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Peace & Friendship Monuments
Related to Native Americans
(First Nations in Canada)

Right click image to enlarge.
1771 - "William Penn's Treaty with the Indians when he founded the Province of Pennsylvania in North America," Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia (USA). Shows proprietor William Penn [1644-1718] signing peace treaty with Delawares at Sackamaxon in 1682. The scene was painted 89 years later by Benjamin West [1738-1820] at the request of Thomas Penn [1702-1775]. William Penn's "Peaceable Kingdom" came to an end with the Conestoga Massacre by the "Paxton Boys" on December 14 & 27, 1763.
June 5, 1872 - Gnadenhütten Monument & Museum, Gnadenhütten, Ohio (USA). 37 foot (11 m) monument, located next to a reconstructed cabin in what was the center of the original village. Inscribed "Here triumphed in death ninety Christian Indians, March 8, 1782." Memorializes victims of the Gnadenhütten Massacre, "the murder of 96 Indians, mostly Delawares, during the American Revolution. The Indians, converted peaceful Christians, were under suspicion because of their neutrality in the war. A [Pennyslvania] officer, David Williamson, and his militia, seeking revenge for Indian raids on frontier settlements, pretended friendship with the Indians, then disarmed them and returned to kill them in cold blood; two scalped boys escaped to relate the slayings."

January 29, 1879 - Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument, Crow Agency, Montana (USA). "The site was first preserved as a national cemetery on January 29, 1879, and in 1881 a memorial obelisk by Durwood Brandon (left image) was erected on Last Stand Hill over the mass grave of the solidiers of the 7th Calvery." An iron "Spirit Warriors Sculpture" by native artist Colleen Cutschall (right image) honoring the Native Americans was placed next to the old memorial in 2002.

October 28, 1893 - Penn Treaty Park, Delaware (Columbus) Avenue & Beach Street, Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Alleged site of famous peace treaty signed by William Penn [1644-1718] and the Lenape Indians in 1683. Click here for Wikipedia article. See associated virtual PennTreatyMusuem.org. Mentioned by Tom Flores (2008).
1903 - Wounded Knee Monument, Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota (USA). Commemorates the massacre of Wounded Knee on Dec. 29, 1890. "In 1903 a monument was erected at the site of the mass grave by surviving relatives to honor the 'many innocent women and children who knew no wrong' who were killed in the massacre. Today, some family members are still seeking compensation from the US government as heirs of the victims but they have been unsuccessful in receiving any monetary settlement so far."
1911 - Black Hawk Statue, Lowden State Park, 1411 North River Road Oregon, Illinois (USA). Also called "The Eternal Indian." Lorado Taft [1860-1936], who created the 50-foot statue as a tribute to Native Americans, is said to have thought of the figure one evening as he and other members of the Eagles' Nest Art Colony stood gazing at the view from the bluffs. According to a story attributed to Taft, he and his colleagues tended to stand with their arms folded over their chests. The pose made him think of the Native Americans who were so reverent of the beauty of nature and who probably had enjoyed the same view. With the help of John G. Prasuhn, a young sculptor of the Chicago Art Institute, Taft created a figure almost 50 feet tall, including a six-foot base. Reinforced with iron rods, the hollow statue is 8 inches to 3 feet thick. The interior is accessible to park employees through a door at the base. The outer surface composed of cement, pink granite chips and screenings, is three inches thick. The figure is estimated to weigh 100 tons & is thought to be the second-largest concrete monolithic statue in the world. Although Taft dedicated the statue to Native Americans, it has become commonly associated with Black Hawk [1767-1838]."


1927 - Memorial Peace Park & Medicine Lodge Peace Treaty Pageant Grounds, Medicine Lodge, Barber County, Kansas (USA). Text of Kansas historical marker: "Medicine Lodge Peace Treaties. In October 1867, Kiowa, Comanche, Arapahoe, Apache and Cheyenne Indians [the Five Nations] signed a peace treaties with the Federal government. 15,000 Indians camped near by during the council, among them the famous chiefs Satanta [c1820-1878], Little Raven [d.1889] and Black Kettle [c1803-1868]. 500 soldiers acted as escort for the U.S. commissioners. Interest in this colorful spectacle was so widespread that Eastern papers sent correspondents, among them Henry M. Stanley [1841-1904], who later was to find Livingstone in Africa. While the treaties did not bring immediate peace they made possible the coming of the railroads and eventual settlement. The site of the council was at the confluence of the Medicine river and Elm creek, a little southwest of Medicine Lodge. Every five years a treaty pageant is re-enacted in this amphitheater. In Medicine Lodge there is a commemorative monument on the high school grounds." Second image shows old entrance posts. Third image shows Peace Treaty Statue in town of Medicine Lodge.
1931 - Historical Marker, Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association, Southwestern shore of Fish Lake, Sevier County, Utah (USA). Text: "PEACE TREATY WITH FISH LAKE INDIANS Was Made Here June 14, 1873 This treaty led up to the final treaty at Cedar Grove in Grass Valley July 1, 1873, ending the Black Hawk Indian War in Southern Utah. Present at the treaty council were: Gen. Wm. B. Pace [1832-1907] George Evans Byron Pace Albert Thurber William Jex E.R. Bean G.W. Bean Abraham Halliday Wm. Robinson Chief Tabiona and 15 others." This treaty has never been broken.

June 25, 1933 - Old Crossing Treaty Monument, Red Lake County Park, Huot, Red Lake County, Minnesota (USA). Life-sized bronze statue of a Chippewa/Ojibwe man holding a peace pipe. Sculpted by Carl C. Mose [1903-1973]. At the site of the 1863 Treaty of Old Crossing between the US government & Red Lake/Pembina Ojibwe in which the Ojibwe cede about 11,000,000 acres of the Red River Valley (an area approximately 180 miles long north-to-south & 127 miles wide) for $510,000 & various goods, provisions & presents. This same site was well-known even before the treaty. For about 30 years in the mid-1800's it was the chosen location by oxcart drivers - freighting goods on the Pembina Trail between St. Paul & today's Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada) - to cross/ford the Red Lake River. For the last 20 years, Old Crossing Treaty Park has been used by L'Association des Francais du Nord / The association of the French of the North (AFRAN) to host a multi-cultural Chautauqua & French Festival in late August. The festival involves native Americans & Canadians, Metis, Red River Valley residents of French-Canadian descent & people of other ethnic heritage."

1936 - "Vision of Peace," Memorial Concourse, St. Paul City Hall, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Also called "Indian God of Peace." Largest carved onyx figure in the world. Weighs 60 tons & oscillates 66 degrees left & right. Although dedicated in 1936 to the war veterans of Ramsey County, pacifist sculptor Carl Milles [1875-1955] sipulated that it should symbolize world peace. Officially named "Vision of Peace" in 1994. Milles also created "God the Father of the Rainbow" in Stockholm, Sweden (qv). Entry #542 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1936 - Ocmulgee National Monument, National Park Service (NPS), Macon, Georgia (USA). "A memorial to the relationship of people and natural resources in this corner of North America. We preserve a continuous record of human life in the Southeast from the earliest times to the present, there is evidence here of more than 12,000 years of human habitation." Has museum & many Indian mounds, including the Great Temple Mound (shown in image) which has a large restored underground coremonial chamber. Visited by EWL.

September 1939 - Historical Marker #50, Daughters of Utah Pioneers, Heber City, Wasatch County, Utah (USA). Text: "INDIAN PEACE TREATY. Beautiful Provo Valley, named from River and once Chief Walker's hunting ground. Was colonized 1859-60 by 18 families called by Brigham Young [1801-1877]. 1864 Indian troubles forced pioneers to build fort at Heber. Bishop Jos. S. Murdock [1822-1899] friendly with the Indians, invited Chief Tabby and tribe to his home (3 BLKs 1.1 E) Aug. 20, 1867, where peace treaty was signed and barbecue held on John Carroll's lot. This ended Indian depredations in this valley, proving Brigham Young's statement - 'It's better to feed the Indians than to fight them.' Wasatch County Camps."

June 3, 1948 - Crazy Horse Memorial, Black Hills, South Dakota (USA). "Carved into a mountain, in the tradition of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial (on which Korczak Ziolkowski [1908-1982] had worked with Gutzon Borglum). The sculpture was begun by Ziolkowski in 1948. When completed, it will be 641 feet (195 m) wide and 563 feet (172 m) high."

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1948 - Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 589 Tsali Boulevard (US-441), Cherokee, North Carolina (USA). "Tells the story of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, whose ancestors lived in these mountains for more than ten thousand years."

1962 - New Echota State Park, Calhoun, Georgia (USA). Site vacant for more than 100 years after the Cherokee removal to Oklahoma (qv) in 1838. Buildings reconstructed since 1957 include Council House (where once the laws of the Cherokee Nation were enacted, the Supreme Court, the Printer Shop) a building of the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper, a Common Cherokee Cabin (representing a home of an average Cherokee family), a Middle-Class Cherokee Home including outbuildings, and Vann's Tavern. Scene of the Treaty of New Echota, signed on December 29, 1835. Image shows monument memorializing the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears in 1838.
1967 - Marin Museum of the American Indian, 2200 Novato Boulevard, Novato, California (USA). Situated on the actual site of a Miwok Village.

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1972? - James F. Corn Interpretive Center, Red Clay State Historic Park, 1140 Red Clay Park Road SW, Bradley County, Tennessee (USA). Near the Georgia state line about 17 miles SE of Chattanooga. "Site of the last seat of Cherokee government before removal to Oklahoma in 1838... Features exhibits about 19th century Cherokee culture, government, economy, recreation, religion and history. A series of stained glass windows depicts the forced removal of the Cherokee and subsequent Trail of Tears emigration. Outside there is a replica of a Cherokee farmstead, a Council House," and the "Eternal Flame of the Cherokee Nation" [in image]. Named for author James F. Corn [1894-1989].

1974 - "Cherokee Chieftain" (Statue #9), Johnson Park, on Inman between Broad and Ocoee Streets, Cleveland, Tennessee (USA). Height 10 feet. Carved by Peter Wolf Toth whose "Trail of the Whispering Giants" has at least one Indian statue in every state.
1986 - "Junaluska" (Statue #55), Knob Creek & Guaranda Roads, Johnson City, Tennessee (USA). Height 16 feet. Carved by Peter Wolf Toth.
April 10, 1986 - Tree of Peace, Shasta Hall, California State University, Sacramento, California (USA). Original plaque (shown in image) given on Indigenous People's Day (Oct. 12, 2009) to Ensuring Native Indian Traditions club (ENIT) by E. Nathan Jones, CSU Theatre & Dance Department. Its inscription: "TREE OF PEACE. Dedicated by Chief Jake Swamp of the Mohawk Nation, April 10, 1986. 'When I look at this tree, May I be reminded that I laid down my weapons forever.'" Information courtesy of Trevor Super.

1986 - Sequoyah Birthplace Museum, Vonore, Tennessee (USA). "A property of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI). Strives to promote the understanding and appreciation of the history of the Cherokee people." Sequoyah [c.1767-1843] was was a Cherokee silversmith who in 1821 completed his independent creation of a Cherokee syllabary, making reading and writing in Cherokee possible.

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1987 - Trail of Tears National Historic Trail. "'Designated' in 1987. Commemorates the removal of the Cherokee and the paths that 17 Cherokee detachments followed westward. Today the trail includes about 2,200 miles of land and water routes, and traverses portions of nine states (AL, AR, GA, KY, IL, MO, NC, OK & TN). The National Park Service (NPS) administers the trail through staff at an office in Santa Fe, New Mexico." Click here for "Places To Go" in each state." Right image shows Pea Ridge, Arkansas.

February 1972-May 1988 - "Whispering Giants," (USA). Series of 58 wooden sculptures by Hungarian-born Peter Wolf Toth honoring the American Indian. There is at least one sculpture in each state and two in Canada. Statue #1 was in the beach in La Jolla, California (USA), but has been washed away. Statue #58 is near the old sugar mill, Waialua, Oahu.Hawaii (USA). Image shows statue #42 in Sprague Park, Kingston Road & Strathmore Street, Naragansett, Rhode Island (USA).

1979 - "Offering of the Sacred Pipe," Albuquerque Museum, 2000 Mountain Road, NW, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA). Monumental bronze by Native American artist Allan Houser [1914-1994]. "A stylized Native American Indian stands wearing a feather headdress & long robe. He extends his arms out in front of himself, offering a peace pipe with both hands." Duplicate of statues in Scottsdale, Arizona, & at US Mission to the United Nations in New York City (qv).

Date? - "Offering of the Sacred Pipe," Fitness Centre Patio, above the Centre for Well-Being Spa, The Phoenecian, 6000 East Camelback Road, Scottsdale, Arizona (USA). Monumental bronze by Native American artist Allan Houser [1914-1994]. Duplicate of statues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, & at US Mission to the United Nations, New York City (qv).

February 27, 1985 - "Offering of the Sacred Pipe," US Mission to the United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Monumental bronze by Native American artist Allan Houser [1914-1994]. "Has become a worldwide symbol of peace." Duplicate of statues in Scottsdale, Arizona, & Albuquerque, New Mexico (qv).

1989 - Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians & Western Art, Indianapolis, Indiana (USA). "Showcases Western and Native American art and cultural objects. The museum's design is also inpired by the land, people, and architecture of the American Southwest." Visited by EWL.

September 30, 1989, Sequoyah," Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 589 Tsali Boulevard (US-441), Cherokee, North Carolina (USA). 22-foot wooden statue. Carved by Hungarian-American Peter Wolf Toth from a single Sequoia log from California. #63 in a series of "Whispering Giants" carved by Toth in every state. Statues #64, #71 & #72 are also in North Carolina.
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September 12, 1992 - Vandalized August 8, 1996 - WVU "Peace Tree," West Virginia University, Morgantgown, West Virginia (USA). "Commemorates the University's commitment to the rediscovery of America's Indian heritage. Chief Leon Shenandoah, Tadodaho (Presiding Moderator) of the Grand Council of the Haudenosaunee Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy, & Chippewa Chief Robert TallTree, also a musician, artisan and storyteller, were invited to plant & bless the tree. On August 8, 1996, vandals cut down the Peace Tree. A second Peace Tree, which still stands today, was planted by Mohawk Chief Jake Swamp on October 19, 1996. /// According to Haudenosaunee oral tradition, the Creator sent a Peacemaker to unite the warring Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Mohawk & Onondaga Nations by planting the original Tree of Peace at Onondaga [New York] ca. 1000 A.D. The Tree marked the formation of the Haudenosaunee Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy. As told by Chief Jake Swamp, when the Tree was planted, the Peacemaker told the first leaders: 'This will be the symbol that we will use. The white pine will be the symbol of peace. Now the greenery of this tree will represent the peace you have agreed to. Every time you look at this tree and its greenery, you will be reminded of this peace you agreed to because this tree never changes color the year round, it's always green, so shall be your peace.'"

1992 - "May We Have Peace," entrance to Parrington (North) Oval, Oklahoma University, Norman, Oklahoma (USA). 11-foot bronze statue by Native American artist Allan Houser [1914-1994]. Features a Chiricahua Apache man with a peace pipe. "In 1994, Houser returned to Washington, DC, for the last time to present the US government with the sculpture, 'May We Have Peace,' a gift, he said, 'To the people of the United States from the First Peoples.' The gift was accepted by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton for installation at the Vice President’s residence [now at the National Museum of the American Indian]."

1994 - "May We Have Peace," National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA). 11-foot bronze statue by Native American artist Allan Houser [1914-1994]. Features a Chiricahua Apache man with a peace pipe. "Temporarily installed at the residence of Vice President & Mrs. Al Gore in 1994." Then stored at the Smithsonian collections facility in Suitland, Maryland (right image) before the museum opened on September 21, 2004. Duplicate of a statue at Oklahoma University, Norman, Oklahoma (qv).
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Memorial Day 1997 - “Gathering, Lasting Friendship, 1847-1997,” Vereins Kirche, Fredericksburg, Texas (USA). Dedicated as a part of the city's 150th anniversary celebration. Commemorates the signing of the Meusebach-Comanche Treaty in 1847. "The early German settlers became the only immigrant group to successfully negotiate peace with the Indians. It is said to be the only treaty between white settlers and Native Americans that was never broken." "Irene Marschall King, John Meusebach’s granddaughter, brought the original Meusebach-Comanche treaty document from Europe in 1970. She presented it to the Texas State Library, where it is now on display." Info courtesy of John Wilkins.
September 21, 2004 - National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, Washingtom, DC (USA). Click here for the Wikipedia article.

Date? - Cherokee Heritage Center & Tsa La Gi Ancient Village, Park Hill, Tahlequah, Oklahoma (USA). Tehlequah is the capital of both The Cherokee Nation and of The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (UKB). "Our Ancient Village showcases the way a traditional Cherokee community would have looked prior to European contact. The village features replicas of traditional homes and meeting houses like those used long before forced removal from the present-day southeastern U.S. to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)."

About 2006 - "Trail of Tears" historical marker, Ross's Landing Park & Plaza, Tennessee River, Chattanooga, Tennessee (USA). Marks the beginning of the Trail of Tears. Labeled "Alabama-Tennessee Trail of Tears Corridor Committee" and paid for by from proceeds of the Trail of Tears Commemorative Motorcycle Ride.

About 2006 - Cherokee Removal Memorial Park, 6800 Blythe Ferry Lane, Birchwood, Meigs County, Tennessee (USA). "The Trail Where They Cried." Near Blythe Ferry (right image) where about 9,000 Cherokees crossed the Tennessee River in 1838 en route to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Includes pavilion (middle image) overlooking Blythe Ferry Goose Management Area.

April 28, 2007 - Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, National Park Service, Big Sandy Creek, Kiowa County, Colorodo (USA). Pays tribute to the approximately 400 Cheyenne and Arapaho people (mostly women & children) who were killed November 29, 1864, by 700 Colorado volunteers who had signed up to be soldiers for 100 days.
Future - American Indian Veteran Memorial, Riverside National Cemetery, 22495 Van Buren Boulevard, Riverside, California (USA). "At last there will be a fitting tribute to the more than 600 American Indian tribes and their warrior veterans. However, there will be a bit of irony on the cemetery grounds. Over at the stunning Medal of Honor monument, one of the granite slabs is entitled 'Indian Campaigns' and has a long list of those who distinguished themselves in combat with Indians. It becomes ironic that these men received this medal for killing American Indians who were attempting to protect their lands and preserve their tribal cultures that date back thousands of years, and especially unsettling that 20 of those listed men received the Medal of Honor for killing 350 Lakota men, women and children at the massacre of Wounded Knee on Dec. 29, 1890."
Future - "Global Peace Center," Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, California (USA). Reuse of former prison proposed by Native Americans.

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