Anna B. Eckstein [1868-1947]
Summary: Born in Coburg, Bavaria (Germany), Anna B. Eckstein [1868-1947] eventually became a naturalized American citizen & joined the Boston [Massachusetts] Peace Society. She became an ardent champion of world peace & gave numerous lectures & wrote many articles on peace problems of the United States & of Europe. Eckstein was a vice-president of the American Peace Society (1905-1911), an honorary member of the Liberal Christian League in London, and [a member] of many other social & education societies. She collected signatures for "The World Petition to Prevent War Between Nations" for The Hague Conventions [in 1899 & 1907]. Eckstein had begun to prepare another petition for the 3rd Hague Conference for which she had some 6 million signatures when her efforts were ended by the advent of World War I. Her manuscript "The Will to Power Harmonized" was refused publication by Nazi authorities. (Click here for source of this summary.) Born & died one year before Mahatma Gandhi.
June 14, 1868 - Anna Bernhardine Eckstein is born in Coburg, Bavaria (Germany), the daughter of a German officer. /// Anna B. Eckstein is born on 14 June 1868 in Coburg as a daughter of the workers at the Werra Railway Company porters & Hilfstelegrafisten Johann Nikolaus Eckstein &his wife Anna Barbara, born Götz. She has two siblings, a younger brother Ernst & an older sister Antonia, who is severely disabled since birth. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
1874-1882 - Eckstein attends the Girls' School in Coburg. A "higher educational institution for girls" as the Alexandrinenschule it remained closed for financial reasons. She was encouraged by her teacher Ottilie Frese and learned English & French, with the aim to become a teacher herself. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
c.1884 - At the age of 16, Eckstein learns [sic] to know the Baroness Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914], who interests her in the cause of peace. Eckstein will become an ardent champion of world peace, going on many world tours to promote this ideal.
September 1884 - At sixteen, Eckstein leaves Germany. She travels to New York to live with relatives. Due to the emigration was probably a "not befitting relationship" to a nobleman, maybe the opportunity to become a teacher in America. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.) /// Eckstein leaves Germany for America, where she will become a naturalized American citizen, a member of the Boston Peace Society, a school teacher & later the principal of the School of Modern Languages in Boston.
December 1887-October 1893 - After several places as a nanny & a teacher, she is hired in which immigrated from Germany Jewish businessman Godfrey Mannheimer [1838-1899] as a private tutor for his daughter Mamie. During this time she is able to travel three times to Germany with the family in Mannheim. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
Date? - After teacher training, Eckstein moves to Boston, Massachusetts, where she has close contact with the writer Martha ("Mattie") Griffith Browne [1825-1906]. Eckstein gives language classes at the Modern School of Languages & Literature of the religious community of the Quakers. Later, she will be director & owner of the school. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
Date? - Publisher Edwin Ginn [1838-1914] sponsors her after she leaves the School of Modern Languages in order to engage wholly in peace work. Ginn is a rival of Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919]. /// With the support of the American textbook publisher Edwin Ginn, Eckstein travels to Canada & then Europe. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
1905-1911 - Eckstein is a vice-president of the American Peace Society from 1905 to 1911. /// At the same time came the cornerstone with the American peace movement contacted & joined, disappointed by the results of the First Hague Peace Conference in 1899, in the American Peace Society, whose vice president she was 1905-1911. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
May 18-July 29, 1899 - First Hague Peace Conference, Orange Hall/Oranjezaal, Huis ten Bosch/House in the Wood, The Hague (Netherlands). "The 18th of May, 1899! This is an epochal date in the history of the world. Peace Conference! For ten long years the words and the idea have been laughed to scorn..." [from diary of Bertha von Suttner]. May 21, 1899 - Benjamin Franklin Trueblood, president of the American Peace Society, arrives three days after the opening of the First Hague Peace Conference -- according to the Memoirs of Bertha von Suttner. (Click here for source of this information.) /// Image shows "James Tryon (on right) with Benjamin Trueblood, Assistant Secretary (1908-1912) of the American Peace Society [sic]." (Click here for source of this undated photo.)
December 10, 1905 - Baroness Bertha von Suttner is named to receive the fifth Nobel Peace Prize (thus becoming the first woman peace laureate). Image is bust of Alfred Nobel in Oslo (Norway). April 18, 1906 - "The evolution of the peace movement," Hals Brothers Concert Hall, Kristiania (Oslo) (Norway). "Impressive adresss" by von Suttner to packed audience. Introduced by poet Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson [1832-1910], winner of 1903 Nobel Prize for Literature. Opening words: "The stars of eternal truth and right have always shone in the firmament of human understanding. The process of bringing them down to earth, remolding them into practical forms, imbuing them with vitality, and then making use of them, has been a long one..." von Suttner visits Denmark after receiving the prize in Oslo.
1907 - To arouse interest in the 1907 Second Hague Peace Conference convened, Eckstein writes a short text, which calls for a "General Arbitration" in international conflicts. She organizes lecture evenings. Signed more than a million US citizens, even tens of thousands of German & British followed suit. She presented on July 4, America's Independence Day, the collection of signatures to the Russian prince Nelidov, Chairman of the Conference. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
June 15, 1907 - Second Hague Peace Conference, Binnenhof, Hall of Knights, The Hague (Netherlands). "It is a little known fact that the initiative for the Second Hague Peace Conference came from civil society in the USA. Prompted by a petition in 1903 from the American Peace Society in Boston, the Massachusetts legislature passed a resolution requesting Congress to authorize the President of the USA to invite the governments of the world to join in establishing a regular international congress to meet at stated periods to deliberate upon the various questions of common interest. The idea was taken up in St. Louis in 1904 [year of the St. Louis Worlds Fair] by the Interparliamentary Union (IPU) that recommended a conference to deal with the subjects postponed at The Hague in 1899. It led to the negotiation of a series of arbitration treaties among the various nations and the consideration of plans for a series of congresses-the kind recommended by the Massachusetts legislature. President Theodore Roosevelt [1858-1919] responded to this invitation by convening the Second Hague Peace Conference. It was held on June 15, 1907, after being formally convened by the Czar. This time, Russia proposed an agenda limited to improvements in arbitration and humanitarian law, while America suggested discussing the limitation of armaments and the use of force in the collection of debts." //// N.B. Cornerstone of the Peace Palace was laid by Andrew Carnegie on July 30, 1907 (midway through the conference). 1907 - Eckstein saw as her greatest work the collection of signatures for 'The World Petition to Prevent War Between Nations,' to be signed by heads of the 44 signatory powers of the Hague Conventions. It was to serve as a 'mutual pledge of the 44 nations to respect, as inviolable, every nation's fundamental factors of life and natural liberty..., to adjust all international interests by treaty, & by arbitration reduce the necessity of armaments.' She presented the first version of the petition in 1907 to the 2nd Hague Conference with some 2 million signatures, at which time she was received by the Queen of the Netherlands & her Ministers.
After 1907 - After the poor result of the Second Hague Conference - e.g. it came to no result with respect to a compulsory arbitration - Eckstein organizes the "World Petition to prevent the war between the states" campaign. Should aim at the world petition three, first, the heart of the problem of peacekeeping - Definition and international protection of national vital interests - to the forefront of the general interest, secondly, a propaganda tool among all political parties and religions, social classes and levels of all States be and, thirdly, on the Third Hague Peace Conference a kind of popular representation form: opinion and will of the many millions of the governed should carry weight in the joint deliberations and decisions of the rulers. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
May 2-5, 1909 Second National Peace Congress, Chicago, Illinois (USA). German-born Anna B. Eckstein [1868-1947] takes an active part in this congress. Click here for congress proceedings edited by Charles Edward Beals, Field Secretaty, American Peace Society, 31 Beacon Street, Boston. This on-line document contains a very long list of officers & attendees. (In 1916, Beals wrote "Benjamin F. Trueblood: Prophet of Peace, 1847-1916.")
1909-1913 - Eckstein returns to Germany from the USA. "After her retirement, she moves back to Coburg." /// Coburg in 1909 again her residence. Until the beginning of 1913 Eckstein held in Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Belgium, Holland & France lectures, usually in a white peace dress. In addition, they won supporters in Italy, Norway, Algeria, Australia, New Zealand, as well as in Japan & China. They had an extensive correspondence. She worked among others with Bertha von Suttner, Alfred Hermann Fried, Ludwig Quidde or Jean Jaurès together. But they also learned contradiction, especially in France & Germany. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
July 12, 1910 - "Through a $1 million endowment, Edwin Ginn founds the International School of Peace in Boston whose purpose was 'Educating the people of all nations to a full knowledge of the waste and destructiveness of war and of preparation for war, its evil effects on present social conditions and on the wellbeing of future generations, and to promote international justice and the brotherhood of man, and generally by every practical means to promote peace and goodwill among all mankind.' The school will later become the World Peace Foundation. In 2007, Robert I. Rotberg will publish 'A Leadership for Peace: How Edwin Ginn Tried to Change the World.'"
1913 - Eckstein is nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. /// The international significance of Eckstein is reflected in her nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1913. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.) /// Eckstein would have been the 2nd female Nobel laureate (after Baroness Bertha von Suttner). Eckstein is an honorary member of the Liberal Christian League in London & of many other social & education societies.
Before 1915 - Eckstein begins to prepare another petition for the 3rd Hague Conference. She has some 6 million signatures [on a petition for the 3rd Hague Conference] when her efforts in this regard are ended by the advent of WW-I.
1914-1918 - First World War.
1914-1918 - During the World War, Eckstein writes for the "Journal of International Law" of the Kieler international law expert Theodor Niemeyer [1857-1939]. At his suggestion, she writes on the war, the book "The State Protection Agreement". (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
1917 - "The British Royal family's real surname is Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. That was the surname of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s husband, who was born near Coburg in Germany. The Royal Family’s surname is changed to Windsor in 1917, during the First World War, when Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is considered too German a name – not least because the planes coming over to bomb Britain are called Gotha bombers [as seen in image]." (Click here for source of this information.)
June 28, 1919 - Galerie des Glaces / Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, Versailles (France). This room was constructed by King Louis XIV in 1678-1684. It became a an "unintentional monument" with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany ending the World War I (1914–1918) & leading to the League of Nations. Click here for post cards. P
1919 - "Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors," Imperial War Museum, London (England). By Irish artist Sir William Orpen [1878- 1931]. Norman Stone (2009) says this "captured the political wrangling and vainglory of the gathered politicians and statesman whom Orpen came to loathe but increasingly relied upon for his post-war portrait commissions. The peace-makers look extraordinarily pleased with them- selves as they pose for rather wooden immortaliation: silkiness of moustache, acuteness of gaze, dignity of stance. A Maharajah and a Japanese baron look on, evidence of the peace-makers' internationalism and benevolence. Clemenceau is said to have remarked that he was sitting between a would-be Napoleon (Lloyd George) and a would-be Jesus Christ (Wilson).
1919 & Later - After the First World War, Eckstein works in the "German League for the League of Nations" with and founded in Coburg, Lichtenfels & Hildburghausen district teams from the league. She is involved in the Coburg Following Bayern & fights against the rapidly emerging right in Coburg Nazism. She participates in the foundation of the local association Coburg on the German Democratic Party, at the adult education center, the home club, at the Society for Literature and Music & is active in the Protestant church, which was to transform the People's Church. She is Synodalin & Coburg delegates at the German Protestant Kirchentag. They will organize in the post-war & inflation time aid shipments from the United States and give lessons in English & French. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
October 14, 1922 - "Adolf Hitler leads 800 SA stormtroopers & a band by train to Coburg for a weekend rally. Once there, numerous pitched street battles with leftists & communists occur. In the end, the final victory belongs to the Nazis. Later, the day will be known as the Deutscher Tag in Coburg / German Day in Coburg." (Click here for source of this information.) /// "During the Nazi era, the Coburger Abzeichen / Coburg Badge (made to honor the participants) is one of the most prestigious party medals." (Click here for source of this information.) 1923-1926 - Anna B. Eckstein's disabled sister Toni dies in 1923, & later her mother dies in 1926. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.)
1929-1931 - "In 1929, Coburg is the first German city in which the Nazi Party wins the absolute majority of the popular vote during municipal elections." (Click here for source of this information.) And on January 18, 1931 the Coburg rathaus / city hall is the first official building in Germany to fly the Nazi flag. (Click here for source of this information.) Image shows city hall (before & after) & the Prinz-Albrecht-Denkmal / Prince Albert monument. 1931 - "Nazi SA units parade in Coburg, with the Vesta Coburg fortress in the background." (Click here for source of this information.)
1933 - On March 16, 1933, Eckstein travels to Switzerland & stays there until September 29. About the subsequent time there is so far little information. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.) 1933+ - During the Nazi regime, Eckstein is curbed in her peace activities.
1936 - "A group of young girls parades in the Coburg Hauptplatz / Market Square, giving the "Hitler-Gruß" salute & singing the "Horst-Wessel-Lied," the unofficial anthem of the Nazi Party. The occasion is the 75th anniversary of the German gymnastics association in Coburg." (Click here for source of this information.)
1939-1945 - Second World War.
1942 - Eckstein tries to have her manuscript "The Will to Power Harmonized" published, but the Nazi authorities refuse permission. /// A publication of her publication "The will to harmonizing power" forbade 1942 the censorship of the Nazi regime. (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.) 1942-1943 - Eckstein is exiled in Switzerland.
April 11, 1945 - "Tanks from the 761st Tank Battalion (an African-American unit) move into the Coburg Marktplatz." In the background is the statue of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg, who married Queen Victoria of Great Britain. (Click here for source of this information.) 1945 - After World War II, Coburg is surrounded on three sides by the Soviet Zone of East Germany.
1945 - "Ellen Starr Brinton [1886-1954], first curator of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection [in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania (USA)], corresponds with Eckstein about transferring her papers to the SCPC. No agreement is reached, but Eckstein does show interest." /// "Brinton was a Quaker, feminist & internationalist. She served as the first curator of the Jane Addams Peace Collection (later the Swarthmore College Peace Collection) from 1935 until her retirement in 1951... Brinton travelled to Europe before & after World War II to secure valuable peace records. During her 1937 trip to Europe, Brinton correctly assessed the growing political turmoil, especially in Germany, where she spent time with peace activists."
1946 - "Polish ambassador [to the USA] Oskar R. Lange [1904-1965] alleges that Coburg is a base for the Western Allies to organize a Polish armed insurgency led by Wladyslaw Anders against Soviet-backed communists in Poland." (Click here for source of this information.)
October 16, 1947 - "Eckstein dies at her home at Schillerplatz 4 in Coburg." (Google translation. Click here for source of this information.) /// Death of Anna B. Eckstein in Coburg (Germany). Where buried? /// "After her death, her papers & books were donated to the Swarthmore College Peace Collection [in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania (USA)] by her nephew in exchange for CARE food parcels." /// Image shows plaque at fountain installed in 1987. It is inscribed "Vorkämpferin für den Weltfrieden, Mitbegründerin des Völkerbundes / Champion of world peace, Co-founder of the League of Nations." ///
1982 - Friedensmuseum Meeder / Meeder Peace Museum, Meeder, Coburg (Germany). Founded by Karl Eberhard Sperl (protestant minister who researched diaries of Anna B. Eckstein). "The Peace Museum with its exhibitions & educational peace workshop is located in the basement of the Anna B. Eckstein School Meeder (primary school). The school is located on the outskirts Meeder towards Kleinwalbur / Großwalbur &Bad Rodach." Info courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek.
May 4, 1987 - Memorial Fountain, at "Anna B. Eckstein plant," Coburg (Germany). In the "Anna B. Eckstein system" between Moor Street & the Mühlgasse Walk. "In 1985 the fountain was erected in a park in 1985 & named for Anna Bernardine Eckstein [1868-1947] on 4 May 1987... By Coburg sculptor Egon Ruggaber, cost 9300 DM, consists of a round stone column with a top-mounted small, shallow pool of water. Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi). July 11, 2011 - "Anna Bernhardine Eckstein" by Elwood Kuni Waldorm, Psycho Publishing.
September 12, 2013 - Anna-B.-Eckstein-Schule (Grundschule) / Anna-B.-Eckstein Elementary School, Schulstraße 18, Meeder, Coburg (Germany). "Since 09.12.2013 our school bears the name of Anna Bernhardine Eckstein [1868-1947], a teacher, head teacher & activist for peace, [who] was born in 1868 in Coburg and died there in 1947... In the basement of our school is 'Lernwerkstaff Frieden / Peace Learning Workshop' of the Friedensmuseum Meeder / Meeder Peace Museum [Google translation]." Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi).
Dec. 27, 2013 - "Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I" by Neil Hollander McFarland, 312 pages. "Most histories of World War I revolve around gruesome battles, ribboned generals & feats of military heroism. All too often the acts of those who tried to stop the fighting by word or deed have been drowned out by the roar of cannons. Yet there were moments when reason & justice prevailed, when negotiations were stronger than weapons, & when peace was the victor & not the vanquished. Even in the heat of battle individuals of courage stepped forward & attempted to bring the better part of humanity out of darkness and to revive the phoenix of peace. They are the real heroes of the war. This book is their story."
N.B.: This 6-minute video is in German, but it contains striking images & music, and everyone would enjoy seeing it.
March 27, 2014 - Video "Friedensaktivistin Anna Bernhardine Eckstein aus Coburg" (6:04 minutes), Landkarte Frieden. Stars Rev. Karl Eberhard Sperl (right image). "In Coburg wurde eine international berühmte Frau geboren - Anna Bernhardine Eckstein - die in ihrer Heimatstadt lange in Vergessenheit geraten war. Karl Eberhard Sperl, der Gründer des Friedensmuseums in Meeder, holte sie wieder ins Gedächtnis der Menschen zurück." /// Left image is the final scene of the video (as recorded in the Friedensmseum Meeder). Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi).
January 31, 2016 - Article by Karl-Eberhard Sperl, Coburg (Germany). Google translation from German: Pioneer worker of World Peace.
100 years ago, the Coburg pacifist Anna B. Eckstein was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.
On December 10, the anniversary of the death of Alfred Nobel, the eponymous awards are given. Exactly 100 years ago the Coburgerin Anna B. Eckstein (1868-1947) was with two other candidates on the shortlist for the Nobel Peace Prize. After Bertha von Suttner, who had received this award in 1905, she would have been the second woman in the number of winners. // The former nomination Eckstein now discovered the Dutchman Gerard Lösbroek. For years he makes to the worldwide network of peace museums deserve. Perhaps ends his note on this outstanding honor a century of disrespect. It is high time. // Anna B. Eckstein is a committed Christian. After more than two decades in the United States in 1909, she returns back to Coburg. There they will advertise after the revolution of 1918 for a "popular church" and be until 1921 Synodalin the Coburg "Synod" - a service which they can no longer perform after connecting to the Bavarian church. // Back to the year 1913. On Eckstein Business address is: Coburg, Lange Gasse 7. What is really worthy of this woman? Eckstein makes the peace movement popular. They gradually gaining new friends and supporters. Previously found that numerous discussions for a world without war and isolated be held separately, especially in liberal circles and in the labor movement. Between the two groups there are few points of contact. The idea to ask all people to their signature with a world petition, now creates a basis. Joint action is possible. // The success Eckstein is overwhelming. They are initially purely private. With its limited to the US Campaign for the II Hague Conference in 1907 more than one million signatures were collected. Their use creates a stir. Inspired by her collect the Cologne journalist Fritz Decker in Germany 58145 signatures, the English trade unionists W. A. Appleton 151 884, the Scottish pastor Walter Walsh in Dundee 5641st Unfortunately, the disappointment is great, as the German Empire at the conference of 1907 denied any arms reduction. // The 39-year-old German-American wants to know now. Your new world petition is aimed at the III Hague Conference. Which is scheduled for 1914, will start at the latest for 1915. The collection campaign in all 44 represented at the Hague Conference States. // Eckstein's message comes: Where the world is growing together, war and preparations for war would no longer be justified. Commerce and transport, the intelligence, and above all the spiritual exchange would interlink the various countries, destroying a great war everything. The massive rearmament rob now children and young people's future prospects. // Eckstein asks humanity to the vote. She turns to peace and women's organizations, trade unions, teachers' associations, lodges and churches. And she's unprecedented success. She hopes to at least 300 million signatures. Until 1913, they can demonstrate 100 million. // A simple woman from the German province makes world politics. Your name is now on the list that Nils Nilsson August has submitted to the Norwegian Parliament Commission. The Swedish doctor, a Social Democrat and a prominent women's rights activists, was allowed in 1910 accept the Nobel Peace Prize for the International Peace Bureau in Bern. As a "prize winners" it is time proposal entitled. Nilsson and his wife had Anna B. Eckstein 1910 and 1912 respectively personally accompanied several days in their campaigns in Sweden and interpreted for them. // Are proposed with Eckstein two Belgians, the international lawyer Henri Marie LaFontaine (1854-1943) and the parliamentarians Houzeau de Lehaie (1832-1922), two elderly men. The Commission opts for LaFontaine: With the demand for general arbitration and a drastic reduction of armaments, he brought the different policy objectives of national peace organizations to a common denominator. Women were politically underestimated // Against Eckstein talks in 1913 probably her relative youth, her origin from Germany and especially that women are then underestimated politically. There is no country in a women's suffrage. The expected public support would Eckstein newly motivated. Meanwhile, she has many adversaries. You must fight hard. The months that she spent in France in 1912, were only partly successful. Part of the French pacifists want to sign the petition world only with the additional demand that Germany should once Alsace-Lorraine back to France. A Nobel Peace Prize can and should influence the current policy. 1913 This opportunity has been missed in Oslo. The Nobel Prize would have been a door opener for the Eckstein'sche companies. Whether Anna B. Eckstein had with this tailwind prevented the First World War, is questionable. But this woman is a militarized public the opportunity: Before every disaster, it is important to see alternatives and attract people for it. // The memory of Anna B. Eckstein in Peace Museum Meeder and elsewhere makes this courage. // Karl-Eberhard Sperl
June 18, 2016 - Email from Karl-Eberhard Sperl, Coburg (Germany). Sperl's corrections are complicated & therefore left in German. No change has been made to this web page. Anna B. Eckstein wird 2018 150 Jahre alt
Ich leite auch an Sie ein Schreiben weiter, dass ich gestern an Swarthmore geschickt habe. Ich bat Swarthmore zwei sachliche Fehler zu korrigieren, die sich auf deren Homepage befinden.
Leider haben Sie in Ihrer bemerkenswerten Darstellung Anna B. Ecksteins diese Fehler übernommen.
Mit freundlichen Grüßen, Karl Eberhard Sperl
-------- Weitergeleitete Nachricht --------
Betreff: Anna B. Eckstein wird 2018 150 Jahre alt
Datum: Fri, 17 Jun 2016 20:10:32 +0200
Von: Karl Eberhard Sperl
Liebe Friedensfreunde bei Swarthmore!
Seit 1982 haben wir im Coburger Land Anna B. Eckstein neu entdeckt. Wie die meisten pazifistischen Tradition war das Andenken an diese wirklich Bedeutsame Frau durch die Diktatur der Nazis fast ausgelöscht worden. Umso dankbarer sind wir, dass Swarthmore dem Friedensmuseum in Meeder von Anfang an geholfen hat. Da wir keine professionellen Historiker sind, hat es lange Zeit gedauert, bis wir vor allem den 1986 von Ihnen erworbenen Mikrofilm mit Ecksteins Tagebüchern vollständig auswerten konnten.
Wir wenden uns heute an Sie aus zweierlei Gründen:
1. Wir bitten um Korrekturen auf Ihrer Web-Seite "www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/CDGB/eckstein." Die Angaben dort sorgen auch in Deutschland immer neu für Verwirrung.
a) Einmal hat Eckstein nicht schon mit 16 Jahren, also 1884, Bertha von Suttner entdeckt. Das ist erst 1898 geschehen, vor allem dank der Hilfe des Bostoner Pfarrers Carles Gordon Ames (1828 - 1912), und zum andern dank der Schriftstellerin Martha Griffith Browne (1826 - 1906), bei der Eckstein viele Jahre in Boston gelebt hat.
b) Ecksteins Weltpetition sollte in den 44 Haager Signatar-Staaten mindestens 200 Millionen Menschen motivieren, mit ihrer Unterschrift die Abschaffung des Krieges durch Schiedsgerichte durchzusetzen.
Nach Auswertung eines Interviews im "Boston Journal" geht Eckstein 1914 davon aus, mindestens 50 Millionen tatsächlich bekommen zu haben. Die von Swarthmore angegebene Zahl von 6 Millionen beziffert nur die Unterschriften, die Eckstein selbst verwaltet. Die gesammelten Unterschriften wurden zum allergrößten Teil von nationalen Komitees gesammelt und verwaltet. Geplant war, dass die Unterschriften 1914 oder 1915 zur III. Haager Konferenz von den einzelnen nationalen Komitees zu einer demonstrativ gemeinsamen Übergabe nach Den Haag gebracht werden sollten.
2. Wir wüssten gern, welche Dokumente sich neben den "Diaries" in den aufgelisteten Ordnern Ihres Archivs befinden. Leider ist es keinem von uns möglich, in absehbarer Zeit nach Boston zu reisen!. Vielleicht können Sie uns eine genaue Angabe der vorhandenen Dokumente zugänglich machen. Das wäre eine große Hilfe!
3. Wir suchen vor allem nach zwei späten Aufsätzen Ecksteins in englischer Sprache.
a) "The Briand-Kellogg-Pakt - what ist the next step?" Eckstein schickt diesen Aufsatz 1929 im Manuskript an Professor Dr. D. Starr Jordan und Horace Holley (Managing Edition of Unity-World-Magazine), sowie an Präsident Hoover.
b) "The Will to Power Harmonized". Eckstein übermittelt diesen Aufsatz 1933 von der Schweiz aus verschiedenen Persönlichkeiten.
Mehr über uns erfahren Sie unter "http://www.friedensmuseum-meeder.de/geschichte.html". Gern machen wir, wenn Sie daran interessiert sind, auch unsere Ergebnisse und Dokumente über Eckstein zugänglich. Bitte lassen Sie etwas von sich hören.
Mit freundlichen Grüßen, Karl Eberhard Sperl
Karl Eberhard Sperl, Pfarrer i.R.
Anna-B.-Eckstein-Forschung für das Friedensmuseum Meeder
D 97514 Trossenfurt