53 Peace Monuments in
Alabama, Florida & Mississippi (USA)
Right click image to enlarge.
N/A - Slave Cabins, Kingsley Plantation, Timucuan Ecological & Historical Preserve, Jacksonville, Florida (USA). "A fifth of a mile from the plantation home of Zephaniah Kingsley are the remains of 23 tabby cabins. Arranged in a semicircle, there were 32 cabins originally, 16 on either side of the road. This area represents the slave community, homes of the men, women, and children who lived and worked on Kingsley Plantation more than 150 years ago." Unintentional monument.
May 24, 1907 - Statue of Peace, Vicksburg National Military Park, Vicksburg, Mississippi (USA). The 90-foot high monument, constructed of Mt. Airy granite, features the statue of "Peace" that was sculpted by William Couper [1853-1942]. In her hands, "Peace" holds a sword and a shield to signify that the soldiers of both armies have placed the weapons of war in her eternal care. Built by State of Minnesota.
February 1, 1929 - Bok Tower & Gardens, Historic Bok Sanctuary, Lake Wales, Florida (USA). National Historic Landmark. Gardens by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. "Symbolize [the concern of] Edward Bok [1863-1930] for World Peace & Beauty, themes which are interwoven throughout his concept for creating this gift, the overall design including landscape & architecture, and in the small details. The dove, a symbol of peace, recurs in many styles & materials throughout the tower & gardens." (Stephenson 1990) 1955 - Japanese Stone Lantern, Historic Bok Sanctuary, Lake Wales, Florida (USA). Plaque "This Japanese stone lantern was a gift of Usaburo Tsujita of Tokyo, member of Edward Bok's staff 1922-1925. The lantern, representing seven years of his savings, is placed within direct sight of the grave of Edward Bok [1863-1930] as a tribute and symbolizes, with its encircling doves, humanity's universal hope for world peace."
1938 - Anti-War Monument, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida (USA). Artillery shell made into a monument by Hamilton Holt [1872-1951], president of Rollins College. Top inscription: "Pause, passer by, and hang your head in shame." Now mission from Internet is image of Holt visiting Belgian trenches during World War I. Compare 1936 monument of Sylvaia Pankhurst in London, England (UK). M
June 21, 1936 - "Anti-Air War Memorial," NW of Mornington Road & the High Road, Woodford Green, Essex, near London (England). Bottom image. Sculpted by Eric Benfield in the shape of a bomb for suffrigist (and onetime communist) Sylvia Pankhurst [1882-1960]. Rededicated on July 4, 1936, after being vandalized. "In October 1935, Pankhurst was outraged by Mussolini's assault on Ethiopia, the only part of Africa that remained independent and had joined the League of Nations. Unveiled that same month by a group that included Pankhurst and [Tesfaye] Zaphiro, the secretary of the Imperial Ethiopian Legation, the monument stood prominently outside Red Cottage [which Pankhurst shared with Italian anarchist Silvio Corio] along with a plaque dedicating it ironically to politicians who, at the World Disarmament Conference [which] opened in Geneva in February 1932, 'upheld the right to use bombing planes.'" One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website. 1 of 9 monuments in "A Peace Trail Through London" by Valerie Flessati (1998). See similar monument at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida (USA). 1 of 45 monuments in "Peace Trails through London" by Valerie Flessati (2012), page 21.
1943 - Four Freedoms Memorial, Madison, Florida (USA). "A striking sculpture of four angels, their wings unfurled in the wind. Dedicated to Colin P. Kelly, a B-17 pilot whose plane was shot down just days after Pearl Harbor. Represents President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Four Freedoms that he articulated in his 1941 State of the Union address. Roosevelt said, 'We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms: Freedom of speech, freedom of every person to worship God in his own way, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.'"
1943 - Monument of States, 300 East Monument Avenue, Kississimi, Florida (USA). "Begun in 1942 after the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, the Monument of States was the vision of Dr. Charles Bressler-Pettis, a local tourism booster, who wanted a physical symbol of American unity in the dark days of early World War II. He wrote letters to every governor and to President Franklin D. Roosevelt to send him local rocks. (No clue where the President got his rock.) The donations arrived in a variety of formats -- blocks of native granite, chunks of quartz, small boulders, fossils, hunks of old buildings. One contributor even sent a human skull. By 1943 the Doctor had a complete set [of rocks] from the then-lower-48 [states], and had them mortared into a 50-foot-tall pseudo-pyramid of garishly-colored concrete slabs that weighed 30 tons. Each slab had a rock embedded in it, and was inscribed with the donor's name and location: 'Idaho, Chase A. Clark Gov. 1941-42,' 'Lottie Lawler,' 'Wisconsin Dairy Land,' 'Harvard Medical School.'"
1957 - Tower of Peace, US Highway 27, Clermont, Florida (USA). 270-foot tourist attraction. World's tallest concrete block tower. Originally called Placid Tower. Then Tower of Peace. Then Happiness Tower. Now marketed as Citrus Tower. Click here for unfavorable review from Roadside America.
1964 - John F. Kennedy Torch of Friendship, Bayfront Park, Miami, Florida (USA). Contains seals of Latin American countries. "In addition to the monument to Simon Bolivar, there is also an interesting monument to the Torch of Friendship among the countries of the Americas (minus Cuba, of course). The monument is dedicated to assassinated US President John F. Kennedy, and the design of the structure is very much reminiscent of the 1960’s (i.e. the typeface of the country names). There’s not much else to the Torch of Friendship, although it is an interesting stop on Biscayne Blvd."
March 1965 - Friendship Fountain, St. Johns River Park (aka Friendship Park), Southbank Riverwalk, Jacksonville (Florida). "The 'world’s largest and tallest' fountain when constructed. Now one of the city’s most recognizable and popular attractions for locals as well as tourists. Many residents have an emotional attachment to the fountain, and it is a meeting point for people and organizations hosting downtown events. The fountain and its architect Taylor Hardwick, were the focus of an advertisement campaign by German manufacturer Hansgrohe."
About 1973 - Big Spring International Park, Corner of Church & Williams, Huntsville, Alabama (USA). "First picnic area established in 1898. Got its international flavor from various gifts given to the city from other countries. In 1973 Norway gave a 1903 light beacon as well as a 1924 fog bell. In 1987 Japan gave the city the red bridge which is now a main attraction in the park. The park also boasts 60 cherry trees from Japan and a park bench given by Great Britain." Info courtesy of Anna Lee.
Date? - Peace Memorial, Sylvan Abbey Memorial Park & Funeral Home, Clearwater, Florida (USA). "This monument to peace is Excalibur. Can you disturb this peace by removing it from the stone?" Plaque: "THIS MEMORIAL IS DEDICATED TO PEACE AND TO MAN'S SEARCH FOR IT. And they shall beat their swords into plowshares. Nation shall not lift up sword agains nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore. Isaiah 2:4."
After March 14, 1977 - Grave of Fannie Lou Hamer, Ruleville, Mississippi (USA). Fannie Lou Hamer [1917-1977] was was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader. Tombstone engraved "I am sick and tired of being sick and tired." After March 14, 1977 - Statue of Fannie Lou Hamer, Fannie Lou Hamer Memorial Garden, 726 Byron Street, Ruleville, Mississippi (USA). Fannie Lou Hamer [1917-1977] was was an American voting rights activist & civil rights leader. Famous for saying "I am sick and tired of being sick and tired." at 1964 Democratic national convention in Atlantic City.
April 7, 1979 - "Swords Into Plowshares," Humphreys County Library, 105 South Hayden, Belzoni, Mississippi (USA). "Sculpture of wooden plow handles & welded iron plowshares. Approximately 39 x 27 x 22 inches on a stone base 19 x 16 x 82 inches. Mildred Love Pepper, sculptor. Belzoni Garden Club, donor." Entry #546 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Civil Rights Memorial Park, just east of Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, Alabama (USA). A poorly maintained collection of folk murals and small monuments. The three illustrated were erected by Evelyn Lowrey of Atlanta, Georgia.
1983 - Name? (Statue #44), Highway A1A Northbound, Faces the ocean. 30-feet tall. Carved by Peter Wolf Toth whose "Trail of the Whispering Giants" has at least one Indian statue in every state.
1989 - Civil Rights Memorial (fountain), Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), Montgomery, Alabama (USA). By Maya Lin. A memorial to 40 people who died between 1954 (year of Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education) and 1968 (year of Martin Luther King's assassination.) Civil Rights Memorial Center (CRMC) added in 2005.
February 1990 - Holocaust Memorial, Dade Boulevard at Meridian Avenue, Miami Beach, Florida (USA). Click here for reviews.
1991 - Monument to Viola Gregg Liuzzo [1925-1965], highway between Selma & Montgomery, Alabama (USA). "This brave [Unitarian] civil rights heroine of Detroit, Michigan, was killed by Ku Klux Klansmen, [two days] after the Selma-Montgomery March in 1965. Since Mrs. [Evelyn G.] Lowery established and dedicated this monument in 1991, it has been defaced and vandalized many times. But it still stands strong and tall as a testimony to the promise that 'We Shall Overcome!'" Monument is isolated on side of the highway where the murder took place. A fence has been constructed to protect it from further vandalism.
1992 - Florida Holocaust Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida (USA). "Formerly known as the Holocaust Center, the museum moved to its current location in 1998 and officially changed to its current name in 1999. One of the largest Holocaust museums in the US, it houses an actual box car (from Gdynia, Poland) that transported victims of the Nazi regime to the concentration camps." Entry #226 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1992 - Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, 520-16th Street North, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). "A large interpretive museum and research center. Depicts the struggles of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1950's & 1960's."
1993 - National Voting Rights Museum & Institute(MVRM), 1020 Water Avenue, Selma, Alabama (USA). "Serves as a living reminder that we stand on the shoulders of giants." See Slavery & Civil War Museum.
1997 - Atticus Finch Monument, northeast side of Old Courthouse, Monroeville, Alabama (USA). "Harper Lee [1926-2016], author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird, was born and raised in Monroeville, and the novel's fictional town of Maycomb is modeled on Monroeville. Atticus Finch, its central character, is a lawyer, resident of Maycomb & the father of 'Jem' & 'Scout.' In 2003, Atticus Finch, as portrayed by Gregory Peck in the 1962 film adaptation, was voted by the American Film Institute to be the greatest hero in American film. Erected by the Alabama Bar Association, the monument presents Atticus Finch as the ideal model for nondiscriminatory justice." /// Inscription: “'Lawyers, I suppose, were children once.' These words of Charles Lamb [1775-1834] are the epigraph to Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird, a novel about childhood and about a great and noble lawyer, Atticus Finch. Children are the original and universal people of the world; it is only when they are educated into hatreds and depravities that children become the bigots, the cynics, the greedy, and the intolerant, and it is then that 'there hath passed away a glory from the earth.' Atticus Finch challenges the legal profession to shift the paradigm and make the child the father of the man in dealing with the basic conflicts and struggles that permeate moral existence. Symbolically, it is the legal profession that now sits in the jury box as Atticus Finch concludes his argument to the jury; 'In the name of God, do your duty.'" CHILDREN 1997
July 4, 1999 - Atheists in Foxholes Monument, Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF), Lake Hypatia Freethought Hall, Munford, Alabama (USA). Inscribed: "In memory of ATHEISTS IN FOXHOLES and the countless FREETHINKERS [atheists, agnostics & skeptics of any persuasion] who have served this country with honor and distinction. Presented by the national FFRF with hope that in the future humankind may learn to avoid all war." The FFRF originally proposed an "Atheists in Foxholes" monument to replace a cross on public property in San Diego, California, but the foundation's formal bid was rejected in favor of religious bidders.
April 2-6, 2001 - Key West Peace Summit Memorial, Key West, Florida (USA). The site of several peace talks, the most recent is commemorated by this display of flags. Plaque: "On these grounds on April 2-6, 2001, Secretary of State Colin Powell opened peace talks between the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan.... The flags are, left to right, Azerbaijan, Organization for Securty & Cooperation in Europe, France, Russia, the USA & Armenia.
October 20, 2001 - Kentucky Memorial, Kentucky Avenue, Vicksburg, Mississippi (USA). "Soldiers from Kentucky fought on both sides of the Battle. The Memorial is a statue of Presidents Lincoln & Davis (both Kentucky natives) with words from both of them calling for reconciliation between the North & South. At the start of the war Kentucky declared itself to be neutral and only sided with Union after a Confederate invasion. Even so, the Conferdacy still had support there and was able to recruit soldiers both then and during a later invasion in 1862." Built by State of Kentucky.
June 2002 - Slavery & Civil War Museum, 1410 Water Avenue, Selma, Alabama (USA). An affiliate of the National Voting Rights Museum & Institute [qv]. Visited by EWL.
September 2002 - "The Fin Project: From Swords Into Plowshares," Pelican Harbor, North Bay Village, Miami, Florida (USA). 24 submarine fins. Two monuments in different cities (Miami & Seattle, Washington) made from the surplus fins of nuclear attack submarines by sculptor John T. Young.
November 4, 2002 - "Peace," Broward College, Downtown Center Building 31, Fort Lauderdale, Florida (USA). Stainless steel sculpture by Mexican artist Leonardo Nierman.
2003 - "Circle of Peace" Sculpture, Hospital for Women & Children, Huntsville, Alabama (USA). Sculpture by Gary Lee Price. Same sculpture erected in Loveland, Colorado (USA) in 2001. Info courtesy of Anna Lee. S
2001 - "Circle of Peace" Sculpture, Benson Park Sculpture Garden, Loveland, Colorado (USA). Sculpture depicts seven children of different racial backgrounds playing. By Gary Lee Price.
November 2003 - Peace Mural, Art, War & Peace Museum, 1620 Washington Avenue, Miami, Florida (USA). By Vietnamese artist Houng. "In its entirety, over 800 feet in length & 8 feet tall, comprised of nearly 2000 paintings that capture highly evocative images and concepts of war and related themes, including the effects of war on women and children, veterans, refugees, torture, and displacement." Gallery moved from Jensen Beach to Miami in November 2007.
March 7, 2005 - James Reeb Memorial, Sidewalk, Selma, Alabama (USA). On March 9, 1965 (two days after "Bloody Sunday", three Unitarian Universalist ministers -- Clark Olsen, Orloff Miller and James Reeb [1927-1965] -- were attacked near this spot after leaving Strong's Restaurant (then called Walker's Cafe). Reeb died two days later. Photo by EWL during dedication ceremony shows Rev. Clark Olsen (speaking) & Evelyn G. Lowery (looking on), wife of Rev. Joseph P. Lowery. This is one of 13 civil rights memorials created by Mrs. Lowery in Alabama. Photo by EWL.
2005 - Civil Rights Memorial Center (CRMC), Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), Montgomery, Alabama (USA). "Adjacent to the Civil Rights Memorial (qv). In addition to exhibits about Civil Rights Movement martyrs, the Memorial Center houses a 56-seat theater, a classroom for educational activities & and the Wall of Tolerance." The names of more than half a million people who have pledged to take a stand against hate & work for justice & tolerance in their daily lives flow continuously down the 20-by-40 foot wall. Visitors have the opportunity to take the pledge & add their names to the Wall during their visit.
2005 - Martin Luther King, Jr. Globe, Cultural Plaza, Lake Worth, Florida (USA). "Designed in 2003 & completed in 2005. Original project was organized by the Lake Worth Kiwanis Club, & donations came from a variety of sources... The globe never worked as intended. Residents could manually spin the Globe, but it did not spin on its own, as originally designed. The instillation lacked a filter cartridge, causing the water to become dirty over time. Undersized plumbing & faulty pipes, among other flaws, contributed to the problem. All of these problems were addressed in the recent repairs... Quotes on each side of the Globe’s pedestal, by Martin Luther King Jr., have been re-etched for increased clarity. One side reads, 'We will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. Sooner or later all people of the world will have to discover a way to live together in peace.' Additionally, the entire Globe has been re-etched adding definition to all of the seven Continents."
October 9, 2005 - "Japanese Belfry & Friendship Bell, Hulsey Woods, Birgingham Botanical Gardens (BBG), 2612 Lane Park Road, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). "A [Rotary] Centennial Twin Club project between the Rotary Club of Shades Valley, Alabama, [and] the Rotary Club of Osaka Central Japan. The objective of the project is to promote world peace, friendship & understanding through the exposure to an authentic Japanese bell housed in a traditional style Japanese belfry. The Rotary Club of Osaka Central donated the bell & designed the architectural plans for the belfry."
Date? (Before 2008) - International Museum of Radiant Peace (IMRP), 5601 Central Avenue, St. Petersburg, Florida (USA). "The first-ever & only museum in the world dedicated to Radiant Peace®. Completely remodeled in January 2008. Features educational & interactive displays about Radiant Peace along with award-winning writing, projects & art by adults & children around the world... Radiant Peace is within us all & is available to everyone. Radiant Peace is natural, whole, harmless, benevolent energy within all our hearts relating us all & making us whole. Radiant Peace is not dualistic in nature, as in cycles of war & peace. Radiant Peace transcends the limits of race, age, gender, politics & religion."
2006 - International Peace Garden, Coral Springs Museum of Art, Coral Springs, Florida (USA). Left image shows the Peter King "Gateway to Peace."
September 21, 2007 - Wellington Rotary Peace Park, Wellington, Florida (USA). Surrounds a large peace pole.
December 6, 2009 - "Gratitude to America. America is the victory of peace," along The Baywalk (between Miami Circle & Brickell Park), Miami, Florida (USA). Borders the Related Group’s Icon Brickell. "A 15-foot bronze monument by Russian sculptor Gregory Pototsky." "Conveys the ideas of democracy, freedom & tolerance." "Erected by Universal Artistik (founded in 2008 to represent artists from all over the world) together with Related group (one of the largest global development companies that built the Time Warner towers in New York)."
December 10, 2009 - Obama Nobel Peace Mural, Miami Art Palace, 7900 SW 77 Avenue, Miami, Florida (USA). Measures 200 feet long by 8 feet tall. Made of 700 original paintings devoted to one subject, USA Transformation. Unveiled the same day that President Obama travels to Oslo (Norway) to accept his Nobel Peace Prize. By artist Huong. Presented by the Peace Mural Foundation. Huong says, "I was in Washington, DC, on Inauguration Day, with 1.8 million others... These panels reflect what I saw and felt on that day and what I have been seeing and hearing in the months since... As the Nobel Committee noted, in Obama’s America, 'Dialogue and negotiations are preferred as instruments for resolving even the most difficult international conflicts.' So stop for a moment. See what dialogue looks like, and hear the many voices. YES, WE CAN hear each other with respect. It’s the path to peace." Click here for a news account of the opening.
September 25, 2010 - "Path of peace," Mile Marker 99, Key Largo, Florida (USA). "[First of] a string of 22 outdoor sites throughout the Florida Keys where people can relax, gather their thoughts & re-energize their souls. 'They will be spaces for people to go who are in distress, or just so they can get away from computers, televisions and cell phones,' said Denise Downing, a member of the Keys to Peace leadership team. 'The sites will be a place to go & focus on gathering more inner peace.' The idea is to build peace parks from Key Largo to Key West, & Downing said Keys to Peace has had initial talks with the Key West Tropical Forest & Botanical Gardens. In fact, Downing said she envisions a 'peace trail' that links one peace park to another along the Keys. /// "Each park will feature a peace bell made from a recycled dive tank, an identification plaque ("Community Peace Park – We are ALL the Keys To Peace.") & seating. Keys To Peace will provide host sites with a bell primed & ready for custom artwork. Mounting of the bells & installation of additional enhancements (sculpture, wind chimes, peace poles, labyrinths, water features, etc.) will vary by location." April 9, 2011 - Southernmost Peace Park, West Martello Tower, Key West, Florida (USA).
2013 - Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). "A self-guided tour. Winds through downtown, marking significant locations along the 1963 Civil Rights march routes. Directs visitors by maps at each location. Speaks to the valor of both common people [sic] & to the spiritual leaders who spearheaded the fight against segregation & other forms of racism. Graphic photographs & dramatic cut-outs in the designs of the signs add to the rich experience. Begins at Kelly Ingram Park, on the corner of 6th Avenue North & 16th Street. Started on the 50th anniversary [date?] of the historic March in 2013. When completed it will have more than 200 signs in 70 sites." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #102. TRAILS CIVIL_RIGHTS ALABAMA 2013
December 12, 2013 - "Warehouses Used in the Slave Trade," 122 Commerce Street, Montgomery, Alabama (USA). Outside the Equal Justice Initiative building (once a slave warehouse). One of a series of markers for slavery & lynching by The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI). Bryan Stevenson seen in image. December 12, 2013 - "Montgomery's Slave Traders," 300 Water Street, Montgomery, Alabama (USA). Outside Union Station. "Describes the slave trade both by ship & by train." One of a series of markers for slavery & lynching by The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI).
December 12, 2014 - Bust of Moses White, Historical Monument Trail, Tampa, Florida (USA). One of six busts added to the trail along Tampa's Riverwalk in 2014. Unveiled beside the Tampa Convention Center & joined 12 other busts already in place on the 2.5-mile Riverwalk connecting downtown to Tampa Heights. Restaurant owner Moses White [1915-1984] was known as 'Mayor of Central Avenue,' Tampa's African-American community. He was also known for feeding those less fortunate. In the 1960's, White was among those who helped bridge a racial divide in the city.
December 11, 2015 - "Lynching in America," Brighton, Alabama (USA). One of a series of markers for slavery & lynching by The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI). July 31, 2016 - "Lynching at Letohatchee," Letohatchee, Lownes County, Alabama (USA). One of a series of markers for slavery & lynching by The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) -- this one for 14 documented lynchings in Lownes County. SLAVERY 2016 MARKERS
January 12, 2017 - Freedom Riders National Monument, Anniston, Alabama (USA). "Includes the Greyhound Bus station where a bus carrying an interracial group of activists was attacked in 1961." /// One of 5 new national monuments decreed at the same time by outgoing President Barak Obama under the Antiquities Act of 1906.
January 12, 2017 - Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument, Birmingham, Alabama (USA). "Includes portions of the Historic Birmingham Civil Rights District, including the A.G. Gaston Motel, the neighboring Birmingham Civil Rights Institute, the 16th Street Baptist Church (where four black girls were killed in a KuKluxKlan bombing in 1963), Bethel Baptist Church, Kelly Ingram Park, the Colored Masonic Temple, St. Paul Lutheran Church & portions of the 4th Avenue Business District." /// One of 5 new national monuments decreed at the same time by outgoing President Barak Obama under the Antiquities Act of 1906.
December 9, 2017 - Mississippi Civil Rights Museum, 222 North Street, Jackson, Mississippi (USA). "Eight galleries focus on the years 1945-1976 when Mississippi was ground zero for the national Civil Rights Movement." /// "President Trump's presence at the [dedication] drew a sharp rebuke from some prominent African-American elected officials & civil rights leaders, prompting some of them to skip the opening altogether. Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga.; Rep. Bennie Thompson, D-Miss.; & Derrick Johnson, president & CEO of the NAACP, all publicly declared that they were not going to the opening ceremony, citing what they said was Trump's tendency to stir racial divisions & his questionable record on civil rights issues of importance to ethnic & racial minorities."
April 26, 2018 - Memorial to Peace and Justice, Montgomery, Alabama (USA). A national memorial to victims of lynching & a museum that explores African American history "from enslavement to mass incarceration" will be situated within 150 yards of one of the South's most prominent slave auction sites & the Alabama River dock & rail station where tens of thousands of enslaved black people were trafficked. To be built & operated by The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) (headed by Bryan Stevenson). Will contain high-tech exhibits, artifacts, recordings & films, as well as comprehensive data & information on lynching & racial segregation [&] will connect the history of racial inequality with contemporary issues of mass incarceration, excessive punishment & police violence." /// Right image shows sites of 4,075 racial terror lynchings of African Americans in 12 southern states between 1877 & 1950. MUSEUMS BLACKS 2018 RIGHTS
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