passage in Book 18, lines 478–608 of Homer's Iliad. According to John Gittings, "Homer's account may be regarded as the world's first recorded example of anti-war art." /// Accordign to Wikipedia, "In the poem, Achilles has lost his armour after lending it to his companion Patroclus. Patroclus has been killed in battle by Hector and his weapons taken as spoils. Achilles' mother Thetis asks the god Hephaestus to provide replacement armor for her son. The passage describing the shield is an early example of ecphrasis (a literary description of a work of visual art) and influenced many later poems, including the Shield of Heracles once attributed to Hesiod. Virgil's description of the shield of Aeneas in Book Eight of the Aeneid is clearly modelled on Homer. The poem The Shield of Achilles (1952) by W. H. Auden reimagines Homer's description in 20th century terms. Homer gives a detailed description of the imagery which decorates the new shield. Starting from the shield's center and moving outward, circle layer by circle layer, the shield is laid out as follows: 1. The Earth, sky and sea, the sun, the moon and the constellations (484–89) 2. "Two beautiful cities full of people": in one a wedding and a law case are taking place (490–508); the other city is besieged by one feuding army and the shield shows an ambush and a battle (509–40). 3. A field being ploughed for the third time (541–49). 4. A king's estate where the harvest is being reaped (550–60). 5. A vineyard with grape pickers (561–72). 6. A "herd of straight-horned cattle"; the lead bull has been attacked by a pair of savage lions which the herdsmen and their dogs are trying to beat off (573–86). 7. A picture of a sheep farm (587–89). 8. A dancing-floor where young men and women are dancing (590–606). 9. The great stream of Ocean (607–609). /// The Shield of Achilles can be read in a variety of different ways. One interpretation is that the shield is simply a physical encapsulation of the entire world. The shield’s layers are a series of contrasts – i.e. war and peace, work and festival, although the presence of a murder in the city at peace suggests that man is never fully free of conflict. Wolfgang Schadewaldt, a German writer, argues that these intersecting antitheses show the basic forms of a civilized, essentially orderly life. This contrast is also seen as a way of making “us…see [war] in relation to peace." The shield’s description falls between the fight over Patroclus’ body and Achilles’ reentry into battle, the latter being the impetus to one of the poem’s bloodiest parts. Consequently, the shield could be read as a “calm before an impending doom,” used to emphasize the brutality of violence during the Trojan War. It could also be read as a reminder to the reader of what will be lost once Troy ultimately falls."
6th century BCE - Cyrus Cylinder, British Museum, London (England). An ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several fragments. Placed in the foundations of the Esagila (the temple of Marduk in Babylon) as a foundation deposit following the Persian conquest in 539 BCE." Discovered in the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) in 1879." Bears a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of the Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great [576-530 BCE]. // "Called the first bill of human rights [since] it refers to restoring religious sanctuaries & returning deported peoples to their homelands after King Cyrus conquered Babylon in 539 BCE." // "The United Nations has declared the relic to be an 'ancient declaration of human rights' since 1971, approved by then Secretary General Sithu U Thant. The British Museum describes the cylinder as 'an instrument of ancient Mesopotamian propaganda...that reflects a long tradition in Mesopotamia where, from as early as the third millennium BCE, kings began their reigns with declarations of reforms.'" Exhibited at Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution) in 2013.
c370 BCE - Statue of Irene / Eirene, Glyptothek, Munich (Germany). Greek Goddess of Peace. Roman copy of a votive statue executed in bronze by Cephisodotus the Elder (perhaps the father or uncle of Praxieles) & set up in the Agora of Athens after 371 BC to commemorate the Common Peace / Koine Eirene of that year. Although the statue is now lost, it was copied in marble by the Romans, and one of the best surviving copies is in the Munich Glyptothek. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 8-9. According to Baber, "there is no known record of a statue personifying peace produdced earlier than this one of Irene." c370 BCE - Statue of Irene / Eirene, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, New York (USA). Another Roman copy.
167 BCE - Temple of Concord, Forum Romanum, Rome (Italy). "Dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia. Destroyed & restored multiple times." /// "In ancient Roman religion, Concordia is the goddess who embodies agreement in marriage & society. Her Greek equivalent is usually regarded as Harmonia, with musical harmony a metaphor for an ideal of social concord or entente in the political discourse of the Republican era. She was thus often associated with Pax ("Peace") in representing a stable society. As such, she is more closely related to the Greek concept of homonoia (likemindedness), which was also represented by a goddess."
28 BCE - Pax: Roman Goddess of Peace Medallion (Asia Minor, now Turkey). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 10-11. According to Baber, this is "the earliest Roman personification of peace... Produced in honor of the Emperor Augustus [63 BC - 14 AD]. Here Pax [Roman goddess of peace] holds a caduceus, emblem of peace, in her right hand; behind her a serpent (a symbol of healing in Greek & Roman art) rises from a cist or chest containing emblems of the goddess; the whole is surrounded by a laurel wreath." /// Image is from an offer on eBay for $962.50: "AUGUSTUS 28BC Ephesus Mint PAX Cista Mystica LARGE Ancient Silver Roman Coin RARE."
75 AD - Templum Pacis / Temple of Peace, Forum of Vespasian, Rome (Italy). Built by Vespasian [9-79 AD]. "He also adorned it with paintings and statues by the greatest of the old masters. In fact, in that temple were collected and deposited all those works that men had hitherto travelled over the whole world to see, longing to set eyes on them even when scattered in different lands... Considered by Pliny to be one of the three most beautiful buildings in Rome. For Herodian, writing more than a century and a half later, the Temple of Peace was 'the largest and most beautiful of all the buildings in the city.'"
About 20 BC - Augusto di Prima Porta / Augustus of Prima Porta, Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican Museums (Vatican City). A 2.04m high marble statue of Augustus Caesar [63 BC - 14 AD] which was discovered on April 20, 1863, in the Villa of Livia at Prima Porta, near Rome (Italy). (Augustus Caesar's wife, Livia Drusilla [58 BC-AD 29], retired to the villa after his death.) "The statue's iconography is frequently compared to that of the carmen saeculare by Horace, and commemorates Augustus's establishment of the Pax Romana. The breastplate is carved in relief with numerous small figures depicting the return of the Roman legionary standards or vexillae lost to Parthia by Mark Anthony in the 40's BC and by Crassus in 53 BC, thanks to the diplomacy of Augustus."
January 30, 9 BCE - Ara Pacis Augustae / Altar of Augustan Peace, Rome (Italy). Built by Roman emperor Augustus Caesar [63 BC - 14 AD]. Enclosed in 2006 by new building designed by American architect Richard Meier (seen in right image). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 12-13.
AD 75 - Temple of Peace, Forum of Vespasian, Rome (Italy). "The third of the imperial fora, the Forum of Vespasian, was known until late antiquity as the Templum Pacis after the Temple of Peace that dominated the complex. It was begun by Vespasian [9-79] in AD 71 after the capture of Jerusalem the year before & dedicated in AD 75, the year after Masada finally fell, ending the Jewish War. The forum consisted of a large square with a formal garden & was enclosed on three sides by porticoes. On the fourth side, facing the Forum of Augustus, was the temple, itself, the facade in line with the colonnade. Flanking it were large halls, one of which housed a library, the Bibliotheca Pacis. Vespasian "also adorned it with paintings & statues by the greatest of the old masters. In fact, in that temple were collected & deposited all those works that men had hitherto travelled over the whole world to see, longing to set eyes on them even when scattered in different lands... Considered by Pliny to be one of the three most beautiful buildings in Rome. For Herodian, writing more than a century and a half later, the Temple of Peace was 'the largest and most beautiful of all the buildings in the city.'"
About 500 AD - BINCENTIA IN PACE, San Sebastiano Catacomb, Rome (Italy). Inscription (not shown in image) flanked by the Chi-Rho symbol of Christianity, basket (indicating good works), and dove with olive branch (from Genesis 8:11). About 500 AD - Grabplatte der Irene mit der Taube, San Callisto Catacomb, Rome (Italy). A grave plate depicting the dove of peace bringing an olive branch to a child.
6th century CE - Mosaic, Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Emilia-Romagna, Ravenna (Italy). "Byzantine umbraculum or bower in form of a shell with doves as a sign of peace." Right image shows multiple such mosaics above the windows on the north side of the nave.
823 - Tang-Tubo Alliance Monument, Jokhang Temple, Barkhor Square, Lhasa (Tibet). "Was erected in 823 to mark the meeting between the two sides." /// "Monument inscription reads in part, 'The two sovereigns, uncle and nephew, having come to agreement that their territories be united as one, have signed this alliance of great peace to last for eternity! May God and humanity bear witness thereto so that it may be praised from generation to generation.'" /// "i kinda get the feeling that the translation u quoted is kinda biased, do any tibetan websites or sources actually translate it like that?"
1181 - "Noah Receiving the Dove," Augustinian Monastery, Vindobona, near Vienna (Austria). Part of panel #15 of 17 tripartite paels known as the Altar of Verdun. Created during the short interval between the 2nd and 3rd crusades.
1190's - Minaret of Jam, Ghowr Province (Afghanistan). "A UNESCO world heritage site. Forgotten to the outside world until 1957." /// "One of the great wonders of the medieval world. A very tall, heavily ornamented minaret nestled in a green valley at the edge of the Jam River. Often called the Minaret of Jam, the monument was almost a millenium ago illuminated by a torch at its top, and surrounded by a thriving town with small industries & outlying farms. What's remarkable is that the writing on the minaret & archaeological remains nearby strongly suggest that the city harbored a population of Muslims, Christians & Jews. Writing on the minaret is a detailed transcription from the Koran that celebrates the life of Mary, mother of Jesus, highlighting the connections between Islam & other religions. Nearby there is a Jewish graveyard, which is another hint that people of different religions were living peacefully together. Was this lost city once a bastion of medieval tolerance?"
13th Century CE - Churches, Atri, Abruzzo (Italy). "Atri's 13th-century cathedral gave us our first look at the lion-and-lamb theme common to many Abruzzo church facades. At another doorway of the same church, the lions were poised to tuck into a tasty feast of small prey. At another Atri church, the lions were dwarfed by a lamb that looked like a character from Shrek."
1338-39 - Pax, Sala della Pace / Peace Hall, Palazzo Pubblico (town hall), Siena, Tuscany (Italy). Part of the fresco entitled "Effects of Good Government in the City & Countryside" by Ambrogio Lorenzetti [c1290-1348]. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp.14-15.
1440-1445 - The Battle of San Romano, A set of three paintings by the Florentine painter Paolo Uccello [1397-1475] depicting events that took place at the Battle of San Romano in 1432. Much admired in the 15th century. They are now divided between three collections, the National Gallery, London, the Galleria degli Uffizi and the Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Circa 1483 - Venus and Mars, National Gallery, London (England). A painting by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli [c1445-1510].
15th Century - Bao'ensi / Temple of Gratitude, Buddhist Pagoda known as The Porcelain Tower, South Bank of Yangtze River, Nanjing Territory (China). No longer exists, but is being reconstructed. Was 260 feet high, octagonal (with eight corners) & 97 feet in diameter. Was largest building in China. Radiated sunrays & functioned as a center of pilgrimage. Destroyed about 1860 during the Taiping Rebellion.
May 28, 1502 - Treaty of Perpetual Peace between England and Scotland, National Archives of Scotland, Edinburgh (Scotland). The treaty Scotland sent to England was decorated with thistles and roses to represent the two countries. This was the first occasion the two countries had been linked symbolically by representations of these plants, and the court poet William Dunbar [c1460-c1520] used this theme for his poem on the marriage, The Thrissill and the Rois. The treaty promised everlasting peace between the two countries, the first effective lull over 200 years of intermittent warfare.
c.1510 - Il Figlio Prodigo / The Prodigal Son, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (Netherlands). By Hieronymus Bosch [c1450-1516]. Also known as The Wayfarer, The Vagabond or The Pedlar.
1523 - "Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam with Renaissance Pilaster," National Gallery, London (England). Oil & tempera on panel, 76 × 51 cm. On loan from Longford Castle. By German painter Hans Holbein the Younger [c1498-1543]. "In 1523, Holbein painted his first portraits of the great Renaissance scholar Desiderius Erasmus [1466-1536], who required likenesses to send to his admirers throughout Europe. These paintings made Holbein an international artist." 1523 - "Porträt des Erasmus von Rotterdam am Schreibpult," Musée du Louvre, Paris (France). By German painter Hans Holbein the Younger [c1498-1543].
1536? - Tomb of Erasmus, Basler Münster / Basel Minster, Münsterplatz, Basel (Switzerland). Desiderius Erasmus [1466/1469-1536] was a Dutch Renaissance humanist. "He spent several years in Basel and died here in 1536. Although he stayed a Roman Catholic, he was buried in the Minster that was by then the main church of the Protestants in Basel. His bones were lost following changes to the church during the 19th century. They were only positively re-identified in 1974 and now rest under his epitaph." Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek.
1593 - Friendship Bridge, Hòa An (Vietnam). "Links the old Chinese and Japanese sides of the canal." "During the period of the China trade (16th-17th century), the town was called Hai Pho (Seaside Town) in Vietnamese. Originally, Hai Pho was a divided town with the Japanese settlement across the "Japanese Bridge." The bridge (Chùa cau) is a unique covered structure built by the Japanese, the only known covered bridge with a Buddhist pagoda attached to one side."
Circa 1602 - ''Allegorie des Friedens und des Uberflusses / Allegory of Peace, Art and Abundance" by Hans von Aachen [1552-1615], Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg (Russia).
Circa 1618 - ''The Union of Earth & Water (Antwerp and the Scheldt)" by Peter Paul Rubens [1577-1640], Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg (Russia). "The alliance of Cybele, Goddess of Earth, and Neptune, God of Victory, as the important alliance of Flanders and the sea, the River Scheldt and the city of Antwerp."
April 30, 1622 - Standbeeld van Erasmus / Statue of Erasmus, Square in front of Sint Laurens Church, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Click here for Wikipedia article about Desiderius Erasmus [1466-1536].
1628 - The Reconcilation of King Henry III & Henry of Navarre, Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (USA). By Peter Paul Rubens [1577-1640].
1629-30 - "Allegory on the blessings of peace" by Peter Paul Rubens [1577-1640], National Gallery, London (England). Oil on canvas, 203.5 x 298 cm (80 1/8 x 117 1/4 in). Also called "Peace & War" and "Minerva protects Pax from Mars."
Circa 1638 - "Allegory of Peace and the Arts under the English Crown," Central Hall, Queen's House (now Malborough House), Greenwich, England (UK). Ceiling painting. "One of the few documented collaborations between Artemisia and her father Orazio, who who arrived in Britain in 1626 to work at the Court of King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria of England."
May 15, 1648 - Friedenssall / Peace Hall, Rathaus / City Hall, Osnabrück, Lower Saxony (Germany). This room and a similar room in Münster became "unintentional monuments" with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands after the first modern diplomatic congress -- thereby initiating a new political order in central Europe based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign. The Osnabrück City Hall was built from 1487 to 1512 in late Gothic style. It is one of the major landmarks and influential buildings in the city of Osnabrück and is still used as a city hall building.
October 24, 1648 - Friedenssall / Peace Hall, Rathaus / City Hall, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). This room and a similar room in Osnabrück became "unintentional monuments" with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands after the first modern diplomatic congress -- thereby initiating a new political order in central Europe based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign. Right image is "Die Gesandten beschwoeren den Frieden zu Muenster / Ratification of the Treaty of Münster" by Gerard Ter Borch [1617-1681] which hangs in the National Gallery, London (England).
17th century - Picture Depicting Peace, Justice & Plenty, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Textile from England. Not on display. Peace holds dove and laurel. Justice holds sword and balance. Plenty holds fruit-filled corucopia.
1652 - Pendle Hill, Borough of Pendle, Lancashire (England). Visited in 1652 by George Fox [1624-1691] leading to his foundation of the Quaker movement. 1930 - Pendle Hill, Wallingford, Pennsylvania (USA). Quaker educational center near Philadelphia named for Pendle Hill (England).
1654 - "Landscape with Peace & Justice Embracing," Toledo Museum of Art (TMA), Toledo, Ohio (USA). By French painter Laurent de La Hyre [1606-1656].
Circa 1660 - "Dove of the Holy Spirit" by Gianlorenzo Bernini [1598-1680], Throne of St. Peter, Basilica of St. Peter (Vatican City).
1662 - Il Figlio Prodigo / The Prodigal Son, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg (Russia). By Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt. Image is a detail of the original painting.
1672 - Statues of Peace & Plenty, Castle Bromwich Hall, Castle Bromwich, Solihull, West Midlands (England). Bridgeman Family Coat of Arms & Lion. /// "Castle Bromwich Hall is a Jacobean mansion that was built between 1557 & 1585 by Sir Edward Devereaux, the first MP for Tamworth in Staffordshire. It was single storey with a plain entrance. It was bought by Orlando Bridgeman (keeper of The Great Seal) in 1657, for his son Sir John Bridgeman I. Sir John extended and improved the property in 1672, adding the second floor & a large front porch."
1691? - Grave of George Fox, Quaker Gardens, London (England). "In keeping with Quaker beliefs in plainness and modesty, his grave has only a simple marker." George Fox [1624-1691] was an English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
1694 - Old Quaker Meeting House, 137-16 Northern Boulevard , Flushing, Queens, New York City, New York (USA). "Remains today much as when it was first built, with dark, warm floorboards, simple benches and hand-hewn timber ceiling beams. By all known accounts, the oldest house of worship in New York State and the second oldest Quaker meeting house in the nation." [Where is the oldest?]
1696? - Plaza De La Paz / Plaza of Peace, Basilica Colegiata de Nuestra Senora de Guanajuato, Zona Centro, León, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico). Plaza contains statue of the Virgin Mary.
1708-1716 - "Peace and Liberty Triumphing Over Tyranny," "The Painted Hall," Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich (England). Allegorical painting by James Thornhill [1675-1734], in which William & Mary accept an olive branch from Peace. /// "In the central oval, the painting shows Peace & Liberty triumphing over Tyranny. Enthroned in heaven with the Virtues behind them, are William & Mary. Above them is the Sun god Apollo shedding his golden light, while Peace with her doves & lambs surrounding her hands an olive branch to William."
Circa 1713 - Feuerwerk am Tempel des Friedens / Fireworks in the Temple of Peace, Wilhelmshöhe Palace, Kassel (Germany). Engraving made on the occasion of the Peace of Utrecht (March-April 1713) by B. Picart, P. Roman & P. Loof.
1722 - Fredensborg Slot Castle, near Copenhagen (Denmark).While the building was still under construction Denmark and Sweden negotiated a peace treaty, which was signed July 3, 1720 on the site of the unfinished palace. To commemorate the signing, the palace was named Fredens Borg / Palace of Peace.
Circa 1735 - "Allegory of Peace," Park of Bolshoy Catherine Palace, Tsarsoe Selo / Royal Village, 25 km south of St. Petersburg (Russia). Statue by by unknown Italian sculptor. Circa 1735 - Statue of Pax by P. Baratta, Garden of Pavlovsk Palace, St. Petersburg (Russia).
1760's? - Plaque in statue of peace, Fountain of the charity, Santuário do Bom Jesus do Monte, Tenões, Braga (Portugal). Text: "PAX. Pax fratribus et charitas cum fide. RPH. G. 21" / "PEACE. Peace to the brothers and love with faith" [Google translation].
1770 - ''Mars & Venus: Allegory of Peace" by Louis Jean François Lagrenée [1724-1805], Getty Center, Los Angeles, California (USA). 33 9/16 x 29 3/4 x 2 in. 1776 - "Peace & War," Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (USA). By Italian artist Pompeo Girolamo Batoni [1708-1787].
1780 - "Peace Bringing Back Abundance" by Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Le Brun [1755-1842], Musee du Louvre, Paris (France). Oil on canvas, 40 3/8" x 52 1/8."
About 1783 - "Peace of Paris, 1783", Diplomatic Reception Rooms (Top Floor), U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Painting by Benjamin West [1738-1820] of the American delegation at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay [1745-1829], John Adams [1735-1926], Benjamin Franklin [1706-1790], Henry Laurens [1724-1792], and William Temple Franklin [1760-1823]. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed." (The preliminary articles signed in Paris on November 30, 1782, were only effective when a similar treaty was signed by Britain and France, which French Foreign Minister Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes [1717-1787], quickly negotiated. France signed preliminary articles of peace with Great Britain on January 20, 1783, which were followed by a formal Peace of Paris signed on September 3, 1783.)
About 1790 - Plaque with Sacrifice to Peace, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Wedgwood (jasperware) from England. Not on display.
1790 - Toleranzblick / "Tolerance View," Wörlitz Garden Realm, Wörlitz, Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, (Germany). "From here you see the Wörlitz Synagogue on the left for the Jewish religion & the Christian church on the right -- both should be equal in the eye of the visitor." /// "In the 18th century, a prince of Anhalt-Dessau made a park that was his vision of paradise. An Arcadian place of temples & grottoes & lovely lakes, a hymn to the Enlightenment, where a Toleranzblick, or "view of tolerance," offers the sight of a round synagogue built in the guise of a Roman temple and, behind it, a Gothic church tower. We know what happened to tolerance in this part of Germany between 1933 and 1989. Still the prince dreamed, which is important." /// "Since 2003 the synagogue has been restored & is now a small museum showcasing the history of the Jewish community of Wörlitz."
1793 - "Goddess of Peace," Quadriga, Brandenburger Tor / Brandenburg Gate, Berlin (Germany). Interpretation changed after the German victory over France in 1814 when the woman became Victoria, the goddess of Victory by adding a Prussian eagle on an iron cross to her ensemble. Changed again to a symbol of the Third Reich when the Nazis reached power.
1795-1814, 1830- - Place de la Concorde, 8th arrondissement, Paris (France) "Between the Champs-Élysées to the west & the Tuileries Garden to the east. Designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel & named Place Louis XV in 1755... During the French Revolution the statue of Louis XV was torn down & the area renamed Place de la Révolution. The new revolutionary government erected the guillotine in the square, and it was here that King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. In 1795, under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, the name was changed back to Place Louis XV, and in 1826 the square was renamed Place Louis XVI. After the July Revolution of 1830 the name was returned to Place de la Concorde & has remained since."
1796 - Peacefield, Quincy, Massachusetts (USA). "I think to christen my place Peacefield, in commemoration of the peace which I assisted in making in 1783, of the thirteen years peace and neutrality which I [as Vice President] have contributed to preserve, and of the constant peace and tranqualitry which I have enjoyed in this residence." -- John Adams [1735-1926], 1796.
1798 - Peace-Office for the USA proposed by Dr. Benjamin Rush, Philadelphia, Pennsylania (USA). Benjamin Rush [1745-1813] was a Philadelphia phsysician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Left image shows Shippen Mansion, home of Rush at 34 South 4th Street in Philadelphia at the time of his death in 1813. Right image is portrait of Rush by Charles Wilson Peale [1741-1827] in 1783.
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