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Peace Monuments in North Central States (USA)
(States of MN, MT, ND, SD & WY)

Right click image to enlarge.

January 29, 1879 - Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, Crow Agency, Montana (USA). "The site was first preserved as a national cemetery on January 29, 1879, and in 1881 a memorial obelisk by Durwood Brandon (left image) was erected on Last Stand Hill over the mass grave of the solidiers of the 7th Calvery."

1903 - Wounded Knee Monument, Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota (USA). Commemorates the massacre of Wounded Knee on Dec. 29, 1890. "In 1903 a monument was erected at the site of the mass grave by surviving relatives to honor the 'many innocent women and children who knew no wrong' who were killed in the massacre. Today, some family members are still seeking compensation from the US government as heirs of the victims but they have been unsuccessful in receiving any monetary settlement so far."

June 18, 1932 - Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Alberta (Canada) & Montana (USA). "Oldest international peace park [sic]." Established on the initiative of Rotary International. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. Upper image is cover of Saturday Evening Post for August 5, 1961, showing a happy family on the international border. Click here for Wikipedia article. Entry #1210 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

2007 - Peace Exhibit, Goat Haunt Ranger Station, Glacier National Park (USA). At south end of Upper Waterton Lake. No road access! "Visitors can view a new International Peace Park exhibit at Goat Haunt. The exhibits explore the history of the Peace Park - the world's first - as well as the meanings of peace in the world." ["Celebrating 75 Years of Peace & Friendship," National Park Service, July 19, 2007].
2007? - Peace Exhibit, Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). At north end of Upper Waterton Lake. Peace Exhibit exists according to Nigel & Antonia Young.


July 14, 1932 - International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). "2,339 acre botanical garden on the world’s longest unfortified border." Various monuments built over the years, including Peace Cairn (qv), Peace Carillon (qv), Peace Chapel, two 20-story concrete Peace Towers & 9/11 Memorial. Click here for Wikipedia article. Entry #1209 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1932 - Cairn, International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). Text of plaque: "To God in His Glory we two nations dedicate this garden and pledge to ourselves that as long as men live we will not take up arms agtins one another."


June 25, 1933 - Old Crossing Treaty Monument, Red Lake County Park, Huot, Red Lake County, Minnesota (USA). Life-sized bronze statue of a Chippewa/Ojibwe man holding a peace pipe. Sculpted by Carl C. Mose [1903-1973]. At the site of the 1863 Treaty of Old Crossing between the US government & Red Lake/Pembina Ojibwe in which the Ojibwe cede about 11,000,000 acres of the Red River Valley (an area approximately 180 miles long north-to-south & 127 miles wide) for $510,000 & various goods, provisions & presents. This same site was well-known even before the treaty. For about 30 years in the mid-1800's it was the chosen location by oxcart drivers - freighting goods on the Pembina Trail between St. Paul & today's Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada) - to cross/ford the Red Lake River. For the last 20 years, Old Crossing Treaty Park has been used by L'Association des Francais du Nord / The association of the French of the North (AFRAN) to host a multi-cultural Chautauqua & French Festival in late August. The festival involves native Americans & Canadians, Metis, Red River Valley residents of French-Canadian descent & people of other ethnic heritage."


1936 - "Vision of Peace," Memorial Concouse, St. Paul City Hall, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Largest carved onyx figure in the world. Weighs 60 tons & oscillates 66 degrees left & right. Although dedicated in 1936 to the war veterans of Ramsey County, pacifist sculptor Carl Milles [1875-1955] sipulated that it should symbolize world peace. Officially named "Vision of Peace" in 1994. Milles also created "God the Father of the Rainbow" in Stockholm, Sweden (qv). Entry #542 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


April 25, 1947 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park, National Park Service (NPS), Medora, North Dakota (USA). Includes Roosevelt's two ranches: Maltese Cross (restored) & Elkhorn (remote). Established as Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park in 1947 and became a National Park in 1978. Roosevelt first went to ND in 1883 and spent about 300 days there over a 10 year period. Theodore Roosevelt [1858-1919] was US President 1901-1909 and received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.


June 3, 1948 - Crazy Horse Memorial, Black Hills, South Dakota (USA). "Carved into a mountain, in the tradition of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial (on which Korczak Ziolkowski [1908-1982] had worked with Gutzon Borglum). The sculpture was begun by Ziolkowski in 1948. When completed, it will be 641 feet (195 m) wide and 563 feet (172 m) high." 60th anniversary was celebrated in 2008 (logo at right).


About 1960 - Concordia Language Villages, Bemidji, Minnesota (USA). "Premiere language & cultural immersion program in the USA. We are advocates for language learning and we take pride in our role in creating more language advocates... Boldly and optimistically pursues a vision of peace & understanding by introducing learners to the languages & cultures of our world." "Permanent site just north of Bemidji. Nestled on over 800 acres of wooded land around Turtle River Lake. Brings approximately 10,000 people to the area annually. Home to ten architecturally authentic Language Villages: El Lago del Bosque (Spanish Language Village), Lac du Bois (French Language Village), Lesnoe Ozero (Russian Language Village), Salolampi (Finnish Language Village), Sjölunden (Swedish Language Village), Skogfjorden (Norwegian Language Village), Skovsøen (Danish Language Village), Sup sogui Hosu (Korean Language Village), Waldsee (German Language Village), Al-Waha (Arabic Language Village), and Les Voyageurs."


1980 - Statue of Jennette Rankin, Second Floor, State Capitol, Helena, Monana (USA). Original of statue by Terry Mimnaugh honoring Jennette Rankin [1880-1973] in Statuary Hall, US Capitol, Washington, DC (USA). Entry #576 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1985 - Statue of Jennette Rankin, Statuary Hall, US Capitol, Washington, DC (USA). Duplicate of statue by Terry Mimnaugh honoring Jennette Rankin [1880-1973] in state capitol, Helena, Montana (USA). Entry #1117 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


July 14, 1982 - US postage stamp commemorating the 50th anniversary of the International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada).

1987 - Reconciliation Park, Mankato, Minnesota (USA). Relations between the Dakota & non-Dakota people of the area were strained for decades after the US-Dakota War, particularly the hanging of the 38 Dakota. In 1980 the City of Mankato presented the Dakota people with a park. In 1987, the 125th anniversary of the execution, Minnesota's Governor declared a Year of Reconciliation. The City of Mankato commissioned local artist Tom Miller to create the statue 'Winter Warrior' that stands at the site of the execution, next to the Mankato Public Library. In 1992 the City of Mankato purchased the site of the execution and named it Reconciliation Park. People from the Mankato community worked with Dakota people to raise funds for a statue of a white buffalo at the park. People gather there every December 26th, the anniversary of the execution, in prayer and remembrance.
Date? - Peace Plaza, First Street (by the Mayo Clinic), Rochester, Minnesota (USA). Renovated with ribbon cutting on June 19, 2008.


June 5, 1994 - Ohara Peace Bell, Enger Park, Duluth, Minneasota (USA). Cast by Oigo Bell Works, Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture (Japan). Commemorates sister city relationship with Ohara (now Isumi), Chiba Prefecture (Japan). Replaces bell cast in 1686 for Cho-ei Temple in Ohara which was brought to Duluth by sailors of the USS Duluth in 1946 and returned to Ohara on May 2, 1954. Right image is the original bell (now called the Japan-US Friendship Peace Bell). Middle image shows children's book about the bell by Margi Preus (2008). The story is also told in Resonance, a film by Square Lake Productons, Stillwater, Minnesota (USA).

1995 - "Heroes of Freedom, Justice and Peace," 175 Concord Street, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Mural by Craig Davis. Depicts eight peacemakers. Maintained by El Burrito Mercado.
1998 - Peace Garden, Lyndale Park, Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Includes a peace rock garden (qv) and stones from Hiroshima & Nagasaki (qv). Designated an International Peace Site in 1999. Entry #523 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).



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2000 - Traces Center for History and Culture, Landmark Center, 75 West Fifth Street (Suite 211), St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Traces "preserves and present stories of people from the Midwest and Germany or Austria who encountered each other during World War II." It is "a peace project presenting itself as a history museum," according o founder/executive director Michael Luick-Thrams. Traces has six exhibits documenting Friends' responses to the Holocaust: AFSC's refugee centers at Scattergood Hostel [in Iowa] and at Quaker Hill in Richmond, Indiana; Leonard Kenworthy's year in wartime Berlin helping would-be refugees get out of the Third Reich; Clarence Pickett's two fact-finding tours to Nazi Germany; and others. Clarence Pickett [1884-1965] accepted the 1947 Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). Landmark Center is a former Federal courthouse, built circa 1896, around a six-story neoclassical Victorian atrium. Click here for an article by the founder. Has traveling exhibit (as seen in bottom image).


November 11, 2001 - Ring of Peace, First United Methodist Church, Beech & 2nd Streets, Casper, Wyoming (USA). By Chris Navarro. "You may remember that Matthew Shepherd, a young gay man, was murdered by homophobes in Laramie, Wyoming, in the late 1990s. There's nothing in Laramie to commemorate him, but if you visit the website his parents created, they recommend you see a statue called the Ring of Peace in Casper, that's dedicated first to Matthew, and also to the victims of the Columbine shootings [and 9/11]... a nice idea, but it's just sad how run down and crappy it looks. It was possible for me to take a nice picture of it, but only if I was very careful to crop out almost all the surroundings."


2002 - Spirit Warriors Sculpture," Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, Crow Agency, Montana (USA). Iron sculpture by native artist Colleen Cutschall honoring Native Americans was placed next to the 1881 memorial (qv) after winning a "Peace Through Unity" competition. "On the memorial's walls are the names of many of the warriors involved in the battle and words of wisdom they are credited with saying. A "Spirit Gate Window" in the memorial's side looks directly at the Custer memorial on the hill in a gesture to welcome the Calvary dead into the memorial's circle."


2003 - Garden for Peace , Cheyenne Botanical Gardens, Lions Park, Cheyenne, Wyoming (USA). "The Cheyene Botanic Garden [sic] attracts over 25,000 visitors each year, representing all 50 states and over 30 countries. It is open year-round and admission is free."


October 25, 2006 - "Spirit of Peace," Lake Harriet Peace Garden, Lyndale Park, Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Sculpture by artist Caprice Glaser topped by giant "origami" peace crane.
Date? - Hands sculpture, Lake Superior waterfront, Duluth, Minnesota (USA). Six pairs of cupped hands supporting a dove of peace.


May 2008 - Community Spirt Monument, Woodland Park, Kalispell, Montana (USA). "After five years the Community Spirit Monument is being completed & consists of 4 pillars, each standing 9 feet & weighing around 350 pounds, decorated with nearly brightly colored 2,000 tiles created by members of the community." Left mage shows Ruth Neff, Toni Wells & Sam Neff inspecting a panel of the monument. Right image shows local artist Jani Dryden working on the monument. Information courtesy of Ruth Neff.


September 11, 2008 - Circle Wind (PAX2008), Tribal Connections site, Devils Tower National Monument (Wyoming). "Also called the 'Sacred Circle of Smoke.' Interprets Devils Tower as place that is sacred to many Native American tribes. Created by internationally renowned Japanese artist Junkyu Muto (who lives in Italy) as the third in a series of seven 'peace sculptures' planned for significant sites around the world. Two other peace sculptures have already been erected – one at the Vatican in 2000, and the other at Buddha Gaya, India, in 2005 [sic]."

June 4, 2010 - Memorial Peace Garden, International School of Minnesota (ISM), 6385 Beach Road, Eden Prairie, Minnesota (USA). "Last Fall, ISM inaugurated its Memorial Peace Garden in conjunction with "...celebrating the 125th anniversary of the founding of SABIS® [International School Network]. The Garden was for a brief time a focus of our attention, but the weather soon changed, ushering in, what to many of us has seemed, an exceptionally long winter. As the Peace Garden lay under its blanket of snow, the idea of a network of gardeners, would-be gardeners, or simply folks who enjoy taking a rake in hand from time to time, began to germinate. And so it was that the 'Friends of the Peace Garden' volunteer group took shape, & an initial call for volunteers was made at the May [2011] all-staff meeting, with 15 or so individuals signing up & others expressing their possible interest. As the Peace Garden belongs to the entire ISM community, it seems only right that we cast a wide net amongst our ISM families & alumni for persons who might be interested in joining this association..."


Summer 2010 - New stainless steel markers at graves of the "Alcatraz Martyrs," Friedhof/Cemetery, Rockport Colony (Hutterite), Hanson County, South Dakoka (USA). 18 miles from Alexandria, SD. Hutterites Joseph Hofer [1894-1918] & Michael Hofer [1893-1918] died as a result of "persecution [in Alcatraz & Leavenworth prisons] for their religious beliefs during World War I, in an era before alternative service was effectively implemented for conscientious objectors... The deaths of the brothers were a main catalyst for the mass movement of Hutterites [from the USA] to Canada." See books by Joanita Kant (2011) & Duane Stolzfus (2013).

Please email your comments & questions to geovisual at comcast.net. Thank you.

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