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"Monday's Monuments"

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Monday, May 4, 2015 - Susan Ives, webmaster of the San Antonio Peace Center (SAPC), San Antonio, Texas (USA), starts a continuous weekly series called "Monday's Monuments." As of the end of 2016, the series contained 88 peace monuments (22 of which were already shown on this website). NB: The SAPC displays Monday's Monuments on individual web pages -- without links one to another & thus difficult to visit in serial order. Ms. Ives & the SAPC offer no comprehensive guide to this impressive collection (so far as I can tell). Click here & here for more information about Ms. Ives.

I have pieced together the following list of sucessive Monday's Monuments. Asterisks (*) indicate monuments which were already shown elsewhere on this website. To find them, please use the internal search engine & the many links on the home page. Monuments which were NOT already shown are described at the end of this web page & are being added to the appropriate geographic, chronological & thematic web pages.

#1 (May 04, 2015) - Wall of Peace, Paris (France) *
#2 (May 11, 2015) - Christ of the Andes (between Argentina & Chile) *
#3 (May 18, 2015) - Peace Arch, between Washington & British Columbia (USA & Canada) *
#4 (May 25, 2015) - Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore, Maryland (USA) *

#5 (June 01, 2015) - "Landmark of Peace," Indianapolis, Indiana (USA) *
#6 (June 08, 2015) - Doves of Picasso, Sheffield (England) *
#7 (June 15, 2015) - Halabje Statue, The Hague (Netherlands). SEE BELOW.
#8 (June 22, 2015) - Landmines Monument (Legless Chair), Geneva (Switzerland) *
#9 (June 29, 2015) - "Tolerance," Houston, Texas (USA) *

#10 (July 06, 2015) - Beacon of Peace, Little Rock, Arkansas (USA) *
#11 (July 13, 2015) - "Breaking the Cycle [of Violence]" Mural, San Antonio, Texas (USA). SEE BELOW.
#12 (July 20, 2015) - Peace Monumtent, Isla Vista, California (USA) *
#13 (July 27, 2015) - Shrine Peace Monument, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) *

#14 (Aug. 03, 2015) - Genbaku Dome (A-bomb Dome), Hiroshima (Japan) *
#15 (Aug. 10, 2015) - "Open Hand - Open Mind - Open Heart," San Antonio, Texas (USA) *
#16 (Aug. 17, 2015) - Peter Feshter Memorial Obelisk, Berlin (Germany). SEE BELOW.
#17 (Aug. 24, 2015) - "Freedom Ring," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). SEE BELOW.
#18 (Aug. 31, 2015) - Shoes on the Danube Promenade, Budapest (Hungary). SEE BELOW.

#19 (Sep. 07, 2015) - "Signal of Peace," Chicago, Illinois (USA) *
#20 (Sep. 11, 2015) - Passage Inachevé / Incomplete Passage, Houston Texas (USA). SEE BELOW. NB: Sep. 11 is not a Monday.
#21 (Sep. 14, 2015) - "Hope for Peace" (“tank sandwich”), Beirut (Lebanon) *
#22 (Sep. 21, 2015) - "Non-Violence" (Knotted Gun), United Nations, New York City, New York (USA) *
#23 (Sep. 28, 2015) - James Meredith Monument, Oxford, Mississippi (USA). SEE BELOW.

#24 (Oct. 05, 2015) - "St. Francis of the Gun," San Francisco, California (USA) *
#25 (Oct. 12, 2015) - Peace Dove, La Paz (Mexico) *
#26 (Oct. 19, 2015) - Peace Garden, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (USA) *
#27 (Oct. 26, 2015) - "People of Peace," Woodbury, New Jersey (USA) SEE BELOW.

#28 (Nov. 02, 2015) - Madre del Mundo, Amarillo, Texas (USA) *
#29 (Nov. 09, 2015) - "Island of Ireland" (Belgium) *
#30 (Nov. 16, 2015) - Peace Pilgrim Park, Egg Harbor City, New Jersey (USA) *
#31 (Nov. 23, 2015) - "The Triumphs of Peace Endure" (Elks Veterans Memorial), Chicago, Illinois (USA) *
#32 (Nov. 30, 2015) - Gilt of Cain, London (England) *

#33 (Dec. 07, 2015) - Fulbright Fountain, Fayetteville, Arkansas (USA) *
#34 (Dec. 14, 2015) - Grafton Pagoda, Grafton, New York (USA) *
#35 (Dec. 21, 2015) - "Kindred Sprits," County Cork (Ireland). SEE BELOW.
#36 (Dec. 28, 2015) - "Open Hand," Chandigarh, Punjab (India) *

#37 (Jan. 04, 2016) - Peace Bird Gate, Peace Park, Hanoi (Vietnam). SEE BELOW. #38 (Jan. 11, 2016) - "Reflections," Rosemead, California (USA). SEE BELOW.
#39 (Jan. 18, 2016) - Tolerance Park & Monument, Jerusalem (Israel) *
#40 (Jan. 25, 2016) - Peace Sculpture, Livermore, California (USA) *

#41 (Feb. 01, 2016) - "Reconciliation," Derry (Ireland) *
#42 (Feb. 08, 2016) - "Atheists in Foxholes," Madison, Wisconsin (USA). SEE BELOW.
#43 (Feb. 15, 2016) - Brandeis Peace Monument, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (USA) *
#44 (Feb. 22, 2016) - "May We Have Peace," Norman, Oklahoma (USA) *
#45 (Feb. 29, 2016) - Rossenstrasse Monument, Berlin (Germany) *

#46 (Mar. 07, 2016) - "Women Are Persons," Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) *
#47 (Mar. 14, 2016) - Statue of Mary McLeod Bethune, Washington, DC (USA) *
#48 (Mar. 21, 2016) - Statue of Liberty, New York City, New York (USA) *
#49 (Mar. 28, 2016) - Great Petition, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). SEE BELOW.

#50 (Apr. 04, 2016) - Edward Hicks House, Newtown, Pennsylvania (USA). SEE BELOW.
#51 (Apr. 11, 2016) - Anti-War Monument, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida (USA) *
#52 (Apr. 18, 2016) - Peace on Earth, Los Angeles, California (USA) *
#53 (Apr. 25, 2016) - Kinder Mass Trespass Plaque, near Hayfield (England). SEE BELOW.

#54 (May 02, 2016) - Statue of John Henry, Talcott, West Virginia (USA). SEE BELOW.
#55 (May 09, 2016) - Tartu Rahu Peace Treaty, Tartu (Estonia). SEE BELOW.
#56 (May 16, 2016) - Pax-Stein, Lindesnes (Norway) *
#57 (May 23, 2016) - Grigoris Lambrakis Statue, Thessaloniki (Greece) *
#58 (May 30, 2016) - World Peace Statue, Grandcamp-Maisy (France) *

#59 (June 06, 2016) - Statue of Mahatma Gandhi, Pietermaritzburg (South Africa) *
#60 (June 13, 2016) - Statue of Sadako Sasaki, Seattle, Washington (USA) *
#61 (June 20, 2016) - "Reconciliation," Bradford (England) *
#62 (June 27, 2016) - "Unity in Peace," Brussels (Belgium) *

#63 (July 04, 2016) - Lochnagar Crater - Battle of the Somme (France). SEE BELOW.
#64 (July 11, 2016) - "Path of Peace," Des Moines, Iowa (USA) *
#65 (July 18, 2016) - Cairn of Peace, Prace (Czech Republic) *
#66 (July 25, 2016) - Peace Tower, St. Petersburg (Russia) *

#67 (Aug. 01, 2016) - Children's Peace Monument, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA) *
#68 (Aug. 08, 2016) - Peace Pagoda, Battersea, London (England) *
#69 (Aug. 15, 2016) - Reichs[anti]kolonialehrendenkmal, Bremen (Germany). SEE BELOW.
#70 (Aug. 22, 2016) - "World of Peace" (Anti-gun Monument), Kampong Thom (Cambodia) *
#71 (Aug. 29, 2016) - "Peace Love & Unity," Uhuhru (Kenya). SEE BELOW.

#72 (Sep. 05, 2016) - "Circle of Sacred Smoke," Devil's Tower, Wyoming (USA) *
#73 (Sep. 12, 2016) - War Memorial Frieze, Leeds (England) *
#74 (Sep. 19, 2016) - Peace Park, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (Australia) *
#75 (Sep. 26, 2016) - Bridge of Peace, Tbilisi (Georgia). SEE BELOW.

#76 (Oct. 03, 2016) - Strawberry Fields, Central Park, New York City, New York (USA) *
#77 (Oct. 10, 2016) - Imagine Peace Tower, Videy Island (Iceland) *
#78 (Oct. 17, 2016) - John Lennon Peace Wall, Prague (Czech Republic) *
#79 (Oct. 24, 2016) - John Lennon Peace Monument, Liverpool (England) *
#80 (Oct. 31, 2016) - John Lennon Statue, Havana (Cuba) *

#81 (Nov. 07, 2016) - Naval Peace Monument, Washington, DC (USA) *
#82 (Nov. 14, 2016) - "Guns into Plowshares," Washington, DC (USA) *
#83 (Nov. 21, 2016) - "Social Consciousness," Philadelphia, Pensylvania (USA). SEE BELOW.
#84 (Nov. 28, 2016) - Insanlik Aniti / Statue of Humanity, Kars (Turkey) *

#85 (Dec. 05, 2016) - Winter War Monument, Suomussalmi (Finland). SEE BELOW.
#86 (Dec. 12, 2016) - Bernard Lown Peace Bridge, Lewiston, Maine (USA) *
#87 (Dec. 19, 2016) - Monument to Peace (aka “The Palm of Peace”), Guatemala City (Guatemala) *
#88 (Dec. 26, 2016) - "Children of the World," Nordkapp (Norway) *

#89 (Jan. 02, 2017) - "Der Rufer / The Caller," Straße des 17 Juni, Tiergarten, Berlin (Germany). Faces the Brandenburg Gate. *
#90 (Jan. 09, 2017) - Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Friedrichstadt, Berlin (Germany) *
#91 (Jan. 16, 2017) - Bibliotek, Bebelplatz, Unter den Linden, Berlin (Germany) *
#92 (Jan. 23, 2017) - Memorial to Homosexuals Persecuted Under Nazism, Tiergarten, Berlin (Germany) *
#93 (Jan. 30, 2017) - Memorial to the Sinti & Roma Victims of National Socialism, Tiergarten, Berlin (Germany) *

#94 (Feb. 06, 2017) - Stolpersteine / Stumbling Stones (throughout Europe) *
#95 (Feb. 13, 2017) - Monument to the Jewish Victims of Fascism, Hackescher Markt District , Berlin (Germany) *
#96 (Feb. 20, 2017) - Brandenburg Gate, Berlin (Germany) - End of "monumental tour of Berlin" *
#97 (Feb. 27, 2017) - Keeling-Puri Peace Plaza, Rockford, Illinois (USA). *

#98 (Mar. 06, 2017) - World Poverty Stone, Dublin (Ireland). *
#99 (Mar. 13, 2017) - Clayton Jackson McGhie Memorial (Lynching Monument), Duluth, Minnesota (USA). SEE BELOW.
#100 (Mar. 20, 2017) - Civil Rights Garden, Atlantic City, New Jersey (USA). SEE BELOW.
#101 (Mar. 27, 2017) - Louisville Downtown Civil Rights Trail, Louisville, Kentucky (USA). SEE BELOW.

#102 (Apr. 03, 2017) - Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). SEE BELOW.
#103 (Apr. 10, 2017) - Statues in Kelly Ingram Park, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). *
#104 (Apr. 17, 2017) - Lunchcounter Four Monument, A&T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina (USA). SEE BELOW.
#105 (Apr. 24, 2017) - Civil Rights Monument, Richmond, Virginia (USA). SEE BELOW.

#106 (May 01, 2017) - To be announced by San Antonio Peace Center (SAPC)
#107 (May 08, 2017) - To be announced by San Antonio Peace Center (SAPC)
#108 (May 15, 2017) - To be announced by San Antonio Peace Center (SAPC)
#109 (May 22, 2017) - To be announced by San Antonio Peace Center (SAPC)
#110 (May 29, 2017) - To be announced by San Antonio Peace Center (SAPC)


2014 - Halabje Statue, Garden of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), The Hague (Netherlands) /// This is "Monday's Monument" #7. NETHERLANDS 2014 IRAN

2002 - "Breaking the Cycle [of Violence]" Mural, San Antonio, Texas (USA). "18th mural installed by San Anto Cultural Arts." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #11. WALLS 2002 NON-VIOLENCE TX

1962 - Peter-Fechter-Stelle memorial / Peter Feshter Memorial Obelisk, Zimmerstrasse, Berlin (Germany). "East German bricklayer Peter Fechter [1944-1962] was shot crossing the Berlin Wall [on August 17, 1962]. A cross [left image] was quickly placed on the western side near the spot where Fechter was shot & slowly bled to death. After German reunification in 1990, the memorial obelisk was constructed at the precise spot where he had died on the eastern side [right image]... This has become a focal point for some of the commemorations regarding the wall. The engraving reads "...he just wanted freedom.'" /// This is "Monday's Monument" #16. BERLIN COLD_WAR 1962 CROSSES

1994 - "The Freedom Ring," Community College of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "A 'cosmogram' 24-feet in diameter. Celebrates the theme of freedom as it relates to peoples & cultures migrating across oceans in pursuit of refuge in Philadelphia. Fabricated from over 5 tons of Pennsylvania black & midnight gray granite, with hundreds of sandblasted letters. Circumference spells out 'Let Freedom Ring' in 36 languages from from Armenian to Zulu..." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #17. UNIVS 1994 PA MIGRATION

April 2005 - Shoes on the Danube Promenade, Budapest (Hungary). "Honors the Jews who were murdered by fascist Arrow Cross Militiamen in Budapest in 1944-45, during World War II. The Brigade would line up as many Jews as possible & shoot them on the river’s bank to save them the work of having to bury the bodies. The victims had to take their shoes off, since shoes were valuable belongings at the time." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #18. HUNGARY 2005 HOLOCAUST WW-II

1990 - "Passage Inachevé / Incomplete Passage," Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas (USA). "This skeletal house commemorates the Bicentennial [of the French Revolution]. The images embedded in the gables abstractly reflect issues of human rights, freedom of expressions [sic], contemplative ideas, elements of history & contemporary concerns." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #20. 1990 FRANCE RIGHTS

1992 - "People of Peace," Gloucester County Courthouse,Woodbury, New Jersey (USA). "Commissioned by the county’s veteran’s commission. Sculpted by Deptford, NJ, artist Frank A. Seder Jr., who said he hoped his piece would honor the knowledge that came from war rather than war itself." Inscription: "PEACE. It sits by itself alone and is taken for granted / like a light at the end of a dark tunnel missed / only when you realize it is no longer there. / The lives that have been given for that light / are remembered in the years of peace." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #27.

August 2015 - "Kindred Sprits," Bailic Park, Middleton, County Cork (Ireland). "Has nine giant, stainless steel eagle feathers arranged forming a protective space. Honors a group of Choctaw people in Scullyville, Oklahoma, who sent $170 to Ireland during the great potato famine (16 years after the Choctaw & other 'civilized' tribes endureed the Trail of Tears)." This is "Monday's Monument" #35. 2015-ok IRELAND FAMINE

October 8, 2010 - Peace Bird Gate, Peace Park, Hanoi (Vietnam). "Celebrates Hanoi’s Millennium. Resembles the traditional Vietnamese Lac Viet bird. A twist on the traditional origami Peace Crane form." This is "Monday's Monument" #37. CRANES VIETNAM 2010

September 5, 2011 - "Reflect," Rosemead, California (USA). "An iron beam pulled from the rubble of the World Trade Center. Held up by two stainless steel hands constructed from 2,976 individually crafted stainless steel birds, each representing a victim of the attacks. According to the LA Times, 'Some see doves. Others are certain they are looking at hawks. Still others are convinced the small figures they’re seeing represent angels.' 'I didn’t want to be too specific. I want the viewer to bring their own ideas to it,' artist Heath Satow said.'" This is "Monday's Monument" #38. CA-___ 9/11 HANDS DOVES ANGELS

October 9, 2015 - "Atheists in Foxholes" Monument, at Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF) headquarters, Madison, Wisconsin (USA). "Contradicts an old jingoistic slogan ('There are no atheists in foxholes.') that proclaims no secular person could, or would, give their lives on the battlefield in the name of the United States. /// Inscribed: 'In memory of atheist in foxholes and the countless freethinkers who have served this country with honor and distinction. Presented with hope that in the future humankind may learn to avoid all war.'" /// This is "Monday's Monument" #42. 2015-ok WI FREETHOUGHT

2008 - "Great Petition" for women's suffrage, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). "In the late 19th century, woman's suffrage activists sought support from both men & women throughout Victoria. A giant petition with 30,000 signatures & carried by several attendants, was claimed to be the largest petition presented to the Victorian parliament to that date (1891). Women had to wait another 17 years before they were given voting rights in Victoria. Most Indigenous women would be denied rights until 1962." This is "Monday's Monument" #49. 2008 AUSTRALIA WOMEN RIGHTS

Before 1849 - Edward Hicks House, Penn Street, Newtown, Pennsylvania (USA). "Edwards Hicks [1780-1849] was a Quaker sign painter, best known today for his 'ornamental' paintings, especially the motif known as 'The Peaceable Kingdom,' which illuminates Isaiah 11: 'The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion and fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.'” He painted between 60 & 100 paintings on this theme,often combining it with Penn’s Treaty with the Indians... The treaty William Penn entered into was remarked upon by Voltaire, who called it '...the only treaty never sworn to and never broken.' Hicks' house "is commemorated with a historical marker & an information board describing his life & work as a painter, preacher & peacemaker." This is "Monday's Monument" #50. PA 1849 MARKERS ARTISTS BIBLE QUAKERS QUOTES

1982 - Kinder Mass Trespass Plaque, near Hayfield (England). "The Kinder Mass Trespass was an act of civil disobedience by young men from Manchester & Sheffield intended to secure free access to England’s mountains & moorlands. The ramblers walked from Bowden Bridge Quarry to climb the hill called Kinder Scout in the Derbyshire Peak District on April 24, 1932. The protest led to improved access to the countryside in the shape of national parks (from 1949), long-distance footpaths starting with the Pennine Way (opened in 1965) & various forms of the desired 'right to roam.'" This is "Monday's Monument" #53. 1982 PROTESTS RIGHTS WALKS ENGLAND ENVIRONMENT

1972 - Statue of John Henry, Great Bend Railroad Tunnel, Talcott, West Virginia (USA). "The legend of John Henry, the “steel-drivin’ man” who beat the newfangled steel drill in a contest of strength & then died from exhaustion, is probably based on a real person. The statue was erected in 1972 by the Ruritan Club, then refurbished & moved closer to the tunnel entrance in 2012. Many of the workers, like John Henry, were newly-freed slaves. The legend is about both power & weakness, about persistence, about man vs. machine &, ultimately, the dignity of labor – with an African-American hero." This is "Monday's Monument" #54. 1972 LABOR WV SLAVERY

2008 - Tartu Rahu / Tartu Peace Treaty Monument, Tartu (Estonia). "On February 2, 1920, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (brief predecessor to the USSR) renounced its rights to Estonia in perpetuity. Estonia, which had been under foreign domination for two centuries, marks this as its independence day." This is "Monday's Monument" #55. ESTONIA DATE TREATIES 2008

1986 - Lochnagar Crater, La Boisselle, near Albert (France). "On 1st July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme (the largest battle of the First World War on the Western Front), British Royal Engineers dug under German trenches & detonated 27 tons of high explosives, opening a massive crater & killing more than 6,000. The site was purchased in 1978 by Englishman Richard Dunning who erected a memorial cross on the rim of the crater in 1986 using reclaimed timber from a Tyneside church. Dunning explains: “Lochnagar...symbolises the eternal pain, loss & sorrow of millions of grieving people throughout Europe. I urge you to commemorate those who fell there...not simply by remembering them, but by seeking to make the world that they were so cruelly denied a much more peaceful, forgiving & loving place.'" NB: Scottish troops chose "Lochnagar," the name of a town in Scotland, as the code name of the secret tunnel. /// This is "Monday's Monument" #63. FRANCE 1986 CROSS WW-I

1988-1990-2009 - Reichs[anti]kolonialehrendenkmal, Bremen (Germany). "This ten-meter high structure was completed in 1931 as a monument to the German colonies which then included Cameroon, Togo, Deutsch-Ostafrika [Tanzania], Deutsch-Südwestafrika [Namibia] & several islands. For decades the Reichskolonialehrendenkmal / ______ stood as a powerful symbol of German colonial ambition. The allied forces chiseled off the inscriptions on the outside, but the plaques on the inside of “der elefant” remained, including a list of 1,400 colonial soldiers & officials who died defending the German empire. In 1988, a metal sign was created next to the elephant by the youth wing of the Bremen metal workers union in support of the Anti-Apartheid movement. In 1990, with the celebration of Namibian independence from South Africa, the elephant itself was re-dedicated as the “Bremen anti colonial monument” thereby attempting to invert its historical meaning yet retaining the original design. And in 2009 a new monument was created next to the elephant to the victims of German genocide. /// This is "Monday's Monument" #69. 1988 GERMANY NAMIBIA GENOCIDE

Date? - "Amani, Upendo & Umoja / Peace, Love & Unity Fountain," Uhuhru / Freedom Park, Nairobi (Kenya). Erected by president Daniel arap Moi [b.1924] where Kenyan independance was declared in 1963. "In practice, the Moi regime became repressive, and 'peace, love & unity' often meant acquiescing to Moi & his ruling party." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #71. KENYA UGLY

2010 - Bridge of Peace, Mtkvari River, Tbilisi (Georgia). "490 foot-long bow-shaped pedestrian bridge. Connects Old Tbilisi with the new district. Shimmers with an interactive light display at night generated by thousands of white LED's. The pulsating lights communicate, in Morse code, chemical elements from Mendeleev’s periodic table of the elements that make up a human body. The concept of the Italian designer Michele De Lucchi was 'the anthem of life & peace among people & nations.'" This is "Monday's Monument" #75. GEORGIA 2010 BRIDGES

1954 - "Social Consciousness," Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "At the West Entrance... By Jacob Epstein [1880-1959]. Suggest sympathy, tenderness & sorrow for human suffering. The three parts are (left to right) The Great Consoler (or Compassion), The Eternal Mother (or Destiny) & Succor (or Death). At the base of the statue the last two lines of Walt Whitman’s poem, America, is engraved: "Centre of equal daughters, equal sons, / All, all alike endear’d, grown, ungrown, young or old, / Strong, ample, fair, enduring, capable, rich, / Perennial with the Earth, with Freedom, Law and Love, / A grand, sane, towering, seated Mother, / Chair’d in the adamant of Time." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #83. NUDITY PA 1954

2003 - Winter War Monument, Suomussalmi (Finland). "The Winter War began with the Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939 & ended with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the League on 14 December 1939... This stone field reminds us of the human suffering which the war brought [and] impels the viewer to reflect on the mindlessness of war... The monument contains 105 brass bells, one for each day of the Winter War." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #85. FINLAND-ok 2003-ok BELLS-ok

October 10, 2003 - "...Difficult to Speak & Impossible to Remain Silent" (Clayton Jackson McGhie Memorial), Duluth, Minnesota (USA). "On June 15, 1920, Black circus workers Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson & Issac McGhie, falsely accused of rape, were hanged in Duluth while a white mob of 10,000 looked on. The lynchings made headlines throughout the whole country. The Chicago Evening Post wrote, “This is a crime of a Northern state, as black and ugly as any that has brought the South in disrepute.” The memorial dedication in 2003 drew thousands of people from all over the area. The first verse of Bob Dylan’s 1965 song 'Desolation Row' (he was born in Duluth) recalls the lynchings: 'They’re selling postcards of the hanging. / They’re painting the passports brown. / The beauty parlor is filled with sailors. / The circus is in town.'" /// This is "Monday's Monument" #99.

February 7, 2001 - "Civil Rights Garden, Dr. Martin Luther King Boulevard, Atlantic City, New Jersey (USA). "The first large-scale civil-rights monument in a northern state[sic]. Next to the city’s Carnegie Library." /// "Designed by Larry Kirkland of Washington, DC. Features a brick path through a garden of seasonal plants, flowers & ginkgo trees. Eleven black African granite columns are inscribed with quotes from slaves & students, presidents & preachers, all discussing the struggle of black Americans for equal treatment. The central column features an upraised hand & a large, bronze bell hovering over a reflecting pool. Often a venue for events such as the annual Fannie Lou Hamer Human & Civil Rights Symposium. Fannie Lou Hamer [1917-1977] was a founder of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which sent an alternate delegation to the 1964 Democratic Convention in Atlantic City. The credentials committee refused to compromise. She famously said, 'I’m sick and tired of being sick and tired.'" /// This is "Monday's Monument" #100. NJ 2001 CIVIL_RIGHTS HAMMER BELLS GARDENS

September 2015 - Louisville Downtown Civil Rights Trail, Louisville, Kentucky (USA). "Eleven markers along Fourth Street, the city’s primary corridor of restaurants, department stores & theaters. Through the 1950's, most white-owned establishments downtown excluded African Americans or treated them differently as customers -- for example, denying them the opportunity to try on clothes, to sit at lunch counters & to enter movie theaters. By winter 1961, small-scale demonstrations & efforts to secure legislation opening all such facilities had failed. The stirrings of protest activity that swept the South in the 1960's inspired African American teenagers who became the 'foot soldiers' of the struggle against discrimination in public accommodations in Louisville. Mass student demonstrations in spring 1961, a voter registration drive & a campaign to unseat an unsympathetic mayor & elect a new board of aldermen ultimately led to the passage of the public accommodations ordinance -- the first such law in the South." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #101.

2013 - Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). "A self-guided tour. Winds through downtown, marking significant locations along the 1963 Civil Rights march routes. Directs visitors by maps at each location. Speaks to the valor of both common people [sic] & to the spiritual leaders who spearheaded the fight against segregation & other forms of racism. Graphic photo graphs & dramatic cut-outs in the designs of the signs add to the rich experience. Begins at Kelly Ingram Park, on the corner of 6th Avenue North & 16th Street. Started on the 50th anniversary [date?] of the historic March in 2013. When completed it will have more than 200 signs in 70 sites." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #102. TRAILS CIVIL_RIGHTS ALABAMA 2013

2002 - Lunchcounter Four Monument, A&T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina (USA). "On Monday, February 1, 1960, Greensboro went down in history for the igniting the civil rights 'sit-in' movement in the nation. On this day, four North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University students sat down at the F.W. Woolworth Company’s segregated lunch counter & asked for service, which was refused. This sit-in fueled the campaign for racial integration in the South & beyond. The store & lunch counter, located in the Old Greensboro downtown historic district, remained in operation until 1993, when Woolworths closed. It is now a civil rights museum [qv]." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #104. CIVIL_RIGHTS NC 2002

July 2008 - Civil Rights Monument, Richmond, Virginia (USA). On statehouse grounds (on a corner opposite a statue of Harry F. Byrd, Sr. [1887-1966], the architect of the massive resistance movement against civil rights.). "Commemorates protests which helped bring about school desegregation in Virginia. Features 18 statues of leaders or participants in the Civil Rights Movement on four sides of a rectangular granite stone block onto which are carved quotes. Specific incident memorialized is a student-led strike in 1961 that protested the poor conditions in the segregated schools. This led to a lawsuit, Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, which was eventually one of the four cases combined into Brown v. Board of Education, the famous case in which the US Supreme Court, in 1954, officially overturned racial segregation in US public schools. /// This is "Monday's Monument" #105. CIVIL_RIGHTS VA 2008

//////////// TEMPORARY DESCRIPTION CREATED OR EDITED AFTER TRIP IN APRIL 2017 ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Year? - "Chinese Bell," in Springwood ("Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt"), Hyde Park, New York (USA). EWL visited on April 19, 2017. NPS guide called this a "Chinese bell" & said the Roosevelt family rang it to call guests to dinner. He disputed that it looks more Japanese than Chinese. I wonder when & how it was acquired. Click here to see "peace bells." BELLS

October 28, 1945 - May 14, 1994 - June 15, 2007 - Freedom Court," Franklin D. Roosevelt Library & Museum, Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site (Springwood Estate), Hyde Park, New York (USA). The "court" includes (1) 1945 bust of FDR by Walter Russell [1871-1963], (2) 1994 "BreakFree" by artist Edwina Sandys (grand-daughter of Churchill) & (3) 2007 bust of Winston Churchill by Oscar Nemon [1906-1985]. /// Made from four segments of the Berlin Wall, "'BreakFree' shows the figures of a man & a woman emerging from symbolic, giant barbed wire, expressing Man’s irresistible quest for freedom. Appropriately, this sculpture stands on a podium inscribed around the base with Roosevelt’s ‘Four Freedoms’:" Freedom of speech, Freedom of worship, Freedom from want & Freedom from fear. /// Right image shows Sandys & Nemon's daughter Aurelia at 2007 dedication of the Churchill bust during a conference whose theme was "Roosevelt & Churchill: The Legacy of Two Statesmen." In foreground is the 1945 bust of FDR by Walter Russell. (Sandys' "Breakthrough" [qv] was also made from the Berlin Wall & placed at Fulton, Missouri, in 1990.) Visited by EWL on April 19, 2017. FOUR_FREEDOMS BERLIN_WALL 1945 1994 2007 NY FDR US-UK

November 9, 1990 - Breakthrough, Latshaw Plaza, adjacent to Winston Churchill Memorial, Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri (USA). By artist Edwina Sandys (grand-daughter of Churchill). Fulton is "Where Churchill first coined the historic phrase the 'Iron Curtain' [in March 1946]. [This] has been called the most significant monument to be constructed on American soil since the Vietnam [Veterans] Memorial. Created from eight massive sections of the Berlin Wall. Features male & female forms cut out from the wall’s concrete surface, symbolizing a passage through the wall to freedom." /// Right image shows how four segments were cut off & separately erected in Hyde Park, New York. /// Also see the 2000 MS&T Millennium Arch by Edwina Sandys in Rolla, Missouri. Visited by EWL. 1990 MISSOURI

October 19, 1996 - Kingston Peace Park, 64 North Front Street (at Crown Street), Stockade Historic District, Kingston, Stockade Historic District, Ulster County, New York (USA). Apparently constructed on a small vacant lot (site of home of Jacobus S. Bruyn [1749-1823]) near historic center of town (which was fortified during the American Revolution). Connection to "peace" is unclear (except for a small, wooden plaque erected by supporters of Sri Chinmoy [1931-2007] to one side of the principle plaque) designating this to be a "Peace Blossom Park." /// Mural by Matthew Pleva on overlooking wall is entitled "The Hobgoblin of Old Dutch." /// Visited by EWL on April 20, 2017. /// FYI, Kingston became the first capital of New York state in 1777 but was almost immediately burned by British troops. PARKS SRI_CHINMOY NY 1996

1976 - Monument for Sojourner Truth, Stockade Historic District, Kingston, Ulster County, New York (USA). "A marker honoring the life of Sojourner Truth [c1797-1883] stands on the front lawn of the Ulster County Courthouse." She was born into slavery in Ulster County. NY 1976 TRUTH SLAVERY

1991 - World Peace Sanctuary, World Peace Prayer Society, 26 Benton Road, Wassaic, Town of Amenia, Dutchess County, New York (USA). "Occupies 154 acres. The office building [left image] was renovated from a cow barn to an office which now serves as the international headquarters of the World Peace Prayer Society, the Peace Pole Project & Peace Pals International [for children]. The annual 'A Call To Peace' gathering is presented in the Sacred Grove [right image]. [The gathering] celebrates the International Day of Peace [with] highlighting ceremonies & rituals to bless the Native American Nations, the 50 US States & its territories & the countries of the world in a colorful procession of flag Ceremonies." Entry #626 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). /// Seen on April 21, 2017.

1991 - Peace Path, World Peace Sanctuary, World Peace Prayer Society, 26 Benton Road, Wassaic, New York (USA). "Lined with Peace Poles on both sides, representing each of the 192 UN member nations in the world." Entry #626 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). /// Seen on April 21, 2017.