Greece - Italy - Vatican City

36 Notable Peacemakers
in Greece, Italy & Vatican City

Click here for peace monuments in Greece, Italy & Vatican City.
Click here for return to worldwide list of notable peacemakers (& for meaning of symbols).

1857 = Median birth year + 50 years

c570-??? BCE - Cleisthenes - Athenian of the noble Alcmaeonid family. Reformed the constitution of ancient Athens & set it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BCE. Called "the father of Athenian democracy."

c495-429 BCE - Pericles - Statesman, orator & general of Athens during the Golden Age. Generated the Parthenon & most of the other surviving structures on the Acropolis. Also fostered Athenian democracy.

c469-399 BCE - Socrates - Athenian philosopher. A founder of Western philosophy. Drank hemlock because "the right time had come for him to die."

384-322 BCE - Aristotle - Philosopher & scientist. In Plato's Academy from age 18 to 37. Covering many subjects, his writings are the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy.

341-270 BCE - Epicurus - Philosopher. Founder of Epicureanism. "His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition & divine intervention."

c99-c55 BCE - Lucretius - Poet & philosopher. Only known work is "De rerum natura"/"On the Nature of Things" about the philosophy of Epicureanism.

63 BCE-14 AD - Augustus Caesar - Founded the Roman Empire. Ruled 27 BCE-14 AD. Started Pax Romana of (c27 BC-c180 AD). Built Ara Pacis Augustae/Altar of Augustan Peace in 14 AD.

9-79 AD - Vespasian - Roman Emperor 69-79 AD. Built Templum Pacis/Temple of Peace in the Forum of Vespasian, Rome, in 75 AD.

c370-415 AD - Hypatia - First notable female mathematician. Assassinated by Christian mob in Alexandria (Egypt). A symbol of martryed Reason, feminism & Classical paganism.

1181-1226 - Saint Francis of Assisi - Friar & preacher. Founded the Franciscan Order. Patron saint of animals.

1194-1250 - Frederick II - King of Sicily 1197. Holy Roman Emperor 1220-50. Remained committed to humanist values of his materal grandfather, Henry I.

c1265-1321 - Dante Alighieri. Poet. His "Divine Comedy" is considered the greatest literary work composed in Italian & a masterpiece of world literature.

c1290-1348 - Ambrogio Lorenzetti - Painter. His frescoes in Room of Peace (Sala della Pace), Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, are a masterwork of the early Renaissance.

1304-1374 - Francesco Petrarca - Petrarch in English. Scholar & lyrical poet. Often called "Father of Humanism." First to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages."

1397-1475 - Paolo Uccello - Painter & mathematician. Notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective. Painted "The Battle of San Romano" (1432).

1738-1794 - Cesare Beccaria - Criminologist, jurist, philosopher & politician. Best known for "On Crimes & Punishments" (1764) which condemned torture & the death penalty.


1801-1882 - George Perkins Marsh - Diplomat & philologist. Considered to be America's first environmentalist. Spoke many languages. Minister to Italy for 21 years.

1805-1872 - Giuseppe Mazzini. Politician, journalist & activist for the unification of Italy. Called "The Beating Heart of Italy."

1807 = Median birth year

1810-1850 - Margaret Fuller Ossoli - Transcendentalist. Wrote "Woman in the Nineteenth Century" in 1845. Lost in shipwreck while returning from Italy.

1828-1907 - Costantino Nigra - Classical scholar. Made count in 1882 & senator in 1890. Served in Paris, St Petersburg, London & Vienna. Headed delegation at 1st Hague Peace Conf. Conf

1833-1918 - Ernesto Teodoro Moneta - Journalist & pacifist. See statue in Milan (Italy). P 1907 with Louis Renault


1850-1937 - Johanna Waszklewicz-van Schilfgaarde - Baroness. Peace organizer. Founded Alliance of Women for Peace in 1899. "Pupil" of Bertha von Suttner. Spent last 35 years in Rome.

1870-1952 - Maria Montessori - Physician, educator & humanitarian. Created the Montessori system of education.

1881-1963 - Pope John XXIII - Author of the encyclical Pacem in Terris in 1963. 2004

1891-1949 - Damaskinos Papandreou - Archbishop of Athens. Only senior churchman in Nazi occupied Europe to condemn Holocaust.

1897-1981 - Edmond Romulus Amateis - Sculptor & educator. Made 148-foot "Great Frieze of War & Peace" in Kansas City & wall in Warm Springs, Georgia.

1899-1968 - Aldo Capitini - Philosopher, poet, political activist, anti-Fascist & educator. Known as "The Italian Gandhi." First used international peace flag in 1961.


1912-1963 - Greigoris Lambrakis - Politician, track & field athlete & medical school faculty member. Assassinated at anti-war meeting in Thessaloniki. P

1920-2005 - Pope John Paul II - See monument commemorating his Appeal for Peace in Hiroshima (Japan).

1922-1992 - Ernesto Balducci - Catholic priest and peace activist.

1923-1967 - Lorenzo Milani - Roman Catholic Priest. Educator of poor children & an advocate of conscientious objection. P CO

1924-1997 - Danilo Dolci - Sociologist, educator & poet. Opposed poverty & the Mafia. Promoted non-violence. Called "The Gandhi of Sicily."

1932-2001 - David McTaggart - Athelete & environmentalist. Helped found Greenpeace International. Sailed own boat in 1972 to protest French nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

1933-Alive - Giuseppe Grattapaglia - FIAT executive. Works at Bona Espero in Brazil since 1974. Secretary of Esperanto Rotarian Fellowship (RADE).


1947-Alive - Sylvia Baraldini - Radical activist. Emprisoned 17 years in USA + 7 in Italy. See 2009 film "Freeing Silvia Baraldini."

1973-Alive - Rula Jebreal - Physiotherapist, journalist, novelist, screenwriter & commentator for MSNBC. Wrote the semi-autobiographical film Miral in 2010.

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