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Peace Monuments
Related to the United Nations
& to Peacekeeping

N.B.: The history of the United Nations (1945) includes the Peace Palace in The Hague (1913) & the League of Nations in Geneva (1919), plus many associated organizations. | Click here for more information about the Peace Palace. | Click here for "Art ... at Home in the United Nations" by Ed Marks (1998). | Click here for virtual tour of the United Nations in New York City. | Click here for Wikipedia article on the UN Art Collection.

Right click image to enlarge.
1820 - Temple de l'amite et de la paix / Temple of Friendship & Peace, United Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). Built by Count Jean-Jaques de Sellon [1782-1839] on his estate La Fenetre (which now belongs to the United Nations). Destroyed during a storm in 1946, but its stones remain in storage (as shown in lower image).

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August 28, 1913 - Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Constructed just before World War I by the Carnegie Foundation -- and still owned by the Carnegie Foundation. (Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] previously paid for the Pan American Union building -- now the Organization of American States (OAS) -- in Washington, DC (USA) in 1910.) The Peace Palace is now home of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), the Peace Palace Library, and the Hague Academy of International Law. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 26-27.

The Palace is filled with many gifts of the different nations who attended the Second Hague Conference in 1907 as a sign of their support, including:
-- A 3.2-tonne (3.1-long-ton; 3.5-short-ton) vase from Russia (see image),
-- Doors from Belgium,
-- Marble from Italy,
-- A fountain from Denmark,
-- Wall carpets from Japan,
-- Clock for the clock tower from Switzerland,
-- Persian rugs from Iran,
-- Wood from Indonesia & the USA.
The Palace also features a number of statues, busts & portraits of prominent peace campaigners from around the world and of all eras, including:
-- Andrew Carnegie (see image),
-- William Randal Cremer,
-- Rui Barbosa [1849-1923],
-- Nelson Mandela,
-- Mahatma Gandhi,
-- Bernard Loder [1849-1935],
-- Jean Monnet,
-- Jawaharlal Nehru.


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August 28, 1913 - Peace Palace Gardens, The Hague (Netherlands). Surround the Vredespaleis / Peace Palace (qv). "Considered among the most successful designs of the English landscape architect Thomas Hayton Mawson [1861-1933]. Mawson cleverly used a natural watercourse through the terrain, the famous Haagse Beek [Hague Creek], for the ponds. This brook rises in the nearby dunes & still flows along a watercourse under- neath the ponds to a large pond in the centre of The Hague, the Vijverberg." Include World Peace Flame (qv) since April 18, 2002.
August 28, 1913 - Peace Fountain, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Inscription names Abraham Pieter Cornelis van Karnebeek [1836-1925] & others responsible for creating the Peace Palace.

June 28, 1919 - The League of Nations is created by the Treaty of Versailles. The International Labour Organization (ILO) is also established in 1919 as an agency of the League of Nations. It will become the first specialized agency of the United Nations system after the demise of the League in 1946. The ILO has a tripartite governing structure – representing governments, employers and workers (usually with a ratio of 2:1:1). The rationale behind the tripartite structure is creation of free & open debate among governments & social partners. The ILO secretariat (staff) is referred to as the International Labour Office.

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October 29-November, 1919 - First annual conference (referred to as the International Labour Conference, or ILC) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) at the Pan-American Union, 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Adopted the first six International Labour Conventions, which dealt with hours of work in industry, unemployment, maternity protection, night work for women, minimum age & night work for young persons in industry. Prominent French socialist Albert Thomas [1878-1932] (who did not attend the conference) became the ILO's first Director General. /// The ILO was esablished in 1919 an agency of the League of Nations. Because of its non-membership in the League, the USA did not join the ILO until 1934. /// Image shows the Secretarial Staff of the conference in front of the Pan American Building; it includes Ernest Greenwood, American Delegate, & Harold B. Butler, Secretary-General of ILC.


November 15, 1920 - Salle de la Réformation, boulevard Helvétique, Geneva (Switzerland). First meeting place of the Assembly of the Société des Nations / League of Nations. A commemorative plaque was placed here October 26, 2001, on the initiative de la Société Henry Dunant (relayé par l’Association 'Genève: un lieu pour la paix').
1920? - Cloche / Clock, Salle de l'Alabama / Hall of the Alabama, Hotel de Ville / City Hall, Geneva (Switzerland). "Une réplique en miniature de la Liberty Bell de Philadelphie. Cette cloche sonna l'ouverture de la première assemblée de la Société des Nations le 15 novembre 1920 à Genève, siège voulu par le Président américain Thomas Woodrow Wilson.."


1926 - Secretariat Building, International Labour Organization (ILO), on shore of Lake Geneva (Lac Leman), Geneva (Switzerland). Served the ILO until 1974. Now the office of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
1925 - “Le Puddleur,” at an entrance to the International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva (Switzerland). The sculpture, by Constantin Meunier [1831-1905], is a gift of Belgium to the ILO. A puddleur is a metalworker.
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September 14, 1929 - Peace Fountain, Amsterdam Park, St. Clair Avenue W at Avenue Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Inscribed: "[Replica of] the fountain at [the Peace] Palace, The Hague. Presented by H.H. Williams... as a mark of his love [for peace]."


1936 - Palais des Nations / Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). Built for the League of Nations. Since the 1950's, it has served as the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) and contains more art works (peace monuments) than shown on this web page.


1936 - Murals, Council Chamber, Palais des Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). On the ceiling & walls. Painted by the Catalan artist José María Sert & a gift from the Government of Spain. Depict human grogress through health, technology, freedom & peace – all united by five colossal Dantesque figures (representing the world’s five continents) grasping each other’s hands in apocalyptical triumph at the dome of the ceiling." Right image shows the Assembly Hall.


1938 - "The Creation of Adam," Palais des Nations/Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). Three bas-reliefs in stone by British sculptor & printmaker Eric Gill [1882-1940]. Inspired by Michelangelo’s “Creation of Adam.” /// Covered in October 2013 (as shown in right image) to avoid offending the Iranian delegation visiting Geneva for talks about nuclear weapons.


Date? - Woodrow Wilson Memorial, Palais des Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). Inscription: "A la memorie de WOODROW WILSON, Président des Etats Unis, Fondateur de la Société des Nations. Ville de Geneve."
1939 - Statue, ILO Headquarters, International Labour Organization, Geneva (Switzerland). Gift from the Government of Yugoslavia.

August 1939 - "Armillary Sphere," Ariana Park, Palais des Nations / Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). 410 cm in diameter. Weighs some 5,800 kg. Also called Celestial Sphere. By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. Presented by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation in memory of the founder of the League of Nations.
June 1, 1950 - "Aero Memorial World War I 1917-18," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. "Proposed during WW-I by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania. Commissioned by Fairmount Park Art Association."


July 1944 - Bretton Woods Monetary Conference, Mount Washington Hotel, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire (USA). Marker commemorates the international conference in July 1944 during which the groundwork was laid for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) -- now called the World Bank -- and other so-called "Bretton Woods" institutions. What is date of the marker?


August 21-October 7, 1944 - Dumbarton Oaks Conference, Washington, DC (USA). Formally called "Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization." "The 'Big Four' (China, Russia, UK & USA) met here with the main objective to create an organization that 'would maintain international peace and security, by peaceful means, if possible, and economic sanctions and force if necessary; and to promote security by encouraging economic and social cooperation among nations.'" Dumbarton Oaks (in Georgetown at 1703-32nd Street, NW) is a Federal-style house & estate built in 1801 and owned since 1940 by Harvard University.


June 26, 1945 - War Memorial Building, United Nations Plaza, , San Francisco, California (USA). Signing of the United Nations Charter at the United Nations Conference on International Organization by 50 of the 51 original member countries. (Poland signed later). The UN Charter entered into force on October 24, 1945. The auditorium was renamed the Herbst Theatre in 1977.


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1926-1958 - Community of Christ Auditorium building, 100 West Walnut, Independence, Missouri (USA). Groundbreaking took place in 1926, but the building was not completed until 1958. US President Harry Truman came here to proclaim the creation of the United Nations immediately after signing the United Nations Charter in San Francisco on June 26, 1945. The Community of Christ International Peace Award (bestowed annually since 1993 except 1996) is presented here.


January 10-February 14, 1946 - Plaque for First Meeting of UN General Assembly, Methodist Central Hall, Westminster, London (England). Eleanor Roosevelt is a member of the US delegation. Text of plaque: "To the glory of God and in prayer for peace on Earth this tablet commemorates the first meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Methodist Central Hall, Westminster, Jan.10-Feb.14 1946." Named in "A Peace Trail Through London" by Valerie Flessati (1998).

1946 - League of Nations Museum, Palais des Nations, B.328, Geneva (Switerland). Operated by the Library of the UN Office at Geneva (UNOG), the League of Nations Archives (LON) & Historical Collections Unit. Illustrates the history & work of the League of Nations [1919-1946].

December 7, 1946 - Flag of the United Nations. A white UN emblem (world map surrounded by two olive branches) on a light blue background. "The organizers of the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, California, wanted an insignia that could be made into a pin to identify delegates. US Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Jr., was chairperson of the US delegation & realized that a temporary design might become the permanent symbol of the United Nations. He formed a committee headed by Oliver Lundquist that developed a design consisting of a world map surrounded by leaves from a design created by Donal McLaughlin. The blue colour that appears in the background of the insignia was chosen to be 'the opposite of red, the war colour,' generally taken to be Pantone 279, although the exact shade has never been officially specified by the United Nations. The globe is bisected in the centre by the Prime Meridian & the International Date Line. The olive branches are a symbol for peace, & the world map represents all the people of the world. In 1946, a UNO committee got the task of making a definite design, which adopted by the plenary session of the UNO on December 7, 1946."

1946-1951 - Temporary home of the UN Secretariat, Lake Success, Long Island, New York (USA). Designed by the Philadelphia-based architecture and design firm EwingCole. Transformed from industrial space used as a defense manufacturing plant dating back to WW-II when it was operated by Sperry Gyroscope Co. Used by UN after the UN charter was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945. Now part of North Shore-LIJ Health System’s Center for Advanced Medicine.


June 1948? - UN Headquarters, Alar Street (an extension of Haas Promenade), Jerusalem (Israel). This is the UN's first peacekeeping operation. Sign on wall reads "United Nations, Nations Unies, Headquarters, United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, UNTSO." Right two images show UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan addressing the staff at the UNTSO on 13 March 2005. Did the UN occupy this building in 1948 or later? Near the 2008 Tolerance Park & Monument (qv).


After 1948 - Place des Droits de l'Homme / Terrace of the Rights of Man, Palais de Chaillot, Trocadero, Paris (France). Also called Parvis des Droits de l'Homme. "The name of the palace square comes from the fact that Chaillot palace was the place where United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on December 10, 1948 [right image]." /// "This event is now commemorated by a stone, and the esplanade is known as the esplanade des droits de l'homme ("esplanade of human rights"). The Palais de Chaillot was also the initial headquarters of NATO, while the 'Palais de l'OTAN' (now Université Paris Dauphine) was being built." /// "La terrasse supérieure, baptisée 'Place des droits de l’homme,' est ornée, le long de ses bassins, de statues en bronze doré. Ces statues représentent sept femmes et un homme : La Jeunesse (Alexandre Descatoire), Flore (Marcel Gimond), Le Matin (Pryas), La Campagne (Paul Cornet), Les Oiseaux (Lucien Brasseur), Les Jardins (Robert Couturier), Le Printemps (Paul Niclausse), Les Fruits (Félix Desruelles)."


1950 - United Nations Memorial Cross, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu Island (Japan). "Standing faced Korea, the soldier of the Allied Forces killed in the Korean War is commemorated." Inscription: "In honor of the fallen heroes of the United Nations erected in 1950 by members of the Kokura General Depot Camp Kokura Kyushu Japan." (Kitakyushu was created in 1963 and includes the old city of Kokura.)

1952 - United Nations Headquarters Buildings, East River, New York City, New York (USA). Two buildings (Secretariat & Conference Building). Cornerstone laid October 24, 1949. General Assembly first met here October 14, 1952, for its 7th regular annual session. Replaced UN's temporary home in the Sperry Gyroscope building in Lake Success, Long Island, New York (USA).
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See Apsel, Joyce (2008), "Peace & human rights education: The UN as a [virtual] museum for peace," pp. 37-48, in Anzai, Ikuro, et al, ed. by (2008), 6th International Museums for Peace Conference, Kyoto (Japan).


1952 - Peace & Freedom Tapestry, East Wall, Security Council Room, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Entry #754 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). By Per Krohg of Norway.
1952 - Children's Fountain, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Entry #747 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


June 1953 - Woman & Bird Statue, Trusteeship Chamber, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Large teak statue made by a Danish artist Henrik Starcke. Gift from Denmark. Woman with outstretched arms letting a bird fly free suggests "unlimited flight upwards to greater heights." In the context of the Trusteeship Council, it can be seen to symbolize the colonies achieving independence. Entry #760 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1953 - "Mankind's Struggle for a Lasting Peace", Third Floor, Conference Building, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Mural 64 feet long x 9.5 feet tall by Jose Vela Zanetti [1914-1999], a Spanish exile living in the Dominican Republic, in which a giant, four-armed figure implants the UN emblem. Entry #758 in the "Peace Movement Directory by James Richard Bennett (2001).

June 8, 1954 - Japanese Peace Bell, West Court Garden, Secretariat Building, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Cast (including coins & metal from about 60 UN member countries) by Chiyoji Nakagawa [1905-1972] on October 24, 1952, at "the Tada Factory" (Japan). Gift of the UN Assn. of Japan. Rung on the Vernal Equinox and on 21 September to coincide with the opening of the UN General Assembly and the International Day of Peace. Click here for Wikipedia article. Entry #756 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Click here for Japanese website about the bell.

1954 - "Triumph of Peace," Delegates' Lobby, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Tapestry by Belgian painter Peter Colfs [1906-1983]. "Its size of around 150 m² makes it one of the largest tapestries in the world, and it is definitely the most visible work of art on display in the building." Slide courtesy of Jill Hoyles 24Dec11. Entry #759 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


1954 - Horsewoman (Monument of Peace), United Nations, New York, NY (USA). "One of the symbols of the United Nations that everybody knows is... a sculpture created by Antun Augustincic [1900-1979]. It was given as a gift to the UN and it is situated in front of the main building in New York. The basement of the monument is made of the marble from the Croatian island of Brac. The equestrian statue was cast in the city of Zagreb, capital of Croatia." // "Correction" received 18Apr11 from Valentino More in Germany: "...was a present of the Complete-Yugoslav-Nation, the Golden-Middle between the two blocks of East-West/Cold-War conflict. Since Anti-Hitler-Coalition, Yugoslavia honourable United Nation-Founding-Member. You can't change The Enduring Truth."

1955 - "Guernica," UN Headquarters, New York City, New York (USA). Full-sized tapistry version of original commisisoned by the government of Spain for the Paris International Exposition and painted in 1937 by Pablo Picasso [1881-1973]. Original is in Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS), Madrid (Spain). Another copy at Gernika Peace Museum.

1957 - "Guerra e Paz / War & Peace," Delegates' Hall, Security Council, UN Headquarters, New York, New York (USA). Two panels by Candido Portinai [1903-1962] measuring 35x47 feet presented by Brazil. Portinari was banned from entering the US to open the panels, accused of being communist.

1958 - Jardin de la Paix (Jardin Japonais) / Garden of Peace (Japanese Garden), UNESCO Headquarters, Paris (France). 1,700 square meter masterpiece by Japanese-American landscape architect Isamu Noguchi [1904-1988]. Restored in 2000. Noguchi also designed a bridge in the Hiroshima Peace Park.

1959 - "Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares", United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Bronze statue sculpted by Evgeniy Vuchetich [1908-1974] to represent the human wish to end all wars by converting the weapons of death and destruction into peaceful and productive tools that are more beneficial to mankind. Donated to the UN by the Soviet Union. Entry #752 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

November 16, 1961 - Dag Hammarskjöld Library, United Nations, New York, New York (USA). Dag Hammarskjöld [1905-1961] received the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize.
1961? - Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza, East 47th Street, New York, New York (USA). Dag Hammarskjöld [1905-1961] received the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize.

June 11, 1964 - "Single Form (Memorial)," United Nations Headquarters, New York City, New York (USA). "An arresting 21-foot-tall, 5-ton bronze by modernist English sculptor Barbara Hepworth [1903-1975]...in memory of her friend & collector of her works Dag Hammarskjöld [1905-1961]... It was commissioned in 1961 by the Jacob & Hilda Blaustein Foundation following Hammarskjöld's death in a plane crash." Right image shows dedication ceremony. UN 1964
September 17, 1964 - "Peace & Human Happiness", Eastern Side of the Public Lobby, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Stained glass window by Marc Chagall. Memorial to Dag Hammarskjold [1905-1961] about 15 feet wide and 12 feet high. Contains several symbols of peace and love, such as the young child in the center being kissed by an angelic face which emerges from a mass of flowers. On the left, below and above, motherhood and the people who are struggling for peace are depicted." Entry #755 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1969 - United Nations University, Tokyo (Japan). "Researches the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are the concern of the UN and its agencies... Motto is 'Advancing knowledge for human security, peace, and development.'" Another campus in Bonn (Germany). Offices at UN Headquarters New York & UNESCO Headquarters Paris.

1970 - Japanese Peace Bell from United Nations in New York City is displayed for six months in the UN pavilion at Expo '70, Expo Memorial Park, Osaka (Japan). The bell is rung every day at Noon. First image shows Tower of the Sun, symbol of Expo '70.
1975 - United Nations Plaza, San Francisco, California (USA). Near the War Memorial Building where the UN charter was signed on June 26, 1945. Constructed as part of the Market Street Reconstruction Project in conjunction with the subterranean installation of the BART subway line. Now in need of redevelopment.
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1976 - "United Nations Visit to Nashville" (historical marker), Nashville, Tennessee (USA). Text: "On June 7, 1976, 101 permanent representatives of the UN made a historic and unprecedented group visit to Nashville... [They] attended a forum at nearby Vanberbilt University, a special Tennessee luncheon in Centennial Park, and a special performance of the Grand Ole Opry. UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim [1918-2007] was presented the Cordell Hull Peace award [sic]... Historical Commission of Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County. No. 70. Erected 1976." Cordell Hull [1871-1955] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. President Roosevelt called Hull the "Father of the UN."
1977 - U Thant Island, East River, New York City, New York (USA). Opposite UN Headquarters. Smallest island in Manhattan & sanctuary for a small colony of Double-crested Cormorants. Unofficially named to honor former UN Secretry General U Thant [1909-1974] by "Peace Meditation," a group of UN employees who were followers of the guru Sri Chinmoy [1931-2007].

January 1, 1979 - International Year of the Child (IYC). UNESCO proclamation signed January 1, 1979, by UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim. Follow-up to the 1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child intended to draw attention to problems that affected children throughout the world, including malnutrition & lack of access to education. Many of these efforts resulted in the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989.
October 2, 1979 - "Dove of Peace," General Assembly Lobby, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). "Presented by Pope John Paul II [1920-2005], on the occasion of his visit to the UN. The original mosaic was executed in the Constantinian Basilica in the Vatican during the pontificate of Pope Innocent III [1198-1216]. The enamels were made in 1727. The gilt bronze frame was made in 1796." Entry #749 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
August 23, 1979 - Vienna International Centre (VIC), UN Office at Vienna (UNOV), Vienna (Austria). Includes headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), respectively in Vienna since 1957 and 1967.
1980 - "Peace Form One", Ralph Bunche Park, East 43rd Stret & First Avenue, New York City, New York (USA). Stainless-steel obelisk 50 feet (15 meters) high, honoring Ralph Bunche [1903-1971]. Adjacent to the Isaiah Wall. The sculptor, Daniel Larue Johnson [b.1938], was a personal friend of Bunche, and dedicated the sculpture to Bunche, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.Entry #731 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
December 1980 - University for Peace (UPAZ / UPEACE), Ciudad Colón, 30 kms southwest of San Jose (Costa Rica). Click here for the Wikipedia article. See below for Monument to Disarmament, Work & Peace (1987).

1981 - Dag Hammarskjöld Memorial & Museum, Ndola/Kitwe road, 10 kilometers from Ndola (Zambia). Where Hammarskjöld's plane crashed on September 18, 1961. "The museum is located on site, opposite the ant hill at the foot of which Dag Hammarskjold's body was found. It was opened by Dr Kenneth Kaunda in 1981. A gazebo has been erected on top of the anthill. In the central opening is a pillar surrounded by plaques left by different heads of state & dignitaries who have visited the site. These include: H.E. Mr Kofi Annan, Joseph Kabila, Dr Salim Ahmed Salim, Mrs Lee Goldman & HRH The Duke of Gloucester." Dag Hammarskjöld [1905-1961] received the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize.
November 25, 1981 - "Women's activists have marked November 25 as a day to fight violence against women since 1981. On December 17, 1999, the UN General Assembly designated 25 November as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women (Resolution 54/134). The UN invited governments, international organizations & NGO's to raise public awareness of the problem on this day as an international observance. Women around the world are subject to rape, domestic violence & other forms of violence, & the scale & true nature of the issue is often hidden. This date came from the brutal assassination in 1960 of the three Mirabal sisters, political activists in the Dominican Republic, on orders of Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo [1930–1961]." /// Image shows busts of the three sisters at the Miramel Sisters Museum in the municipality of Salcedo, next to Conuco & Tenares. "The fascinating museum works in the same house that belonged to the Dominican heroines’ family."


September 21, 1982 - First International Day of Peace. Observed at UN Headquarters by ringing the Japanese Peace Bell. Henceforth, the bell is rung on the Vernal Equinox and on 21 September to coincide with the opening of the UN General Assembly and the International Day of Peace.


February 27, 1985 - "Offering of the Sacred Pipe," US Mission to the United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Monumental bronze by Native American artist Allan Houser [1914-1994]. "Has become a worldwide symbol of peace." Duplicate of statues in Scottsdale, Arizona, & Albuquerque, New Mexico (qv).


1985 - Golden Rule Mosaic, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Presented by first lady Nancy Reagan for the UN's 40th anniversary. A creation of Venetian artists based on a painting by American artist Norman Rockwell [1894-1978]. Depicts people of all races, religions, creeds & hues. Imparts the message of the Golden Rule ("Do unto others as you would have them do unto you").


1986 - UN Internatonal Year of Peace. Click here for list of postage stamps issued to commemorate the International Year of Peace.

1986 - Beachy Head Peace Path, West Sussex (England). Commemorates the UN International Year of Peace (1986). "A 750 metre circular route starting opposite the main Beachy Head car park and leading to a viewpoint on the Head. One of several trails in the South Downs suitable for people with impaired mobility, wheelchairs, mobility scooters and push chairs." One of 13 sites on the MAW Peace Map of the British Isles as of January 2009.
1986 - Canberra Peace Park, Canberra, Australian Capitol Territory (Australia). Established for UN International Year of Peace. Monument added in 1990.

1986 - UN Year of Peace Commemorative Plaque, Riverbank Reserve, Cambridge Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand). Stainless steel plaque on concrete plinth at base of tree opposite the Theosophical Society.
1986 - Stamp for the UN International Year of Peace (Mexico). Shows the Banner of Peace of Nicholas Roerich [1874-1947]. Click here for a complete list of International Year of Peace stamps.

1986 - Stamp for the UN International Year of Peace (Australia). With dove of peace.
1986 - Finnish stamp for the UN International Year of Peace.

1987 - Monument to Disarmament, Work & Peace, University for Peace (UPAZ / UPEACE), Ciudad Colón, 30 kms southwest of San Jose (Costa Rica). By Cuban artist Thelvia Marín. Honors Costa Ricans who have made outstanding efforts in building and maintaining peace. "World's largest peace monument."
1988 - "Non-Violence" by Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd (oil painting on canvas), Conventional Arms Branch, Dept. for Disarmament Affairs (DDA), United Nations, New York (USA).
1988 - "Non-Violence" by Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd ("the knotted gun"), United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Gift from Luxembourg. Entry #753 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1988 - Peace Monument, Bicentennial Park (north of the distinctive water feature), Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Metal sculpture by artist Michael Kitching. Commissioned by the NSW government in 1986 to commemorate the UN International Year of Peace (qv).
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May 29, 1990 - Rauhanturvaajien muistomerkki / Memorial to the Peacekeepers, Hietaniemi graveyard, Helsinki (Finland). "Acknowledges the 45 Finns who died during the first 50 years of peacekeeping missions. The first peacekeeping mission in which Finnish peacekeepers participated took place in Suez, Egypt, in 1956. The Finnish contribution proved to be of high significance. There are three elements to the work of sculptor Matti Peltokangas: a rock, a stone vase or vessel and an engraved stone which reflect notions of peacekeeping. The rock represents Finnishness, safety & stability. The vase, or vessel, reflects introspection and inner thought that is so valuable to peacekeeping."

September 1990 - Good Defeats Evil, UN Gardens near 47th Street, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Forty-foot metal statue of St. George brandishing a crucifix as he slays a nuclear dragon. Gift of the Soviet Union. Sculpted by Zurab Tsereteli who also made the Tear Drop memorial for 9/11 in Bayonne, New Jersey in 2006 (qv).

1991 - Peace Path, World Peace Sanctuary, World Peace Prayer Society, 26 Benton Road, Wassaic, New York (USA). "Lined with Peace Poles on both sides, representing each of the 192 UN member nations in the world." Entry #626 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

June 3-14, 1992 - Peace Monument, UN Conference on Environment & Development (Earth Summit), Brasilia (Brazil). Erected by the Bahá’í International Community and the Bahá’í Community of Brazil. Contains soil samples from nearly 150 countries, a symbolic representation of the oneness of humanity and the global cooperation needed to achieve lasting peace. On September 19, 2000, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited [as shown in right image].
1992 - Reconcilation (National Peacekeeping Monument), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Memorializes Canadian "casques bleus / blue caps" who served in UN peace-keeping missions in Korea (1947), Palestine (1948), Golan Heights, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. Erected during 125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation (Canada 125). Entry #1302 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

March 1995 - "Symbolic Globe," UNESCO, Paris (France). "Since November 1995 situated on the piazza of UNESCO in Paris, surrounded by the flags of all nations, pointing out that this is the headquarters of the international organization. Originally conceived for the UN Summit on Social Development, March 6-12, 1995. During the Summit it was built in the centre of Copenhagen by the delegates, who had come from every corner of the earth. It is inspired by the logo of the UN and formed as a minimal structure, 15 meters in diameter. Conceived by Erik Reitzel [1941-2012]. The Danish Ministry of Culture financed its realization."

May 18, 1995 - Museum of Peacekeeping Operations, Dzerzinsky Street 20–57, Solnechnogorsk (Russia). Image shows planting of a Peace Tree at the museum.
1995 - United Nations Peace Bell, Main Plaza, Vienna International Centre (VIC), Vienna (Austria). Cast in Japan. Continues the traditon of the Japanese Peace Bell (qv) at UN Headquarters in New York City.
1995 - World Headquarters, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Place de la Cité internationale, Quartier International, Montréal, Quebéc (Canada).
Date? - Headquarters, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva (Switzerland).

Date? - Headquarters, Food & Agriclturture Organization (FAO), Rome (Italy).
Date? - Headquarters, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, DC (USA).
Date? - Headquarters, World Bank, Washington, DC (USA). Formerly called the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD).

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1995 - Statue of Sadako Sasaki, United Nations Peace Plaza, Lexington Avenue & Walnut Street, Independence, Missouri (USA). Near auditorum (right image) where President Truman declared the creation of the United Nations in 1945. Maintained by Community of Christ (Reorganized Mormon Church). Click here for air view.

1996 - UNESCO Memorial Plaque, Media School, Pienza, near Siena, Tuscany (Italy). Celebrate the 50th anniversary of the UNESCO constitution. Text (quoted from the constitution's preamble): "Nello spirito degli uomini hanno inizio le guerre. Nello spirito degli uomini devono essere innalzate le difese della pace. / Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed." "In 1996, UNESCO declared the town a World Heritage Site, and in 2004 the entire valley, the Val d'Orcia, was included on the list of UNESCO's World Cultural Landscapes." /// "It was in this Tuscan town that Renaissance town-planning concepts were first put into practice after Pope Pius II decided, in 1459, to transform the look of his birthplace." Information & left image courtesy of Francesco Pugliese & Peter van den Dungen. Right image of UNESCO plaque marking the Historic Centre of the City of Pienza is courtesy of TripAdvisor.
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1997 - Cordell Hull Birthplace & Museum State Park, 1300 Cordell Hull Memorial Drive, Byrdstown, Tennessee (USA). Preserves Hull's birthplace and various personal effects Hull donated to the citizens of Pickett County, including his 1945 Nobel Peace Prize. Cordell Hull [1871-1955] was Secretary of State 1933-1944. President Roosevelt called hime the "Father of the United Nations." Click here for monuments to all Nobel Peace Prize laureates.

Date? - Paintings by Christopher Calle. Left image depicts the Japanese Peace Bell at United Nations in New York City. Colors of both paintings represent the United Nations.

1997 - UN General Assembly decrees 2000 to be the "International Year for the Culture of Peace."
March 4, 1998 - UN General Assembly decrees 2001-2010 to be the "International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violece for the Children of the World."
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1998 - "The Metamorphosis" (United Nations Canadian Monument), Morris & Helen Belkin Gallery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). By Chinese artist Wenda Gu. "A site-specific installation made entirely of human hair. 20 feet x 85 feet x 30 feet."
1998 - Count Folke Bernadotte Memorial, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Entry #748 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Count Folke Bernadotte [1895-1948] was a Sweedish diplomaet who was assassinated in Jerusalem.

January 15, 2000 - Peace Bell, Martin Luther King, Jr. Civic Center Building (west entrance), 2180 Milvia Street, Berkeley, California (USA). Cast from melted guns for the 50th anniversary of the UN Charter (signed in the War Memorial Building in nearby San Francisco) by Bruce Hasson, founder of the "Bell Project" which promotes world peace by using melted-down firearms to cast bells which incorporate images of nonviolence and environmental concerns. Rung at the War Memorial Building by Attorney General Janet Reno.
Date? - Canon avec Noeud / Twisted cannon, Palais des Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). "Une pièce d’artillerie avec son canon tordu est pointée sur le Palais des Nations. Quand tous les canons du monde auront cette allure, l’humanité ira mieux."

August 11, 2000 - UN Peace Bell Garden, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Designed & built by Shinichiro Abe, ZEN Associates, Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts (USA). Symbolically represents the seven continents of the globe, as depicted on the UN flag. Surrounds the Japanese Peace Bell (qv).
May 19, 2002 - International People's Park (IPP), Dili (East Timor). "Park & its monument in central Dili [were] inaugurated by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in the presence of many dignitaries." /// "In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory, & East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002."

September 18, 2003 - Jardin de la Paix / Peace Garden, Domaine de Trembley, rue Moillebeau, Geneva (Switzerland). Jardin impressionniste de Moillebeau renamed in memory of Brazilian Sergio Vieira de Mello [1948-2003] and 21 other Unied Nations employees who were killed in Baghdad (Iraq) on August 19, 2003.
January 9, 2004 - Human Rights Mural, Coral Springs Museum of Art (Csmart), Coral Springs, Florida (USA). By artist Yuri Gevorgian Yuroz. "Commissioned by the United Nations. Joined an already running show on the artist called 'The Narrative Culture of Cubism.'" What's its permanent location?
June 8, 2004 - UN stamp commenorating the 50th anniversary of the Japanese Peace Bell, West Court Garden, Secretariat Building, United Nations (UN), New York City, New York (USA).
Date? - Olive Tree, UN Headquarters Building, New York City, New York (USA).

April 19, 2005 - "The Interpreter". Film starring Nicole Kidman, Sean Penn & Catherine Keener. Last film directed by Sydney Pollack. First movie ever filmed inside the UN General Assembly & Security Council chambers. According to Secretary-General Kofi Annan, "the intention was really to do something dignified, something that is honest & reflects the work that this Organization does. And it is with that spirit Swords Into Plowshares, Knottted Gun & other peace monuments appear in many scenes.

2005 - "Let There Be Peace," Catholic High School (Singapore). Ten-foot monument by Romanian artist Alexandra Nechita [born 1985] call the "Petite Picasso." "In November 1999, 14-year old Alexandra was selected by the World Federation of UN Associations (WFUNA) to lead a Global Arts Initiative involving more than 100 nations. In 2005, she unveiled her United Nations Peace Monument for Asia in Singapore [3rd image]."
After 2005 - United Nations Peace Garden, St. Mary's Cathedral, Bridge Street, Limerick, Munster (Ireland). Plaques name Irish soldiers killed in Congo 1960-63, Lebanon 1978-2000, Cyprus 1965-71, etc. Most recent death was in 2005.

June 15, 2007 - International Day of Nonviolence decreed by the UN General Assembly to be on October 2, the anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi [1869-1948].
Fall 2008 - Tolerance Monument, Tolerance Park, Jerusalem (Israel). 15-meter monument "funded by Polish businessman Aleksander Gudzowaty as a symbol to promote peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict." Between Jewish Armon Hanatziv and Arab Jabal Mukaber and just outside the United Nations headquarters in Jerusalem's "Government House."

Octobrer 17, 2008 - World Poverty Stone, Custom House Quay, Docklands, Dublin (Ireland). East of the Famine Sculptures (qv). "Marks the United Nations International Day for the Eradication of World Poverty. This limestone memorial was commissioned as a gesture of solidarity with people living in poverty around the world." Related to the original 1987 Commemorative Stone at the Palais de Challot (qv) in Paris (France).

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May 18, 2010 - United Nations Flag Parade, Johan de Wittlaan, The Hague (Netherlands). "In 2010 The Hague, in addition to other key UN cities, was granted [by whom?] its own, permanent flag parade consisting of 200 flags. The Hague is home to the highest number of international organisations, such as the International Court of Justice & the International Criminal Court, in the Netherlands... Extends [in front of the OPCW & World Forum convention center] from Rooseveltplantsoen to Bel Air Hotel. Lights in the ground illuminate the flags when it is dark. The parade consists of the flags of the 192 UN Member States, the flag of The Hague, and the flag of the United Nations. Unveiled by Alderman Frits Huffnagel &a group of international students. UN Flag Parades are also located in, among other cities, New York, home to the headquarters of the United Nations, and Geneva."


November 19, 2011 - Peace Monument, Praça da Paz / Square of Peace, Setor Sambaqui, Parque da Cidade, Joinville, State of Santa Catarina (Brazil). Dedicated on Flag Day. A tribute to soldiers who participated in United Nations Peacekeeping Forces. "Two totems that make up an egg, made of concrete & placed on a concrete base that holds a sphere also in concrete, filled with details in relief. The egg symbolizes the conception of life, in this case, surrounding the planet Earth & its life forms. Connotes peace, affection, security & protection. The structure is pigmented in black & white to highlight the integration of ethnic groups." Right image shows designer Edith Khahold Rodrigues Steffen & floor of the square which depicts a world map. Erected by City of Joinville & Institute for Research & Planning for Sustainable Development (IPPUJ). (Joinville is a city with a German heritage.) Information courtesy of Francineide Rodrigues.

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2013? - U Thant Museum, 31 Windermere Crescent (or Panwa Road), Yangon (Myanmar). Unintentional monument constructed in 1920's. Museum (announced during a ceremony on April 8, 2013) will occupy two-story villa which was the residence of U Thant [1909-1974] in 1951-1957 when he was top advisor to the Prime Minister. Now being renovated by Yangon Heritage Trust (YHT), a NGO founded by grandson Dr. Thant Myint-U.


2014? - Peace Memorial, Veroli (Italy). 99 kilometres southeast of Rome. "Emphasizes the ties between Italy & United Nations (UN) member countries while recognizing the UN's values of peace & brotherhood. The Government of Italy invited UN member states to contribute to a peace memorial that is to be fashioned from mineral samples. The Honourable Joe Oliver, Canada's Minister of Natural Resources, and the Honourable Julian Fantino, Minister of International Development, today highlighted Canada's contribution of an exceptionally rare piece of Canadian granite to be featured in a new Peace Memorial being constructed in Italy. 'Canada is proud to be part of Italy's new Peace Memorial,' said Minister Oliver. 'Our contribution underscores our commitment to freedom & democracy. It will stand as a lasting symbol of Canada's vast natural resources.' As minerals represent a country's geography, terrain and resources, Natural Resources Canada selected a specimen of granite from the Acasta Gneiss, an outcrop in the Northwest Territories that forms part of the Canadian Shield, the geological core of the North American continent. With an estimated age of 4.2 billion years, the Acasta Gneiss is the Earth's oldest known rock. This is the first time that Canada has sent a sample of rock from the Canadian Shield for use in a UN-related project. Since its inception in 1945, the UN has built over 2,000 peace monuments in order to preserve the memory of an event in a physical & permanent way [sic]." UN COLLECTIONS ITALY 2014 RECORDS

March 25, 2015 - "The Ark of Return / L'Arc de Retour," United Nations Headquarters, New York City, New York (USA). "Constructed completely from white marble. Resembles a ship -- a reference to the cramped, inhumane slaving vessels that transported African people as human commodities between continents. Inside the gargantuan structure lies a prone figure draped in white. Underneath, the words “Consider the legacy” are etched in the marble. On the outside are sketches that include maps of the triangular slave trade, slave ships & diagrams of the inside of the ships used to carry slaves." Designed by Haitian-American arthitect Rodney Leon. Dedicated "À l’occasion de la Journée internationale de commémoration des victimes de l’esclavage et de la traite transatlantique des esclaves" by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon & General Assembly President Sam Kutesa.

Future - United Nations Peace Park, Global NGO Complex & Map Museum, Global Campus, Kyung Hee University, Suwon (South Korea). "Expected to help improve relations between the Global Campus & international organizations, such as the UN, & domestic & international NGO's by offering spacious & convenient venues for international gatherings & research."


Future - UN Peace Park & UN Memorial Hall, Chungju, North Chungcheong Province (South Korea). "Orb initiated by City of Chungju in honour of Ban Ki-Moon, current General Secretary of the United Nations Organization & native of Chungju. The project will be the new cultural landmark for the city, spreading out along the banks of the river Namhangang & to the north of the Tangeumdae Natural Park. An ellipsoidal building with a maximal diameter of 60m. It is made of 8 storeys and 1 basement floor. The heart of the building is the 1,500 seat auditorium & auxiliary conference spaces. The auditorium will offer a view to the outside direction of the Tangeumdae Natural Park. Spiraling upwards, the continuous ramp houses an exhibition explaining the history of the UN between 1945 & today, finally culminating in the Gallery of the [eight] General Secretaries. The UN-Globe will be placed in an orchard of 192 apple trees representing the number of member states of the UN. The focal point of this project is the city of Chungju, in miniature, in the heart of the site. This point has been defined as the epicenter of the concentric orbits which create a unifying surface for the different events of the park, like the Stone Collection (Suseok), the research center & a number of other follies."
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Date? - Lobby, UN Headquarters, New York City, New York (USA). The silver object hovering above the display is a model of Sputnik, donated to the UN in 1959.

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