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64 Peace Monuments
Dedicated in 1850-1899

Right click image to enlarge.


1850 - Paulskirche, Frankfurt (Germany). "Seat of course of the 1848-49 parliament [the first publicly and freely elected body of Germany], but also of the August 1850 international peace congress (of the peace movement). If I remember well, there are some reminders of this inside the building. I visited it at least once, when I received an invitation to attend the award of Germany’s most important peace prize, the one awarded by the German book trade (Friedenspreis des Deutschen Buchhandels). The annual ceremony is being held here. In my view, it comes second, after the Nobel, in terms of the elaborateness of the ceremony, the dignity of the occasion, the standing in the country, the documentation which is produced, etc. It follows the Nobel at some distance, but that is inevitable (no royalty involved, the prize money is less, the outside world hardly takes notice, etc.). It has interesting origins, not long after World War II."

1851 - Marble obelisk, between San Diego, California (USA). & Tijuana (Mexico). Italian marble. "Made in New York, brought around the Horn, and erected here to mark the southwestern corner of our nation and proclaim our friendship with Mexico. The large round slab on which it sits was clearly designed to allow one to walk around the monument. This would now not be easy [i.e. impossible], because of the fence." Reconstructed in 1894. Parks on each side of the border were inentended to celebrate international friendship. Today a US fence prevents contact across the border.

1855 - The Reconcilation of Montagues and Capulets (Over the Dead Bodies of Romeo and Juliet), Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, Connecticut (USA). By Frederic Lord Leighton [1830-1896].

1856 - Wilberforce University, Wilburforce, Ohio (USA). "A a private, coed, liberal arts historically black university (HBCU). Affiliated with African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. The first college to be owned & operated by African Americans." /// NB: Town & university "named for the English statesman William Wilberforce [1759-1833], who worked for abolition of slavery & achieved the end of the slave trade in the United Kingdom & its empire [in 1833]."

1858 - Statue of Peace, East front portico (to the right of the Columbus doors), US Capitol, Washington, DC (USA). Marble sculpture by George Gianetti, (after Luigi Persico). Draped in simple flowing robes, Peace holds an olive branch in her left hand.


June 4, 1862 - Joseph Sturge Memorial, Swallow Hotel, Five Ways, Birmingham (England). Joseph Sturge [1793-1859] was a Quaker who campaigned tirelessly for peace, even visiting St. Petersburg in an attempt to avert the Crimean War. Memorial was restored & rededicated on March 24, 2007.
March 2007 - Blue Plaque for Joseph Sturge, 64 Wheeleys Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham (England).

c1862-Early 1930's - Peace Tree, US Botanic Garden, Washington, DC (USA). Overcup oak marking the spot where Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden [1787-1863] made an address in an effort to avert the Civil War. Transplanted about 1920 to make way for the Grant Memorial [image]. "Probably succumbed in the early 1930's when the Botanic Garden was finally leveled..." Crittenden had sons fighting on opposite sides of the Civil War & tried to forge a compromise on the eve of war, but it was narrowly rejected. Info from Savage (2009), pp. 94, 181-6.

1864 & 1872 - Salle de l'Alabama / Hall of the Alabama, Hotel de Ville / City Hall, Geneva (Switzerland). On August 22, 1864, the [First] Geneva Convention was signed here, founding the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and beginning Geneva's role as an internaitonal city." On September 14, 1872, an international tribunal meeting here settled the so-called "Alabama Claims" of the USA against the UK about actions of the CSS Alabama & other raiders during the US Civil War, thus establishing the principle of international arbritration.

1864 - "The Red Cross on white background was the original protection symbol declared at the 1864 Geneva Convention. The ideas to introduce a uniform and neutral protection symbol as well as its specific design originally came from Dr. Louis Appia [1818-1898] & General Henri Dufour [1787-1875], founding members of the International Committee. The Red Cross is defined as a protection symbol in Article 7 of the 1864 Geneva Convention, Chapter VII ("The distinctive emblem") and Article 38 of the 1949 Geneva Convention ("For the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field"). There is an unofficial agreement within the Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement that the shape of the cross should be a cross composed of five squares. However, regardless of the shape, any Red Cross on white background should be valid & must be recognized as a protection symbol in conflict."
- Flags at Musée International de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge / International Red Cross & Red Crescent Museum, 17 avenue de la Paix, Geneva (Switzerland).

April 14, 1865 - Ford's Theater & Lincoln Museum, National Park Service (NPS), Washington, DC (USA). Became iconic the moment President Lincoln was assassinated in the theater on April 14, 1865.

1865 - Buxton Memorial Fountain, Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Wesminster, London (England). "Commemorates the emancipation of slaves in 1834. Erected by Charles Buxton, MP, & dedicated to his father Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton. Also to abolitionists William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Henry Brougham & Stephen Lushington. Designed by Gothic architect Samuel Sanders Teulon [1812-1873]... Originally in Parliament Square, removed in 1940 & moved to its present position in 1957."

1867 - "Reconciliation Quilt," International Quilt Study Center & Museum, University of Nebraska, Loncoln, Nebraska (USA). Made by Lucinda Ward Honstain [1820-1904] of Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York. Depicts her view of life before, during & right after the Civil War. It fetched the record highest price for a quilt at auction ($264,000, at Sotheby’s in 1991). Blocks include a black man addressing a white man on horseback, saying, 'Master I am Free.' Another shows Confederate President Jefferson Davis alongside a woman holding an American flag, and others show Honstain’s house & her husband & son in uniform."

1860-1869 - Ersten Helden auf öffentlichem Platze ohne Degen / First heroes in the public square without swords, Schinkelplatz, Berlin (Germany). "The area of today's Schinkelplatz was once the main checkpoint for the shipping traffic to & from Berlin... In the 1860's monuments were erected for [agronomist] Albrecht Daniel Thaer (1860), [statesman] Peter Christian Wilhelm Beuth (1861) & [architect] [Karl Friedrich] Schinkel (1869). With the construction of the third monument, the town administration changed the name of the square to Schinkelplatz. The honor of the three men in this form was a novelty in the history of Berlin, an expression of the growing self-confidence of the urban bourgeoisie & the reputation of its performers. The [foremost] sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch [1777-1857] spoke of the 'first heroes in the public square without swords' [Google translation]."


1870 - Peace Memorial Fountain, Smithfield, London (England). "This statue was put here in 1870 by The Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association. The bronze figure of Peace is by John Birnie Philip [1824-1875] - more famous for his work on the Albert Memorial. The matching statues of Temperance, Faith, Hope & Charity have long gone."

July 14, 1870 - Chêne des Etats-Unis d'Europe / United States of Europe Oak, au fond du jardin, Hauteville House (qv), 38 rue Hauteville, St. Peter Port (Guernsey). "Victor Hugo planta le 14 juillet 1870, quelques jours avant la déclaration de guerre de la France à la Prusse. 'Aujourd'hui 14 juillet 1870 [Bastille Day], à une heure de l'après-midi, mon jardinier Tourtel m'assistant en présence de mon fils Charles, petit Georges et petite Jeanne étant là, j'ai planté dans mon jardin le gland [acorn] d'où sortira le chêne que je baptise : "Chêne des Etats-Unis d'Europe." Dans une lettre à Paul Meurice, il écrivit : ' Il ne peut sortir de cette guerre que la fin des guerres et que les Etats-Unis d'Europe. Vous les verrez. Je ne les verrai pas. Pourquoi? C'est parce que je les ai prédits. J'ai le premier, le 17 juillet 1851, prononcé (au milieu des huées) ce mot : "les Etats-Unis d'Europe". Donc j'en serai exclu. Jamais les Moïses ne virent les Chanaans.' Le 13 septembre 1870, de retour en France, il note : 'Julie (jeune soeur de Madame Hugo qui continuera à habiter Hauteville après le départ de Victor Hugo en 1870) m'écrit de Guernesey [sic] que le gland planté par moi le 14 juillet a germé. Le chêne des Etats-Unis d'Europe est sorti de terre le 5 septembre, jour de ma rentrée à Paris.'" Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek.

1871 - Friedenslinde / Peace Linden Tree, "Our Lady" Protestant Church, Town Square, Frickenhausen, near Stuttgart (Germany). Translation of plaque: "Nature Monument and Symbol of Peace / This linden tree is a protected natural monument. Primary purpose is securing and maintaining it as typical for the landscape. The top of the tree is of particular importance. / This linden tree was planted in 1871 in memory of the end of the war and peace with France. That is why it is called the 'Peace Linden.'" Photographer's commentary: "Perhaps I am too cynical, but I strongly suspect that the tree was originally a Siegeslinde / 'Victory Linden' and was only later, after WW-II, re-interpreted. But I am sending an e-mail to the local pastor. Maybe he can tell me more." Note: Many other linden trees were planted in Germany about this time to mark the end of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).

1871 - Apotheosis of War, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (Russia). Oil on canvas by Russian artist Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin [1842–1904]. Dedicated by the artist "to all conquerors, past, present and to come."

1872 - George Fox Memorial, George Fox Lane, Fenny Drayton (England). At birthplace of George Fox [1624-1691]. Click here for Quaker peace monuments worldwide.

1874 - Lincoln's Tomb, Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Illinois (USA). Includes reproductions of Lincoln statues in Chicago & Washington, DC. Mary Todd Lincoln and sons Tad, Willie & Eddie are also buried here, but not son Robert (who is buried in Arlington National Cemetery).

April 14, 1876 - Emancipation Memorial, Lincoln Park, East Capitol Avenue & 12th Street, Capitol Hill, Washington, DC (USA). Dedicated by Frederick Douglass & President Ulysses Grant. Sculpted by Thomas Ball. "Depicts Abraham Lincoln holding his Emancipation Proclamation and standing over Archer Alexander [1828-1880?] breaking the chains of slavery. Alexander was the last slave captured under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850." Right image shows this monument on the cover of "Standing soldiers, kneeling slaves: Race, war, and monument in nineteenth-century America," by Kirk Savage (1999).

1877 "Peace and Vigilance," Old Post Office, N 8th St at Olive St, St. Louis, Missouri (USA). By renowned artist Daniel Chester French [1850-1931]. Moved indoors in 1989. "Vigilance is on the ball. She is alert, scanning the horizon. Her posture is relaxed, but a sword is ready in her right hand. Peace, on the other hand, is harder to interpret. She holds an olive branch in her left hand (I don't know if the lefty olive has a meaning) but, frankly, she looks depressed rather than peaceful. Maybe her lover left, her dog died and, as the old Commander Cody song has it, she's down to seeds and stems again, too. The eagle shrieks over the whole scene. Vigilance might appreciate the scouting help, but how is Peace going to get any, well, peace with that screaming bird over her head? Maybe that's why she's depressed."

1878 - "Charrue de la Paix" / "Plow of Peace," Salle de l'Alabama / Hall of the Alabama, Hotel de Ville / City Hall, Geneva (Switzerland). Offerte à la Ville et au peuple de Genève après avoir figuré comme symbole de paix à l'exposition de Paris en 1878. Elle fut confectionnée avec les sabres que des officiers américains avaient cédés lors d'un congrès pour la paix tenu en 1872 à Philadelphie par l' "Universal Peace Union". La cloche est une réplique miniature de la "Liberty Bell" de Philadelphie. Elle sonna l'ouverture de la première assemblée de la Société des Nations le 15 novembre 1920."

1878 - Naval Peace Monument, The Mall, Washington, DC (USA). Commemorates role of US Navy during the Civil War. Facing the US Capitol is Peace, a classical figure draped from the waist down and holding an olive sprig. The monuments's other alegorical figures are Grief, History & Victory. Sculpted from Carrara marble in Rome (Italy) by Franklin Simmons [1839-1913].

July 17, 1878 - Civil War Fountain, US highways 11 & 30, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania (USA). "15,000 people braved 94-degree heat for the ceremony and a 2-hour parade. Women of the community raised money for the fountain, more of a monument to peace than the martial monument that the men wanted. A compromise was struck with the inclusion of a statue of a soldier facing south against another invasion by Confederates."

January 29, 1879 - Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, Crow Agency, Montana (USA). "The site was first preserved as a national cemetery on January 29, 1879, and in 1881 a memorial obelisk by Durwood Brandon (left image) was erected on Last Stand Hill over the mass grave of the solidiers of the 7th Calvery." An iron "Spirit Warriors Sculpture" by native artist Colleen Cutschall (right image) honoring the Native Americans was placed next to the old memorial in 2002.

Circa 1900:

Oblisk on left:
1879 - Robert Owen Memorial, Kensal Green Cemetery, London (England). Erected by committee under Joseph Corfield [1808-1888]. Robert Owen [1771-1858] developed utopian communities both in New Lanark (Scotland) and New Harmony, Indiana (USA). This is not his grave; he is buried in Newtown, Montgomeryshire (Wales).
Oblisk on right:
August 1885 - Reformers Memorial, Kensal Green Cemetery, London (England). Column of light stone inscribed "to the memory of the men and women who have generously given their time and means to improve the conditions and enlarge the happiness of all classes of society." Erected by Joseph William Corfield [1809-1888] of Abney Park, a Unitarian and member the South Place Ethical Society. Displays "the names of 50 well-known reformers. Another 25 were added in 1907 on the instructions of Corfield's daughter Emma." The first two names are Robert Owen [1771-1858] and John Bellers [1654-1725]. "The remaining 72 names include many well known social reformers, Christian Socialists, Co-operators and political activists." "Contested Sites: Commemoration, Memorial and Popular Politics in Nineteenth-Century Britain" (by Paul A. Pickering, Alex Tyrrell et al, May 2004) names 46 of the reformers.


1883 - Tower of Victory, Newburgh, New York (USDA). "Truly one of the treasures of the Hudson Valley. For 125 years, it has stood as the nation’s only monument to the lasting peace that came after the end of the Revolutionary War. Robert Todd Lincoln, the son of the President & then Secretary of War, commissioned John Hemingway Duncan, one of the nation’s most renowned architects at that time, to design the massive stone arched structure that hosts bronzes sculpted by William Rudolf O’Donovan, the pre-eminent monumental sculptor of the day. It stands on the property where General Washington created the 'Badge of Military Merit' now called the Purple Heart medal. Unfortunately for the Tower, time and weather have not been kind. Without intervention to restore the stone structure, replace the roof, and eliminate water penetration, this precious piece of the Hudson Valley’s – and the nation’s – history could be lost for good..." ARCH NY

1883-1929 -Carnegie Libraries. Built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919]. More than 2,500 Carnegie libraries were built, including some belonging to public and university library systems. Of the 2,509 such libraries funded between 1883 and 1929, 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in Britain and Ireland, 125 in Canada, and others in Australia, New Zealand, Serbia, the Caribbean, and Fiji. Very few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. When the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them built with construction grants paid by Carnegie." Image shows 1916 library in Grass Valley, California (USA).

1884 - Yorktown Victory Monument Plaque, Yorktown, Virginia (USA). Inscription on 1984 plaque: "'We are now friends with England and with all of mankind.' Benjamin Franklin, 1783, American Peace Commissioner -- 'This great peace monument is a symbol of the sacrifices in lives and property in the Revolutionary War, which ended at Yorktown and which brought us our independence. It symbolizes, too, the peace between the mother country and America - a peace not seriously interrupted since 1781.' Horace M. Albright, 1931, Director, National Park Service -- 'The Treaty of Paris was the first step toward an alliance with Great Britain which has grown stronger through two centuries to become one of our most important alliance relationships. Political, Cultural, Economic, and defense ties between our two nations are firm and lasting.' Ronald Reagan, 1983, President, United States of America -- Dedicated 19 October 1984, Bicentennial Year, Ratification, Treaty of Paris"

1884 - "Peace: The Genius of History, Esplanade Avenue at Bayou Road, New Orleans, Louisiana (USA). Statue originally decorating the site of the 1884 World's Fair. Left image by EWL.

February 21, 1885 - Washington Monument, The Mall, Washington, DC (USA). Construction began in 1845. 555 feet tall. World's tallest obelisk. World's tallest masonry structure. Exterior is plain, but interior stairway (no longer accessible to public) contains 193 plaques from every state & from many foreign countries. (One plaque is said to have been donated by the pope but was ripped out & trashed by US soldiers.).

1885 - Peace statue, Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore, Maryland (USA). On the southwest corner of the Washington Monument. "The famous French artist Antoine-Louis Barye [1796-1875] created a series of monuments, each depicting a man, boy & beast that decorate the Place du Carrousel [at the] Louvre [in Paris]." /// "Barye took the traditional image of Hercules Resting as the starting point for these sculptures. In War, the figure is seated on a recumbent horse, which may represent victory or strength, but his upper body is tense and on the verge of action as the accompanying putto blows his heralding horn. In Peace, on the other hand, the main figure is resting against an ox, a symbol of peace, listening to a putto playing the flute. " /// "William Walters [1820-1894] purchased smaller bronze reproductions of War, Peace, Order & Force and donated them to the City of Baltimore. The Walters were strong supporters of Barye during his career. Their art gallery [also on Mount Vernon Place] contains over one hundred sculptures, paintings & sketches by the expert animalier. Along with the Barye Lion, War, Peace, Order and Force are on public display year round circling the George Washington Monument..."

1885 - "Hypatia," Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-on-Tyne (England). Painting by Charles William Mitchell [1854-1903], an English Pre-Raphaelite painter from Newcastle. It was "likely inspired by 'Hypatia or New Foes with an Old Face,' a serialized novel by Charles Kingsley [1819-1875]." As you can see he created the iconic as well as ironic painting of Hypatia in front of a Christian altar, the irony being that she was pagan." Hypatia [d. March 415] was "a Greek scholar from Alexandria (Egypt) considered to be the first notable female mathematician. She was assassinated by a Christian mob who accused her of causing religious turmoil."

1887 - Angel of Peace, Soldiers & Sailors Monument, East Rock, New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Taken down, restored & returned to the top of the rock in 2008.

1887 - "Standing Lincoln" Statue, Lincoln Park, Chicago, Illinois (USA). By Irish-born American sculptor August Saint-Gaudens [1848-1907]. A favorite of Hull House founder [& Nobel Peace Prize laureate] Jane Addams [1860-1935] who once wrote, "I walked the wearisome way from Hull-House to Lincoln Park ... in order to look at and gain magnanimous counsel from the statue."

1887 - Verda Stelo / Green Star of the Esperanto Movement. The earliest flag, and the one most commonly used today, features a green five-pointed star against a white canton, upon a field of green. It was proposed to Ludwik Zamenhof [1859-1917] by Irishman Richard Geoghegan [1866-1943], author of the first Esperanto textbook for English speakers, in 1887. The flag was approved in 1905 by delegates to the first conference of Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer. A version with an "E" superimposed over the green star is sometimes seen. Other variants include that for Christian Esperantists, with a white Christian cross superimposed upon the green star, and that for Leftists, with the color of the field changed from green to red.

1887 - Home of Abraham Lincoln & Mary Todd Lincoln, National Park Service (NPS), Springfield, Illinois (USA). Abraham Lincoln & Mary Todd Lincoln lived here 1844-1961. Donated by their son Robert to State of Illinois in 1887 and immediately opened to public (making it one of the earliest publicly held historical sites in the USA). Donated to National Park Service in 1972.

June 9, 1889 - Statue of Giordano Bruno, Campo de' Fiori, Rome (Italy). At site where Bruno was burnt at the stake for heresy on February 17, 1600. On April 20, 1884, Pope Leo XIII published the encyclical Humanum Genus. As a response, the Freemasons decided to create a statue of pantheist Giordano Bruno [1548-1600], a Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet & astrologer. Bruno is now considered a pioneer of freethought & science.


1890 - "Signal of Peace," Chicago, Illinois (USA). Sculpted in France by Cyrus E. Dallin [1861-1944] and exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition (World's Fair) in 1893. "Represents a Sioux Chief on horseback, his right hand holding a spear pointed upward in a gesture of peace."

1890 - Peace Monument, Monument Hill, Leeds, Maine (USA). "Erected in memory of the 161 soldiers and sailors who served from this town. This is the largest per capita number serving in the war of any town in the State of Maine."

1891 - Vandalized in 2004? - Liberty Monument, near Canal Place, New Orleans, Louisiana (USA). Opposite the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas. From Wikipedia: "In 1891, a year after the Democratic legislature passed a new constitution that essentially disfranchised most blacks, the city government, by then representing only its white constituents, erected the Liberty Monument to 'commemorate the uprising' [of 1873-74]. In 1932 inscriptions were added to the monument which attested to its role in the white supremacist movement. In the late 20th century, the monument was seen as a symbol of racism by many in the black and Italian communities. (White League veterans led a mob that lynched eleven Sicilian men in 1891.) After the monument had to be removed because of street work in 1989, many residents opposed its being restored and replaced. The city tried to negotiate removing the inscriptions. Some people argued for its being restored at the original location. The content of the inscriptions was seldom discussed; rather, the issues were dealt with on technical grounds. Historic preservation officials argued for its replacement; others argued this was history which did not deserve continued commemoration." /// "[In 2004?] Anti-Nazi messages are written on the 'Liberty Monument.' The monument honors the White League members who died in an 1874 armed attack against the integrated Reconstruction government of Louisiana. David Duke had planned a rally to occur at this monument on Sunday, May 30th but the event was cancelled, possibly due to the actions taken against the monument. The monument commemorates the deaths of militant racists' attempts to suppress the participation of blacks in post-Civil War Louisiana government. The monument has long been reviled as a celebration of the militant racists in the White League. The 'Battle of Liberty Place' [on Sept. 14, 1874] has been called the largest street fight in American history; 3500 White League members faced 3600 New Orleans police and black militia."

1891 - Statue of John Bright, Broadfield Park, Rochdale (England). John Bright [1811-1889] was a "member of parliament for Rochdale, who fought to bring about the abolition of slavery and the slave trade."
1891 - Statue of John Bright, Albert Square, Manchester (England).

1891 - Peace Flag. "In 1866, in the immediate aftermath of the American Civil War, Alfred H. Love [1830-1913], a Quaker pacificist, launched a new peace organization, the Universal Peace Union (UPU), from his home in Philadelphia. While it was just one of several peace initiatives that emerged in the 19th century, the UPU was unique in its efforts to raise public awareness for the peace movement. Alfred Love wanted to harness the growing enthusiasm for nationalism to the cause of peace; thus was born the 'Peace Flag' -- a national flag bordered in white to symbolize a peaceful alaternative to militant patriotism." /// Flag shown here "is displayed on the wall on the second floor by the Press Gallery exhibit, Mary Baker Eddy Library, Boston (USA)..." 1891 - "The third Universal Peace Congress in Rome (Italy) devised a generalized Peace Flag design, which was simply the home nation's flag bordered in white to signify non-violent conflict resolution. This was used (although not officially adopted) by the American Peace Society & the Universal Peace Union. It was designed by Henry Pettit."

1892 - Post Building, Homestead, Pennsylvania (USA). Unintentional monument. Used by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (and the international press) as headquarters during the Homestead Lock Out and Strike of 1892. Now the visitors center of the Rivers of Steel National Heritage Area "The strike began on June 30, 1892, and culminated in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. One of the most serious disputes in US labor history. The dispute occurred in the Pittsburgh-area town of Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company. The final result was a major defeat for the union, and a setback for efforts to unionize steelworkers... The pumphouse where the gunfight occurred [also] remains as a museum and meeting hall. There are several historical markers as well as a metal commerative sign with the US Steel logo that reads 'In Honor Of The Workers.'"

January 25, 1893 - Beckwith Memorial Theatre, Front & Beeson Streets, Dowagiac, Michigan (USA). Dedicated by Robert Ingersoll. Razed in 1968. Philo D. Beckwith [1835-1889] "was a committed freethinker who wanted to 'make the townsfolk aware & appreciative of those his personal pantheon of heroes & heroines whom he considered to be the true benefactors of the human race.'" /// In 1892 in memory of Beckwith, his daughter Kate & son-in-law, Fred Lee built the theatre (regarded as one of the finest between New York & Chicago). The building also contained a bank, city hall & Round Oak Company offices. The building's exterior featured stone relief medallions of six famous women (e.g. Susan B. Anthony, Sarah Bernhardt, George Sand) &14 famous men (e.g. Beethoven, Chopin, Emerson,Victor Hugo, Robert Ingersoll, Liszt, Thomas Paine, Shakespeare, Walt Whitman, Shakespeare & Voltaire). /// "When the building was razed in 1966 [sic], the busts were salvaged. Eight are today used in columns standing at the entrance to the Lyons Building at Southwestern Michigan College in Dowagiac." /// Right image shows the bust of Ingersoll in the Robert Green Ingersoll Birthplace Museum in Dresden, New York.

July 4, 1893 - Columbian Liberty Bell, Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois (USA). From New York Times, March 24, 1893: "FOR A BIG LIBERTY BELL - TO BE A FEATURE OF THE COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. - THE LARGEST NUMBER POSSIBLE TO PARTICIPATE IN ITS CREATION BY CONTRIBUTIONS -- WIDESPREAD APPROVAL OF THE IDEA -- A PLOW-SHARE AND PRUNING HOOKS, TOO. - Inspired by the poem, 'Liberty's Bell,' a number of patriotic men and "women have determined to create Columbian Liberty Bell and place it in the coming exhibition at Chicago. The responsibility of producing it and the directing of its use have been placed in the hands of a committee composed almost entirely of women, one from each state and Territory. // The originator of this ides was Mr.W[illiam] O. McDowell [1845-1927] of Newark, N.J. who is the General Chairman of the committee which has undertaken to have the bell cast. The poem which inspired him was written by Madge Morris Wagner, and the first two stanzas will tell the idea of these ladies and gentlemen who have undertaken to prodcure the moeny and rhe relics which shall be cast into the Liberty Bell... The bell is to be cast by the Clinton H. Meneely Bell Company of Troy, N.J., and is to be a counterpart of the Independence Bell of Philadelphia, except that it will be larger... It has also been suggested that a special Columbian-year motto should be added. Some wish Gen. Grant's famous words, 'Let us have peace,' while others favor the words used by the school children on Oct. 21, 1892, in celebrating Columbus Day: 'I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.' // At the same time the bell is cast, there will be made a plowshare and pruning hooks, which will be composed of swords and war materials contributed for that purpose. This plow will accompany the bell to Chicago and will typify the fulfilment of the prophecy, 'The sword shall be beaten into the prowshare and the spear into the pruning hook, and men shall learn the arts of war no more...' // The bell will be rung for the first time at the World's Fair on July 4, and it will remain at the fair till it closes, in care of the Board of Lady Managers. Then it will be take to Washington, where it will in the charge of the Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. After it has been in Washington some time, it will be sent around the world to any city where any great patriotic celebration is being held... // Several swords have been received which are to be used in the plow. Two of these were given by a lady in Arkansas and were worn by Confederate officers, and another came from Philadelphia. This was used by an officer in the Union Army..."

1895? - From New York Times, June 3, 1895: "CASTING A LIBERTY BELL FOR RUSSIA - It Will Commemorate the Termination of Serfdom in 1863 [sic]. - NEWARK, N.J., June 2.--The Columbian Liberty Bell Committee is in receipt of a letter under date of May 18 from Clifton R. Breckinridge, United States Minister to Russia, in which he asks for a full description and photograph of the great Columbian Liberty and Peace Bell for Mr. Berthauld, the Russian artist, who is charged with making a design for the 'Bell of Peace' that is to be presented, as the result of popular movement of the people of Russia, to the people of France. // The [Columbian Exposition] Liberty Bell Committee has in course of manufacture two souvenir liberty bells made from the overflow of historical metal from which the great bell was cast. These two bells are to be exact duplicates, and are to be presented, through the President and the Czar, to the peoples of Russia and the United States. // Each bell will bear not only its own special inscription, but a copy of the special inscription uoon its companion: // Presented to the People of Russia in Memory of March 3, 1863, and the Termination of Serfdom [in 1861]. // Presented to the People of the United States in Memory of Dec. 18, 1865, and the Official Announcement of the Total Abolition of Slavery. // The bells will be completed in a short time." /// Was these bells made, and, if so, where are they today?

August 18, 1893 - Henry Richard Statue, Tregaron, Cardiganshire (Wales). By Albert Toft."Henry Richard [1812-1888] was born in Tregaron. He was a Nonconformist minister in London before being elected the Liberal Member of Parliament for Merthyr Tydfil in 1868. He was known as 'The Apostle of Peace' in recognition of his work with the Peace Society." One of 13 sites on the MAW Peace Map of the British Isles as of January 2009.

October 28, 1893 - Penn Treaty Park, Delaware (Columbus) Avenue & Beach Street, Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Alleged site of famous peace treaty signed by William Penn [1644-1718] and the Lenape Indians in 1683. Click here for Wikipedia article. See associated virtual Mentioned by Tom Flores (2008).

1895 - Les Bourgeois de Calais / The Burghers of Calais, Calais (France). Bronze casting by Auguste Rodin [1840-1917] in 1884-86. Depicts six leading citizens who offered their lives in 1347 to King Edward III of England as ransom for the protection of other townsfolk. A copy was erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, London (England) in 1913 (qv). Other copies are in Bâle (Switzerland), Basel, Canberra, Copenhagen, Mariemont (Belgium), New York City, Paris, Pasadena, Philadelphia, Seoul, Tokyo, and Washington.

1895 - "Peace, Truth, Honesty, Fortitude, Self-Denial, Fidelity," original American Surety Building, 100 Broadway, just north of Wall Street, New York City, New York (USA). By John Massey Rhind. On second-floor level. Ground floor is presently occupied by Borders Books.
August 1895 - "The Monumental News," Chicago, Illinois (USA). Note that this issue of the magazine is vol. 7, issue 8.

1896 - Panathinaiko / Olympic Stadium, Athens (Greece). Site of a stadium since 566 BCE, excavated in 1870, and rebuilt for the Summer games of 1896. Site of the archery competition in 2004.

1896 - "Minerva of Peace," Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA). By Elihu Vedder [1836-1923]. As photographed by Carol M. Highsmith. "Minerva was the Roman goddess whom Romans from the 2nd century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts & magic. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the 'owl of Minerva,' which symbolizes her ties to wisdom." A statue of Minerva is atop the dome of the US Capitol Building. Her image is on the Seal of the State of California.

October 16, 1896 - Civil War Correspondents Memorial Arch, Gathland State Park, Crampton's Gap, Burkittsville, Maryland (USA). Built by George Alfred Townsend [1841-1914] who had been the youngest war correspondent of the Civil War.

April 27, 1897 - Grant's Tomb, Morningside Heights , New York City, New York (USA). "The largest mausoleum in North America. The bodies of Ulysses S. Grant [1822-1885], the Union Civil War General & 18th President of the U.S., and his wife Julia Dent Grant are entombed there. The phrase 'Let us have peace' greets visitors at the entrance of the mausoleum. It is taken from Grant’s words in his 1885 memoirs. Inside, there’s a mural of the two generals [Lee & Grant] shaking hands."

1897 - Peace Flag, US National Council of Women. Pro Concordia Labor (For Peace I Work) is the motto of the Peace Flag adopted in 1897. It was adopted to stand as a symbol for anyone working on behalf of peace, humanity, universal brotherhood, cosmopolitan values & a notion of 'patriotism' that transcends state loyalty. The colors were chosen so that the flag would not be confused with any other nation's flag."
October 2014 - Presentation of a Pro Concordia Labor flag at the weekly Wednesday protest of the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul (South Korea) by Prof. Hope Elizabeth May, Central Michigan University.

1897 - Negro Building, Tennessee Centennial Exposition (now Centennial Park), Nashville, Tennessee (USA). No longer exists. "Largest-ever display of African-American life and achievement." From dedication speech: "Here...the world may see the other side of Negro life than 'Sam Johnson, the chicken thief.' Here it may see the healthful buds of Negro handicraft, Negro art, science, literature, invention... Here... the old master who followed Lee's tattered banners... down to Appomattox sacrifices his pro-slavery ideas, and builds a monument to Negro fidelity and industry; and here the Negro brings the product of his brain and hand in grateful testimony to the friendly feelings between us."

1897 - Woman's Building, Tennessee Centennial Exposition (now Centennial Park), Nashville, Tennessee (USA). No longer exists. Site near the fair's full-scale reproduction of the Parthenon is marked by a subsequent monument with a sphere on top. Its plaque contains two quotations by Mrs. Van Leer (Kate) Kirkman, President, Woman's Department: "That that is round can be no rounder" and "Women's Work. Whatever may be necessary to preserve the sanctity of the home and ensure the freedom of the state." Right image by EWL.

1898 - Gunboat Melik, Nile riverbank, Khartoum (Sudan). "An unlikely symbol of Anglo-Sudanese co-operation, the Melik was a Victorian weapon of high technology and fearsome power, intended to terrorise the Sudanese rebels and to kill as many as possible. It was built in Chiswick (England) in 1896, then shipped in pieces to Egypt, taken by rail across the Nubian Desert, and reassembled at Abadieh on the Nile. From there it led a flotilla of heavily armed gunboats, a vital element in Kitchener's reconquest of Khartoum in 1898... Today the gunboat sits in a bed of dried mud and sand in a grove of mahogany trees, its decks tipped at an angle, the roof collapsing."

July 16, 1898 - Arbol de la Paz / Tree of Peace, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). "On July 16, after sustaining more than 1,700 causalities the Spanish Army agreed to an unconditional surrender of all 23,500 troops that had been scattered about the city." "Armistice signed at the Arbol de La Paz (a large ceiba tree) by U.S. and Spanish forces. The Cuban Liberation Army did not participate in the act."

October 23, 1898 - Peace Cross, Massachusetts & Wisconsin Avenues, Cleveland Park, Washington, DC (USA). "Dedicated by President McKinley to mark the coming end of the Spanish-American War. It is located near the former location of the residence where the first meetings were held to plan Washington National Cathedral" (constructed 1907-1990). Also known as "Stone Cross."

1899 - Friedens- und Siegesdenkmal / Peace & Victory Monument, Edenkoben, Pfalz, Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany). "Commemorates the victorious war against France 1870-71. All the splendor of the fertile Rhine Valley offers a view from here. In good weather you can see the Odenwald and Heidelberg. 300 m further is the Strasbourg stone. From this monument has one if the weather has wonderful views to Strasbourg in Alsace (France). From there you could see at that time, the signals from Strasbourg that the 1870 war was won."

July 16, 1899 - Friedensengel / Angel of Peace, on opposite side of Luitpoldbrücke over Isar River, Munich, Bavaria (Germany). Celebrates 25 years of peace since war with France 1870-71. Erected 1896-99 by sculptors Heinrich Duell, Georg Pezold & Max Heilmaier. "Rising above the terraces in the axis of the Prinzregentenstrasse is the 38-metre 'Angel of Peace,' which is the dominant feature of the park and is often regarded as a symbol of Munich. Created to mark the 25 years of peace after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles, it is mounted on a 23-metre column above a small hall, and is modelled on Athena, goddess of wisdom and peace, but also goddess of 'strategic' war. She holds Nike in her hand, the goddess of victory. The Friedensengel provides a spectacular view of the city, and is sited above a superb terrace, which is unfortunately marred by heavy traffic." Lower left image shows temple at the base of the column. Lower right imges show Prinzregentenbrücke / Prinzregenten Bridge over the Isar (1900-01, architect: Theodor Fischer).

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