Litzmannstadt. 42 Peace Monuments Dedicated in 1970-1974
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42 Peace Monuments
Dedicated in 1970-1974

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11 Peace Monuments in 1970

April 10, 1970 - Kankokujin Genbaku Giseisha Irei Hi / Korean Atom Bomb Victims' Memorial, Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima (Japan). Engraved "Souls of the dead ride to heaven on the backs of turtles" and stands on a turtle-shaped base. Originally erected at the western end of Honkawa Bridge. Moved into the park in July 1999. #11 of 56 "cenotaphs & monuments" on the Virtual E-Tour.

June 11, 1970 - Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh (India). "Founded by His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama. Considered one of the most important libraries and institutions of Tibetan works in the world, the library contains sources which were relocated from Tibet during the 1959 escape, including important Tibetan Buddhist manuscripts and archives related to Tibet's history, politics, culture and even art." The 14th Dalai Lama received the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize.

1970 - Suffragette Memorial, Christchurch Gardens, London (England). Opposite New Scotland Yard in Victoria Street, St. James. /// Unveiled by former campaigner & hunger-striker Lillian Lenton [1891-1972]. Inscription: "This tribute is erected by the Suffragette Fellowship to commemorate the courage and perseverance of all those men and woman who in the long struggle for votes for women selflessly braved dersion, opposition and ostracism, many enduring violence and suffering. (Nearby Caxton Hall was historically associated with women’s suffrage meeetings & deputations to Parliament.)" A bronzed glass fibre sculpture designed by Edwin Russell to resemble an uncurling scroll. The Suffragette Fellowship was founded in 1926 to commemorate the suffrage movement of the early 20th century. Caxton Hall is a now-listed building which opened as the Westminster Town Hall in 1883.

1970 - Sojourner Truth Library (STL), State University of New York (SUNY) at New Paltz, New Paltz, New York (USA). Named in honor of Sojourner Truth [c1797-1883], African-American abolitionist & women's rights activist, who was born into slavery in Swartekill (near Kingston), Ulster County, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826.

1970 - Lusitania Peace Memorial, Casement Square, Cobh, County Cork (Ireland). "Irish American sculptor Jerome Connor [1874-1943] was commissioned by Bert Hubbard to sculpt a memorial to the tragedy [of May 7, 1915]... The names of the victims have yet to be inscribed. With the one hundred year anniversary coming up in 2015 maybe the people of Cobh should be getting a move on to have the monument finished exactly as it was meant to be." /// "In 1926 [Connor] was contacted by Roycroft and asked to design & cast a statue of Elbert Hubbard [1856-1915] who, with his wife Alice, had died in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. It was unveiled in 1930 and today it stands on the lawn of East Aurora's Middle School across the street from the Roycroft Chapel building. While working on the Hubbard statue, Connor received a commission to create a memorial for all the Lusitania victims. It was to be erected in Cobh, where many of the victims were buried. The project was initiated by the New York Memorial Committee, headed by William H. Vanderbilt whose father Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt, like Elbert & Alice Hubbard, perished on the Lusitania. Connor died before the Lusitania memorial was completed & based on Connor's design its installation fell to another Irish artist..."

1970 - "La paix / Peace," Place de la Metropole, Geneva (Switzerland). By Jean-Pierre Pérusset. "A rather large piece of art, set in a fountain (with many spouts). It is attractive & in a little spot for pedestrians, between two busy roads. Next to the imposing Swissôtel Genève Métropole with the Place des Florentins on the other side." Information courtesy of Peter van den Dungen 06Nov12.

1970 - "ANC Liberty March against Apartheid," Monte Palace Tropical Garden, Funchal, Autonomous Region of Madeira (Portugal). "A [bronze] statue by Hungarian sculptor Zoltan Borbereki [1907-1992] commemorates the involvement of the African National Congress (ANC) in the struggle against South African apartheid. Credit: Creative Commons/Allie Caulfield/Zoltan Borbereki." Information courtesy of Tikkun Magazine, Summer 2015.

1970 - Peace Pagoda, Nakasaki (Japan). Nipponzan Myohoji Buddhist Order. Visited by RH.

1970 Japanese Peace Bell from United Nations in New York City is displayed for six months in the UN pavilion at Expo '70, now Expo Memorial Park, Suita, Osaka (Japan). The bell is rung every day at Noon. Click here for another webside about Expo'70.

1970 - LOVE Sculpture, Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA), Indianapolis, Indiana (USA). 3-ton sculpture made of Corten steel, 12-feet high, 12-feet wide and six-feet deep. Completed in 1970 and acquired by IMA in 1975. Examples in many other cities. Indiana native "Robert Indiana first conceived the idea of LOVE during the Vietnam War [1959-1975], and his work became a symbol of peace.
January 26, 1973 - LOVE Stamp (USA). "The 330 million US postal stamps issued in the 1970’s are one of the more popular examples of the great appeal of this iconic image."

October 27, 1970 - Standbeeld van Hugo de Groot / Statue of Hugo Grotius, City Hall, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Statue sculpted by Auke Hettema [1927-2004]. Texts on the pedestal are partly in Latin & partly in Dutch. From Wikipedia: "Hugo Grotius [1583-1645] was a Dutch jurist. Along with the earlier works of [Spaniard] Francisco de Vitoria [c1483-1546] & [Italian] Alberico Gentili [1552-1508], Grotius laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. A teenage intellectual prodigy, he was imprisoned for his involvement in the intra-Calvinist disputes of the Dutch Republic & imprisoned in Slot Loevestein / Loevestein Castle but escaped hidden in a chest of books [see Amsterdam above]. He wrote most of his major works in exile in France." Information courtsy of Petra Keppler 20July2017 & Peter van den Dungen 23July2017.

12 Peace Monuments in 1971

May 9, 1971 - Pomnik Martyrologii Dzieci / Monument of Children's Martyrdom, Park Szarych Szeregow / Gray Ranks, Marysinska, Lodz (Poland). Also called Broken Heart Monument. Dedicated on the 26th anniversary of Poland's victory over Germany. Commemorates the martyrdom of thousands of child prisoners who died here in a German concentration camp (Ghetto Litzmannstadt) during WW-II. Designed by Jadwiga Janus. Inscriptions: "Your life was taken, today we give You only memory" and "May it pass on to future generations our common cry: no more war, no more camps."

1971 - Rothko Chapel, Houston, Texas (USA). Contains fourteen black but color hued paintings by Mark Rothko [1903-1970]. Commemorating Martin Luther King, Jr., [1929-1968] Broken Obelisk (qv) by Barnett Newman [1963-1967] was dedicated in front of the chapel on February 27, 1971. Entry #975 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

February 27, 1971 - Broken Obelisk, Rothko Chapel, Houston, Texas (USA). First exhibited in front of the Seagram Building in New York City, and then the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. In 1969, Houson city officials said they would reject this as a public memorial to Martin Luther King Jr. [1929-1968]. So Dominique & John de Menil proposed that it be placed in front of City Hall with the words "Forgive Them, for They Know Not What They Do," then erected it permanently at the Rothko Chapel (qv). One of four identical monuments by Barnett Newman [1905-1970]. Each is 6,000 pounds of Corten steel more than 25 feet high -- a pyramid topped by a reversed obelisk ascending yet torn, or 'broken,' at its top, obviously some kind of symbolic object roughly resembling traditional monuments of combined pyramid and obelisk. Newman himself described the sculpture in terms conventional to his art: 'It is concerned with life, and I hope I have transformed its tragic content into a glimpse of the sublime.'" Others in New York City (USA), Seattle (USA) & Berlin (Germany).

1971 - Capilla de la Paz / Chapel of Peace, Calle de la Paz, Fraccionamiento Las Brisas, Acapulco, Guerrero (Mexico). The 40-meter cross towers above the chapel and dominates Acalpulco Bay.

1971 - "All of Mankind" Mural, Northside Stranger’s Home Church, 617 West Evergreen Avenue, Cabrini Green, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Outdoor mural "features four figures—black, white, Asian and Latino—with their hands together in a show of unity and racial harmony. Below the church’s cross, artist William Walker painted the words 'Why were they crucified?' and the names of historical figures like Ghandi, Malcolm X, Anne Frank, Martin Luther King Jr. and Jesus Christ." Church & mural were threatened with destruction in 2007-2008.

1971 - Peace Candle of the World, Scappoose, Oregon (USA). "Also known as the Scappoose Peace Candle. A tower-like structure designed to resemble a candle. Approximately 50-foot (15 m) tall, 18-foot (5.5 m) structure. Built in 1971 outside of what was then the Brock Candles Inc. factory, which burned down in 1990. The land used to be a dairy farm, and factory owner Darrel Brock created the candle by covering a silo with red wax to advertise the factory."

1971 - Prisoners of War & Concentration Camp Victims, Gladstone Park, London (England). Five figures sculpted by Fred Kormis [1897-1996]. He said, "They are a five-chapter novel, each chapter describing a successive state of mind of internment: stupor after going into captivity; longing for freedom; fighting against gloom; hope lost; & hope again." Vandalized on Christmas Eve 2003. One of 21 peace monuments named by the PPU website

1971? - Willy Brandts Park, Stockholm (Sweden). Willy Brandt [1913-1992] receied the 1971 Nobel Peace Prize.
After 1970 - Plaque, Warsaw (Poland). Commemorates the visit of German Social Democratic Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt [1913-1992] to Warsaw in December 1970, during which he fell to his knees in front of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising memorial.

August 1971 - Shiroyama Peace Statue, Shiroyama Elementary School, Nagasaki (Japan). Also known as the "youth peace statue." "A dove perched on the left arm of a life-sized youth figure represents his dreams of peace, and the dove at his feet is symbolic of prayers for the repose of the souls of the many teachers, pupils, & women auxiliary volunteers who lost their lives."

August 4, 1971 - Monument of the A-bombed Teachers & Students of National Elementry Schools, Hiroshima (Japan). Info from Pocket Peace Guide.

August 6, 1971 - Monument for the A-bomb Victims from the Hiroshima Agricultural Association, Hiroshima (Japan). Info from Pocket Peace Guide.

6 Peace Monuments in 1972

After 1971? - Birthplace of Lord Boyd Orr, Holland Green, Fenwick Road, Kilmaurs, East Ayrshire, Scotland (UK). Lord Boyd Orr [1880-1971] received the 1949 Nobel Peace Prize.

February 29, 1972 - Cairn of Peace, Agricultural Society of Kenya (ASK) headquarters, Jamhuri Park, Harambee & Ukulima Avenues, Nairobi (Kenya). By Nanjinia Wamuswa, 13 November 2013: "ASK's Abandoned Peace Monument -- As the 920,000 visitors who attended this year’s Nairobi International Trade Fair, held last month, moved from one stand to another, few recognised the presence of an important historical monument within the show grounds: Cairn of Peace. // Yet, the Cairn of Peace foundation stone is one of the historical and great features that stand out... //The foundation stone has a shiny plaque that reads: 'The Agricultural Society of Kenya, Cairn of Peace, unveiled by H.E. the President of Kenya, Hon Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, CGH MP, [c1889-1978] on 29th February 1972.' // During the unveiling by the country’s founding father who was also the patron of the ASK, the society was hosting the All African Trade Fair, attended by various heads of state. According to ASK Nairobi branch chairlady Halima Shaiyah, the leaders resolved to not only launch a peace initiative but also maintain and preach peace in the region and across the world. // It is then that they unveiled the Cairn of Peace, and all the states that participated put a tag bearing the name of their country on the foundation stone. // “At this time, there were differences among several countries, leading to poor relations. That is why it was important for the heads of state to vow to start, maintain and spread peace in the world,” says Shaiyah. // Today, the foundation stone shows tags of different countries that initially participated during the exhibition such as Spain, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Zaire, Romania, Italy, Polsk, Belgium, Egypt, Turkey, Barbados, Paraguay, France, Guyana, Russia, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica and others written in Arabic. [Also Canada, USA, CCCP & _____.] // Shaiyah reveals that there were plans to start similar cairn of peace in other nations, but it is not clear whether they did or not. However, things went awry along the way and the foundation stone was abandoned. Although a number of foreign countries have been participating in the past exhibition, they have not put tags on the foundation stone. // Up to a few years ago, the Cairn of Peace had lost meaning. At one time, it was very bushy. To date, the foundation stone, that sits on a 16-acre of land and is about 1.6 metres tall, is yet to regain its lost glory."

1972 - Hombre en Busca de Paz / Man in Search of Peace, Cementerio Campos de Paz, Medellín (Columbia). Bronce, edición monumental. Altura 15 m, peso 4 ton.

1972 - Statue of John Henry, Great Bend Railroad Tunnel, Talcott, West Virginia (USA). "The legend of John Henry, the “steel-drivin’ man” who beat the newfangled steel drill in a contest of strength & then died from exhaustion, is probably based on a real person. The statue was erected in 1972 by the Ruritan Club, then refurbished & moved closer to the tunnel entrance in 2012. Many of the workers, like John Henry, were newly-freed slaves. The legend is about both power & weakness, about persistence, about man vs. machine &, ultimately, the dignity of labor – with an African-American hero." This is "Monday's Monument" #54.

1972? - Statue of Lester Pearson, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Lester Bowles Pearson [1897-1972] received the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.

August 2, 1972 - Peace Cairn, Hiroshima (Japan). Made of stone from Ben Nevis (Scotland). Donated by the cities of Dudley (England) & Fort William (Scotland). Info from Pocket Peace Guide.

6 Peace Monuments in 1973

February 1973 - Monument of the Former North Tenjin-machi Area, Hiroshima (Japan). Info from Pocket Peace Guide.

1973 - Chamizal National Memorial, El Paso, Texas (USA). "Established to commemorate the Chamizal Convention of 1963 which resulted in the peaceful settlement of a century-long boundary dispute between the USA & Mexico."

1973 - Justice and Peace Panels, Main Courtroom, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Palais building, Kirchberg district (Luxembourg). By André Hambourg.

About 1973 - Big Spring International Park, Corner of Church & Williams, Huntsville, Alabama (USA). "First picnic area established in 1898. Got its international flavor from various gifts given to the city from other countries. In 1973 Norway gave a 1903 light beacon as well as a 1924 fog bell. In 1987 Japan gave the city the red bridge which is now a main attraction in the park. The park also boasts 60 cherry trees from Japan and a park bench given by Great Britain." Info courtesy of Anna Lee.

August 1973 - Atomic Bomb Victims' Memorial, Side of the main gate, Nagasaki University Medical School, Nagasaki (Japan). Prior to the undertaking of an investigation by the City of Nagasaki to be used as the basis for the reconstruction of devastated areas, atomic bomb survivors from the Yamazato & Hamaguchi districts constructed a recovery map dedicated to their many neighbors who were killed. This memorial was erected using contributions included with the responses from neighborhood residents who had been asked for information to be used in making the map.

August 15, 1973 - Gandhi Smriti, Birla Bhavan / Birla House, 5 Tees January Marg, New Delhi (India). Home of industrialist Ghanshyam Das Birla [1894-1983]. Now includes Gandhi museum, bookshop, room in which Gandhi lodged for 144 days after September 9, 1947, his last footsteps on January 30, 1948, and the garden in which he was assassinated. Merged in September 1984 with Gandhi Darshan (qv) to form "Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti (GSDS).

6 Peace Monuments in 1974

After 1973? - Pearl S. Buck House, Pearl S. Buck International, 520 Dublin Road, Perkasie, Pennsylvania (USA). Pearl S. Buck [1892-1973] received the Pulitzer Prize in 1932 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938. "Home to Pearl S. Buck and her international family for 38 years. Today, it is only one of ten National Historic Landmarks open to the public in the US that educates the public about a woman’s contribution to society through a house with an intact collection." Visited by EWL.
After 1973? - Pearl S. Buck Birthplace & Museum, Hillsboro, Pocahontas County, West Virginia (USA). Pearl S. Buck [1892-1973] received the Pulitzer Prize in 1932 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938. Visited by EWL.

May 1974 "Keeper of the Plains," Wichita, Kansas (USA). City of Wichita Public Art webpage says, "Standing on the confluence of the Big and Little Arkansas Rivers, this 44-foot steel sculpture of an Indian warrior was created by Indian artist Blackbear Bosin of Wichita. Construction of the sculpture was by Tom Washburn, Architectural Metal Products, Inc. The sculpture, erected in May 1974, was completely cut, welded and assembled in the shop and moved in one piece to the location." Mark Hatlie says, "What that site doesn't tell you, is that at the former location, the 'Keeper' faced looking out over the river. Now he faces down town. Has he gone from fisher to a shopper?"

1974 - Mary McLeod Bethune Memorial, Lincoln Park, East Capitol & 12th Streets, Washington, DC (USA). Sculpted by Robert Berks (who also did DC statues of JFK and Einstein). Mary McLeod Bethune [1875-1955] was an American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for black students in Daytona Beach, Florida, that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University and for being an advisor to FDR. Also see Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site (National Park Service).

1974 - Portrait of Martin Luther King, Jr., Georgia State Capitol, Altanta, Georgia (USA). "This portrait, painted by George Mandus [1924-2012], hung outside the governor's office on the main floor of the capitol until a new and larger portrait of King replaced the 1974 portrait in 2006. After its replacement, the 1974 portrait was placed in storage at the Georgia State Archives."
Date? - Portrait of Martin Luther King, Jr., Georgia State Capitol, Altanta, Georgia (USA). "This new portrait replaced a smaller painting of King hung outside the governor's office in 1974. The new portrait, 50 percent larger than the previous one, was created because the 1974 portrait of King was dwarfed by the larger portraits of governors that hung around it."

October 30, 1974 - Tower of Peace, Greenbelt in front of Peace Memorial Museum (East Building), Hiroshima (Japan). Erected by the "Hiroshima Prefectural Committee for the Erection of a Tower to Commemorate [the 20th anniversary of] Hiroshima's Declaration of Itself as a World Federalist City." Note Japanese logo is identical to old UWF logo in USA. Five sides which symbolizing the five continents. Front is brown granite, the other four sides Grecian marble. Designed by Masami Kawamura. NB: Not shown in the Virtual E-Tour. Information courtesy of Michiko Yamane.

After 1947 - License plate topper with "World Peace Thru World Law" & logo of United World Federalists (UWF).

November 6, 1974 - Frank B. Kellogg House, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). National Historic Landmark. Kellogg's permanent residence from 1889 until his death in 1937. Frank B. Kellogg [1856-1937] received the 1929 Nobel Peace Prize.

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