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Peace Monuments in the Netherlands

Click here for peace monuments in Belgium & Luxembourg.

N.B. This web page has five parts: (1) The Hague, (2) Amsterdam, (3) Rotterdam, (4) Utrecht, and (5) the remainder of the Netherlands.

(1) Peace Palace & Other Peace Monuments in The Hague / Den Haag / 's-Gravenhage (Netherlands)

Right click image to enlarge.

1651 - "The Thiumph of Frederick Hendrik", Oranjezaal / Orange Hall, Huis ten Bosch / House in the Woods, The Hague (Netherlands). By Flemish painter Jacob Jordaens [1593-1678]. Depicts "Bringer of Peace" Prince Frederick-Henry [1584-1647] self-assured & high on his victorious chariot, yet with the Goddess of Peace towering above him as tutelary deity & at the reins of the four-in-hand figure of of Prosperity." Text of banderolle: "Ultimus ante omnes de parta pace tyriumphus / To gain peace is the ultimate victory.". Commissioned by his consort, Amalia van Solms-Braunfels [1602-1675]. Portrays over 50 figures plus many animals, olive branches & cornucopias. On both sides of the painting are portraits of men carrying products from the West & East Indies. /// The First Hague Peace Conference took place in this hall in 1899. /// Information from Eyffinger (2004).


About 1651 - "Minerva and Hercules opening the doors to the genius of Victorious Peace," Oranjezaal / Orange Hall, Huis ten Bosch / House in the Woods, The Hague (Netherlands). Allegorical group by Christiaen van Couwenbergh [1604-1667] on pair of doors. Also called "Peace entering to close the temple of Janus." Depicts a nude Goddess of Peace approaching male & female figures struggling to keep the doors open. /// In the opening speech of the First Hague Peace Conference on May 18, 1899, Dutch foreign minister Willem Hendrik De Beaufort [1845-1918] "requested special attention for one canvas [sic]. 'It is the picture which represents Peace entering this hall to close the Temple of Janus. I hope, gentlemen, that this beautiful allegory will prove to be a good omen for your labours and that, after having completed them you will be able to say that Peace, which art brought into this hall, has sallied forth to shower her blessings upon the whole human race.'" /// "In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the 'Gates of Janus') were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war." "Janus is the god of beginnings & transitions, thence also of gates, doors, passages, endings & time. He is usually depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future & to the past. The Romans named the month of January (Ianuarius) in his honor. Janus presided over the beginning and ending of conflict, and hence war and peace." /// Quotation & upper left image from Eyffinger (2004). Upper right image is cover of Eyffinger (1999). See bibliography.

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October 1697 - Treveszaal / Truce Chamber, Binnenhof, The Hague (Netherlands). Where several peace treaties have been signed, including Treaty of Friendship & Commerce between Netherlands & USA -- the first US treaty, signed by John Adams [1735-1826] on October 8, 1782, eleven months before peace treaty with Great Britain formally recognized US independence. The Dutch cabinet meets here every Friday.



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May 18-July 29, 1899 - First Hague Peace Conference, Orange Hall/Oranjezaal, Huis ten Bosch/House in the Woods/Palais au Bois, The Hague (Netherlands). "Not driven by the sudden conversion of Europe's rulers to pacifism, but by Russia's desire to escape the crushing burden of keeping up with Germany and England's armament pace in Western Europe. Although certain idealistic motives played roles, no progress was made on disarmament at the end of each day. Nevertheless, the Conference was not without important results: First, it produced a convention for the Pacific Settlement of Disputes -- which resulted in the establishment of the first international organization, the Permanent Court of Arbitration [PCA]; secondly, an issue on Laws and Customs of War on Land known as 'The Hague Convention' -- which remains as the most important source of humanitarian law today; & a third concerning Maritime Warfare. The conference adopted "Declarations" to the effect that throwing projectiles from balloons & other aircraft had an indiscriminate effect on civilians, & the use of asphyxiating gases & dum dum bullets should be forbidden because of their inhumane nature (defenders of nuclear weapons, please note). They further expressed that another conference be held to deal with the unfinished portions of the agenda." Lower image shows the Russian delegation. US delegation headed by Andrew Dickson White [1832-1918].
"Handmade oil painting reproduction of advertisement for a Parisian clothes outfitters ["High Life Tailor"] referring to the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899, a painting by Colomb B. Moloch."
Diary entry by Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914], the only female attendee: "The 18th of May, 1899! This is an epochal date in the history of the world. Peace Conference! For ten long years the words and the idea have been laughed to scorn..." /// N.B.: May 18 will be proposed later to be celebrated as Peace Day or International Peace Day.

1899? - "Guerre ŕ la guerre / War Against War" by Dutch painter Jan ten Kate [1850-1929], "The Dutch Vereshchagin" (qv). Canvas about 4x5 meters. Fried, Zola, Tolstoy, Czar Nicholas II, Dunant & other famous peacemakers are depicted in the foreground, including Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914] who is raising a Cross to ward off Death. One of three large ten Kate paintings which hung in Jean Bloch's International Museum of War & Peace, Lucerne (Switzerland), from 1902 until 1919/1920. (The other two were "La Garde ŕ Mort/The Death Guard" & "Der Friedensengel/The Angel of Peace.") From Prof Peter van den Dungen 18Oct2013: " I researched [ten Kate's] peace paintings as part of my study of the history of the Bloch museum (published in 1981 in the Swiss Historical Journal), and was not successful in tracing any of the large paintings of his which were in the museum. More recently, colleagues in Lucerne also drew a blank. Arthur [Eyffinger] has reproductions in his books, but is unlikely to know more. I was first approached by a Dutch colleague about the Ten Kate paintings in Lucerne in the late 1970's, and it is frustrating that we are as ignorant now as then. One of the things I have never done is to pursue this matter via the professional art world, where there must exist various registers with the whereabouts of paintings."

1903 - Portrait of Henry Dunant, Headquarters, Nederlandse Rode Kruis / Dutch Red Cross, Leeghwaterplein 27, The Hague (Netherlands). By Dutch painter Jan ten Kate [1850-1929]. Henry Dunant [1828-1910] was founder of the Red Cross & receipient of the first Nobel Peace Prize (1901). /// From Arthur Eyffinger (1999): "Actually one of two portraits of the Red Cross pioneer produced by Ten Kate who maintained a corespondence with Dunant at his resort [in Heiden, Switzerland]." /// Email from Peter van den Dungen 03Nov13 after visiting Geneva, "The painting of Dunant by Jan ten Kate is not in the ICRC in Geneva but in the headquarters of the Dutch Red Cross in The Hague. I will be there next week, and will follow up." /// Images show two of the most common pictures of Dunant. Not sure if either shows the portrait by ten Kate.
Diary entry by Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914]: "The artist Ten Kate today gives us a jolly dinner at the hotel Twee Steeden, where he lives during his sojourn at The Hague - His own home is the estate Epe. His lovely wife does the honours. Among the guests are Mesdames von Waszklewicz and Selenka, Herr von Bloch, Novikof, Dr. Trueblood, and A.H. Fried, - in short a little Peace Congess in itself."


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July 4, 1899 - Silver Wreath on Tomb of Hugo Grotius [1583-1645], Nieuwe Kerk/New Church, Delft (Netherlands). Laid by US delegation to the 1899 Hague Peace Conference. Inscribed in English: "To the Memory of Hugo Grotius / In Reverence and Gratitude / From the United States of America / on the occassion of the International Peace Conference in The Hague / July 4, 1899." Right image shows Dr. Arthur Eyffinger (author of numerous books on The Hague & Peace Palace) & American professor Hope Elizabeth May who cleaned the wreath for the first time in 113 years & caused it to be rdedicated on July 4, 2012. Left & middle images are from a 1899 book which Prof. May found at the US Library of Congress. Click here for video of the rededication. All images & info courtesy of Prof. May 07Feb13.
Diary entry by Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914]: "Today, in connection with the American holiday, an excursion to Delft in commemoration of Grotius. In the early morning a severe storm is raging and rain is beating on the windowpanes. We countermand our order for a carriage and stay at home [i.e. in the Kurhaus on the beach in Scheveningen]." /// From Conference President de Staal [1822-1907]: House in the Woods, July 5, 1899. "Dear Baroness von Suttner, We were very sorry not to see you and the Baron at Delft, but we fully understood and appreciatred the reason. We really did not expect more than a dozen or twenty people, and were greatly surprised to see so large a number present. It was to me very inspiring and gave me new hopes as to the results of the Conference..."


1904 - Creation of the Carnegie Stichting / Carnegie Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands). In 1903, Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] donated US$1.5 million for the construction, management & maintenance of the Peace Palace. Since 1931, the foundation has been entrusted with the annual awarding of the Wateler Peace Prize.

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June 15-October, 1907 - Second Hague Peace Conference, Ridderzaal / Hall of Knights / Salle des Comtes, The Hague (Netherlands). "It is a little known fact that the initiative for the Second Hague Peace Conference came from civil society in the United States. Prompted by a petition in 1903 from the American Peace Society in Boston, the Massachusetts legislature passed a resolution requesting Congress to authorize the President of the United States to invite the governments of the world to join in establishing a regular international congress to meet at stated periods to deliberate upon the various questions of common interest. The idea was taken up in St. Louis in 1904 [year of the St. Louis Worlds Fair] by the Interparliamentary Union (IPU) that recommended a conference to deal with the subjects postponed at The Hague in 1899. It led to the negotiation of a series of arbitration treaties among the various nations and the consideration of plans for a series of congresses-the kind recommended by the Massachusetts legislature. President Theodore Roosevelt [1858-1919] responded to this invitation by convening the Second Hague Peace Conference. It was held on June 15, 1907, after being formally convened by the Czar. This time, Russia proposed an agenda limited to improvements in arbitration and humanitarian law, while America suggested discussing the limitation of armaments and the use of force in the collection of debts." /// The Ridderzaal is the main building of the Dutch Parliament (Het Binnenhof) & is used for official royal receptions, interparliamentary conferences, etc. On the third Tuesday in September (Prinsjesdag) the Dutch monarch drives to the Ridderzaal in the Golden Carriage & opens Parliament by delivering a speech from the throne.


June 15, 1907 - Ridderzaal / Salle des Comtes / Hall of Knights, The Hague (Netherlands). Unintentional monument. Ancient building restored 1898-1904 to serve its present purposes. Venue of the Second Hague Peace Conference, June-October 1907, & of the Peace Palace Philanthropy Gala on 2 September 2013. Right image by EWL shows the stage erected for the gala on 2 September 2013 (opposite the throne).

July 30, 1907 - Cornerstone, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Ceremoniously "laid" at a temporary site by Alexandre Ivanovitch de Nelidoff [1836-1910], Russian ambassador to France & president of the Second Hague Peace Conference. Now behind some shrubs on the northeast corner of the building. Inscribed: "'Paci Justitia Firmandaj Hanc Aedem Andreae Carnegie Munificentia Dedicavit / To preserve Peace through Justice the Munificence of Andrew Carnegie So Dedicates This Temple." /// In America, The Catholic Fortnightly Review publishes "The Apotheosis of Hank Edem." Excerpt: "Hank Edem was a stonemason, and a good one, [but he] could not stand prosperity... Here he is mingling with the effete and the haut monde, and getting boarding schoolish about his name. Now he spells it 'Hanc Aedem.' We are sorry... Mr. Carnegie, of course, can spell his name any way he pleases." /// Image by EWL shows Hope Elizabeth May at the cornerstone 3 Sept 2013.

1908 - Wereldvredecentrum / World Peace Centre, The Hague (Netherlands). Uitbreidingsplan voor Den Haag / Expansion plan for The Hague by Dutch architect, urban planner & designer Hendrik Petrus Berlage [1856–1934] would have incorporated Andrew Carnegie's Peace Palace, but this elaborate design was never constructed. Image from Arthur Eyffinger (1988), Het Vredespaleis / The Peace Palace, Amsterdam, p. 61.

August 18-23, 1913 - XXe Congrčs universel de la paix / 20th Universal Peace Congress, Ridderzaal / Hall of Knights / Salle des Comtes, The Hague (Netherlands). "Sous la haute protection de S.A.R. le prince Henri des Pays-Bas, Duc de Mecklembourg." Attended by Bertha von Sutner [1843-1914] & Henri Mandere [1883-1959], among others. A visit to the Peace Palace (not yet formally open) is a special event on the conference programme.

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August 28, 1913 - Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Constructed just before World War I by the Carnegie Stichting / Carnegie Foundation (which was founded in 1904). Still owned by the Carnegie Foundation. (Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] previously paid for the Pan American Union building -- now the Organization of American States (OAS) -- in Washington, DC (USA) in 1910.) The Peace Palace is now home of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), the Peace Palace Library, and the Hague Academy of International Law. Click here for PP website showing selected monuments. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 26-27.
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July 1, 1927 - Peace Tower of Victory & Peace / Tour de la Victoire et de la Paix, Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). "A focal bell & clock tower, sitting on the central axis of the the Canadian parliament buildings." Innagurated on the national holiday to mark the 60th anniversary of Canadian Confederation. Replaced the Victoria Tower which was destroyed by fire on February 3, 1916. Site of the new tower was dedicated on July 1, 1917, during World War I. Accompanying the Peace Tower clock is a 53-bell carillon, conceived by an act of parliament as a commemoration of the 1918 armistice. Commonly called simply The Peace Tower. Serves as a Canadian icon. Appears on the obverse of the $20 & $50 bills.
Dedication remarks by Bertha von Suttner: Peace conferences, treaties & tribunals are not sufficient by themselves: "These things also require their material forms, their easliy recognisable visible symbols, their homes. War, which has dominated the world for thousands of years, is not short of monuments and palaces. Peace has just ONE monument [sic]: the statue of Christ on the Andes; and in Europe it now has for the first time ONE beautiful building: the Peace Palace... International justice between nations has moved into a splendid home. The proud building is standing now, visible, and tangible: Temple, symbol and workplace. At least the spirt of peace is no longer homeless. The effects which will radiate from this monument are incalculable as yet. Andrew Carnegie has presented the world with a gift which has cost him a few millions but which, when it fulfills its purpose, will save the world countless billions." Comment: As von Suttner spoke these lines, she and other dedication attendees knew that about the statue on the border between Angentina and Chile, if only because a 2-meter replica had already been designated (sent? arrived? installed?) for the Peace Palace.


August 28, 1913 - "Cristo Redentor de los Andes / Christ the Redeemer of the Andes," Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). On marble railing at top of the grand staircase. Overlooks "Peace Through Justice" (qv). A two-meter replica of the larger statue between Argentina & Chile (qv). Gift of Argentina. Inscribed "Crux lux mundi / The cross is the light of the world." Left image from Peace Palace website (from front but reversed!). Middle image by EWL (from rear but accurate). Right image from http://robertk.asia/ (also from rear). Note that Christ is holding the Cross with His left hand.
March 13, 1904 - Cristo Redentor de los Andes / Christ the Redeemer of the Andes, Uspalla Pass, Andes Mountains (Argentina/Chile). Celebrates the Peace of King Edward VII [1841-1910] of England. The statue was cast from melted military armaments, and hauled up to the 13,000 foot pass by the armies of both nations. It was on the cover of Time Magazine, December 17, 1928.


Comment: It is very difficult to photograph Christ the Redeemer in the Peace Palace since the lighting is dim, the statue is high on the railing, and Christ faces the void of the staircase (overlooking "Peace Through Justice" on the landing below). /// The very best photo of Christ the Redeemer was published on page 14 of the small 48-page Peace Palace guide book (2004), on-line (see above) & again in the huge 520-page anniversary book "The Building of Peace: A Hundred Years of Work on Peace Through Law. The Peace Palace 1913-2013" (2013). This photo was taken from the level of "Peace Through Justice," looks up at Christ the Redeemer & also looks down the grand staircase all the way to the main entrance (described above). Unfortunately, the photo is reversed in both books (& on-line). (Note that the reception desk incorrectly appears to the right of the main entrance, as seen from inside.) This makes it appear either that Christ is looking away from "Peace Through Justice" or that He has switched the Cross from His left to His right hand. /// IMO, it's inappropriate for an international organization to display any such religious symbolism, but various web pages indicate that Peace Palace guides deny that Christ & the Christian Cross are religious!


August 28, 1913 - Main Entrance & Large Vestibule, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). The floor mosaic is Italian marble. It is inscribed "Sol justitiae illustra nos / The light of justice shines upon us." The grand staircase is directly in front of the main entrance, i.e. to the right of the vestibule as seen in the middle image. Note reception desk just to the left of the main entrance, as viewed from inside. /// The motto of Utrecht University is "Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos / Sun of Justice, shine upon us." This motto was gleaned from a literal Latin Bible translation of Malachi 4:2. Rutgers University in New Jersey (USA), having a historical connection with Utrecht University, uses a modified version of this motto: "Sol iustitiae et occidentem illustra / Sun of righteousness, shine upon the West also."


August 28, 1913 - Great Hall of Justice, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Original meeting room of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Now used by the International Court of Justice (ICJ), also called the World Court. Painting at end of the room is "La Paix et la Justice / Peace and Justice" by Paul-Albert Besnard [1849-1934] & was placed in 1926. It measures 6 x 5 meters & was an official gift of France. /// The four stained glass windows behind the magistrates table are called "The Development of the Peace Ideal," were made by Scottish designer Douglas Strachan [1875-1950] & given by the United Kingdom.

August 28, 1913 - Small Hall of Justice, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Now used by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA). Contains a Gobelin tapestry "The Glorification of Peace" given by France & which is unfinished because its artist was killed at the River Somme during World War I.


August 28, 1913 - De Japanse zaal / Japanese Room, First Floor, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Walls covered with 6 large silk tapestries entitled "One Hundred Flowers & One Hundred Birds in late Spring & early Summer" by Japanese artist Jimbei Kawashima II [1853-1910] given by Japan. The room also contains 2 cloisonne vases & a temple vase from China, two elephant tusks from Thailand, a carpet from Turkey & rosewood paneling from Brazil.

August 28, 1913 - Fredinand Bol Room, First Floor, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). A 17th century period room. "The European equivalent of the Japanese Room." Contains 3 paintings by Rembrandt pupil Ferdinand Bol [1616-1682] & the "Triumph of Peace" by by Gerard de Lairesse [1640-1711]. N.B.: These works were not gifts but were purchased by the Carnegie Foundation & moved from their original locations before construction of the Peace Palace.


August 28, 1913 - Russian Vase, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). "Weighs about 1,200 kilos & bears the emblem of the Romanovs, a two-headed eagle." Inscribed "Don de S.M. l'Empereur de Russie NICOLAS. II / Gift of H.E. the Emperor of Russia NICOLAS II." In 1998. Nicolas II [1868-1918] invited all major nations to attend an international conference on peace & disarmament, leading to the First Hague Peace Conference in 1899.


Date? - Bust of Henry Dunant, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Henry Dunant [1828-1910] of Switzerland helped found the Red Cross & in 1901 shared the first Nobel Peace Prize with Frédéric Passy [1822-1912] of France. Left image by EWL.
Comment: The Peace Palace has busts, statues & paintings of many notable peacemakers both inside & in the garden. I cannot find a complete list, but here is a partial list (in alphabetical order): Tobias M. C. Asser (1921), Rui Barbosa (1977), Andres Bello, Andrew Carnegie, William Randal Cremer (1913), Henry Dunant, King Edward VII (1913), Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1938), Elie Ducommun (1913), Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1952), Hugo Grotius, Bernard Loder, Professor Lyon-Caen, Nelson Mandela, Feodor Martens, Jean Monnet, Jawaharlal Nehru, Yorozu Oda, Albert Schweitzer, William Thomas Stead & Bertha von Suttner (2013). /// Click here for list of all "Notable Peacemakers" with these names marked with a Peace Palace symbol:


August 28, 1913 - Gates, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). "Two monumental cast iron gates guard the entrance to the Peace Palace. They are ornamented with four bronze reliefs depicting symbolic female figures: Amicitia & Pax, Justitia & Concordia." Right image shows Concordia with cornucopia.


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August 28, 1913 - Peace Palace Gardens, The Hague (Netherlands). Surround the Vredespaleis / Peace Palace (qv). "Considered among the most successful designs of the English landscape architect Thomas Hayton Mawson [1861-1933]. Mawson cleverly used a natural watercourse through the terrain, the famous Haagse Beek [Hague Creek], for the ponds. This brook rises in the nearby dunes & still flows along a watercourse under- neath the ponds to a large pond in the centre of The Hague, the Vijverberg." 3rd image shows plan of the gardens inside the Peace Palace paired with the bust of Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919]. 4th image is photo of the gardens under construction in 1911.

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August 28, 1913 - Peace Fountain, Zorgvliet Park, corner of Scheveningseweg & Carnegielaan, The Hague (Netherlands). Near the Peace Palace (qv). Van Karnebeek Bron / Van Karnebeek Spring is named for Abraham Pieter Cornelis van Karnebeek [1836-1925] , chairman of the Carnegie Foundation. For his work in founding of the Peace Palace, van Karnebeek & the board of the foundation were honoured in 1913 with this monument that also commemorates the opening of the Peace Palace on 28 August 1913. The fountain was designed by Willem C.Brouwer [1877-1933].

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September 14, 1929 - Peace Fountain, Amsterdam Park, St. Clair Avenue W at Avenue Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Inscribed: "[Replica of] the fountain at [the Peace] Palace, The Hague. Presented by H.H. Williams...as a mark of his love [for peace]." /// A very successful Realtor who lived nearby, H. H. Williams donated the land for this park & the fountain in it. He went to Europe in search of a suitable fountain for the park & found what he wanted, a wall fountain near the entrance to the Peace Palace at The Hague. The Peace Palace had been built as a meeting place for all nations, in the hope of preventing any further world-wide wars. Williams had a replica built here which was unveiled the same day that the Peter Pan statue was dedicated across the road. The fountain has recently been restored. The park received its present name in 1974 when Toronto & Amsterdam became twin cities.


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1913 - "Pax / Peace," Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). "This elegant statue of a robed woman, executed in white marble, is a gift from Poland dating from 1913, and was sculpted by Edward Wittig [1879-1941]."

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1913? - Fountain, Inner Courtyard, Peace Palace Garden, The Hague (Netherlands). Gift of Denmark. Depicts polar bears & seals in Greenland. Lower image shows "a giant wooden cover for the polar bear fountain some time in the 1920's. Perhaps it disappeared later, because the fountain froze & broke somewhere in the 1970's, falling into disarray until 2007 when it was restored."
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1914 - "The spectre of war," Peace Palace Garden, The Hague (Netherlands). Bronze group sculpted by Chilean sculptor Rebecca Matte [1875-1929]. Commissioned by Government of Chili in 1908 & installed in 1914. "War depicted as a terrifying woman [sic] with at her feet people in the throes of death" according to Peace Palace website. "Mothers [sic] in agony over their lost sons" according to Eyffinger (2004).

1914-1918The Great War or World War I

The Netherlands remained neutral during World War I.

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April 28, 1915 - International Congress of Women, The Hague (Netherlands). Where held in The Hague? "Convenes on this day with more than 1,200 delegates from Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, Belgium, the USA, and five other countries. Dedicated to the cause of peace and a resolution of the Great War. Often referred to as the Women's Peace Congress. Resulted from an invitation by a Dutch women's suffrage organization, led by Aletta Jacobs [1853-1929], to women s rights activists around the world, on the basis of the belief that a peaceful international assemblage of women would 'have its moral effect upon the belligerent countries' (as Jacobs put it during her opening address)." Upper image shows US delegation, including Jane Addams, Emily Balch, and Alice Hamilton.
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1915 - "International conference to stop the war through mediation," The Hague (Netherlands). Where held in The Hague? "Organized by Hendrik Coenraad Dresselhuys [1870-1926], prominent Dutch lawyer and politician, who later travelled to Germany to pursue the matter. As Secretary-General of the Dutch Red Cross, Dresselhuys greatly assisted Belgian refugees in 1918." [per PvdD 26Jun10]


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1920 - Memorial to W. T. Stead, River Parapet, Victoria Embankment, London (England). Sculpted by Sir George Frampton. William Thomas Stead [1849-1912] was "the first truly modern journalist." According to Peter van den Dungen, Stead was an important figure at the 1899 and 1907 Hague peace conferences, and he died on the Titanic en route to a peace conference in the USA. One of 309 London monuments in Kershman (2007), page 123. Duplicate monument at Central Park, New York City (qv).
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About 1920 - Memorial to W. T. Stead, Central Park, New York City, New York (USA). Sculpted by Sir George Frampton. William Thomas Stead [1849-1912] was "the first truly modern journalist." According to Peter van den Dungen, Stead was an important figure at the 1899 and 1907 Hague peace conferences, and he died on the Titanic en route to a peace conference in the USA. Click here for a 1907 New York Times article about Stead. Duplicate monument at River Parapet, Victoria Embankment, London (England).


After 1924 - "The Cat that Saved International Peace and Justice," Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). 7-foot statue of Ramskells sculpted by Brettamore Higgs from a rare local granite. "Ramskells was a feral British Bombay cat adopted in 1923 by the ICJ justices. On 22 March 1924, a fire broke out in the Peace Palace. Ramskells awoke the sleeping justices & led them to safety through the thick smoke & into a secret 1500-foot corridor behind a large painting in the bedroom of the most junior justice. Ramskells was overcome with smoke inhalation & passed away three days later." /// Left image by EWL shows Peter van den Dungen arriving for the symposium. Right image also shows bridge (& reading room) between the Peace Palace & the building designed by British architect Michael Wilford & constructed in 2005-2007 for the Peace Palace Library & Hague Academy of International Law.


1924 or 1925 - "Peace Through Justice," Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). On landing of the grand staircase. Gift from the govenment of the USA. By Irish-American sculptor Andrew O'Connor [1874-1941]. "The statue is a modern version of Lady Justice; she has cast off her blindfold, and her scales & sword are absent." Prof. Hope May of Central Michigan University says this sculpture was given pride of place in the Peace Palace design, but its arrival was delayed 11 years (until 1924) by wrangling in Washington, DC (USA) -- not to mention World War I. "Sites Relating to US History in the Netherlands" (webpage maintained by American Embassy in The Hague) says the statue was dedicated in 1925. Left photo was taken from "Christ the Redeemer" looking down. /// Behind the statue are 7 large stained glass windows by Jan Schouten [1852-1937] of the "Prinsenhof" Atelier in Delft (Netherlands); "Peace" is depicted in the central window, flanked by paranymphs representing the arts, science, industry, trade, etc.

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1931 - Dresselhuys Peace Monument, Carnegielaan / Carnegie Avenue, The Hague (Netherlands). By artist Arend Odé [1865-1955]? Sculpted by Maurice William Eagle Tribute [1865-1955]. Hendrik Coenraad Dresselhuys [1870-1926] chaired the Nederlandsche Anti-Oorlog Raad (NAOR) / Dutch Anti-War Council 1914-1919. "At the back of the Peace Palace is the monument dedicated to Dresselhuys, and with quotations from him. He was an interesting and important politician, and peace man; after our walk, Gerard sent me his biography from the Dutch National Biography." [Per PvdD 08Jun10]. Inscribed: "Bring peace. An absence of armed conflict or industrial peace means reconciliation. Building up. the giving of oneself: Only from peace is the good born." and "Freedom is the natural setting of spiritual and economic life: Freedom defined by responsibility and law." /// Image courtesy of Steve Fryburg.

1939-1945World War II

May 10, 1940 - Battle for The Hague. First opposed paratroop assault in history. Part of the German invasion of the Netherlands & Belgium. Dutch forces surrendered on May 15, the day after the bombing of Rotterdam. During the German occupation, Scheveningen was evacuated & many houses were destroyed in The Hague (to make way for the Atlantic Wall).

November 1944 - V2 batteries in & around The Hague hit London 82 times in November. Dozens of Peace Palace windows are blown out when a V2 rocket (launched from nearby dunes) explodes in a residential area, but German occupiers never attack the Peace Palace itself.

April 21-May 14, 1954 - Intergovernmental Conference for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague (Netherlands). "Drew up & adopted the Hague Convention of 1954 & the further Acts. 56 States were represented... Following the signature of the Roerich Pact by the American States in 1935, attempts were undertaken to draft a more comprehensive convention for the protection of monuments & works of art in time of war. In 1939, a draft convention, elaborated under the auspices of the International Museums Office, was presented to governments by the Netherlands. On account of the outbreak of World War II, no further steps could be taken. After the war, a new proposal was submitted to UNESCO by the Netherlands in 1948. The General Conference of UNESCO in 1951 decided to convene a committee of government experts to draft a convention. This committee met in 1952 & thereafter submitted its drafts to the General Conference."


September 28, 1966 - T.M.C. Asser Instituut, The Hague (Netherlands). "A leading research institute in the fields of Private and Public International Law, European Law and International Commercial Arbitration." Dutch jurist Tobias Michael Carel Asser [1838-1913] & Austrian pacifist Alfred Hermann Fried [1864-1921] shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1911.

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October 29, 1983 - Peace Demonstration, The Hague (Netherlands). "The biggest ever organised in the Netherlands... Aimed against the deployment [in Woensdrecht] of US cruise missiles that were destined to carry nuclear warheads, in particular neutron bombs. The demonstration drew a record 550,000 participants and was entirely non-violent, unlike other anti-nuclear protests of the era." (The deployment was cancelled in 1987 due to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.)

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1992 - Haags oorlogsmonument 1940-1945 / Hague War Memorial 1940-1945, Carnegie Square, The Hague (Netherlands). Opposite the Peace Palace. Made by Appie Drielsma. Created at the initiative of a group of former resistance fighters. The four pillars symbolize the four groups in society during World War II: Neutral, Roman Catholic, Protestant & Jewish. The stone wall symbolizes the "dike of intransigence" (literal translation). Image courtesy of Steve Fryburg. Information courtesy of Nike Liscaljet.
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1992 - World War II Memorial (Haagse Herdenkingsmonument), Carnegieplein / Carnegie Square, The Hague (Netherlands). Photographed at dusk on Remembrance Day (Dodenherdenking), 04 May 2012. Google translation: "The monument was created by Appie Drielsma in 1992, and was created on the initiative of a group of former resistance fighters. The four pillars of the monument symbolizing the four groups in society at the time of World War II: neutral, Roman Catholic, Protestant & Jewish. The commemoration begins each year in the building of the Gymnasium Haganum with speeches by the mayor and include lectures by students of the gymnasium & the Segbroek College. Then everyone runs to the Carnegieplein. On May 4, at 8 o'clock in the evening then wreaths laid by the mayor, by relatives of the resistance by Jewish organizations, the Hague Student Association (HSV) & by Segbroek College, which has adopted the monument. The ceremony is organized by the Foundation for National Remembrance Hague. A brief memorial service held in the Peace Chapel in the Malacca Strait after which the attendees go to the monument and also lay a wreath. At the same time the National Memorial Foundation Hague keeps silent marches to the Waalsdorpervlakte, the cemetery Westduin (Monuments Stijkel Group and allies), the execution site on the Parallelweg & Loosduins monument. /// In 2013, the monument was moved. The Carnegieplein was made low-traffic, the square was larger, and the monument was placed in the group of trees closer, so that the views of the Peace Palace was free. Also the park outside the gates of the Peace Palace was enlarged. On the south side, behind the monument, was a row of benches put down."

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1992 - World War II monument, The Hague (Netherlands). Near the Peace Palace. Inscription: "As a royal residence & seat of government The Hague was already on May 10, 1940, the first day of the treacherous attack on the Netherlands, under attack from the air. The first destructions took place & the first casualties fell. Following the war & occupation in May 1940 & the liberation in May 1945, almost 20,000 of our fellow citizens would lose their lives, as soldiers, Resistance, deported as a forced laborer, as a prisoner in prison or concentration camp, as a victim of bombing & of the last hunger winter, & above all as persecuted because of race & religion. Among the latter are more than 16,000 Jewish citizens that did not survive the death camps. // This monument commemorates all without distinction who had to pay with their lives for the delusions from which National-Socialism..."

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August 5, 1995 - Yi Jun Peace Museum, Wagenstraat 124A, The Hague (Netherlands). Opened by Korean expatriates Kee-Hang Lee & Song Chang-ju on 50th anniversary of Korean liberation from Japan & on 88th anniversary of death of Yi Jun [1859-1907] who represented Korea at the Second Hague Peace Conference in 1907 and died in this building (former Hotel De Jong). Associated with the International Network of Musuems for Peace (INMP).

1996 - Vakantieschip J. Henry Dunant / Holiday ship J. Henry Dunant, The Hague? (Netherlands). Most recent of a series of ships operated by Nederlandse Rode Kruis / Dutch Red Cross for passengers requiring special care. Google translation: "Welcome aboard ! In the J. Henry Dunant, you can enjoy a long week of a carefree holiday . You see the landscape pass before you and enjoy meanwhile the comfort and luxury of a cruise ship really . Visit to the charming harbor towns. Twice a week puts the J. Henry Dunant early afternoon in one of the port towns we visit. You can go shopping, on a terrace or visit a museum. Delicious. A volunteer will accompany you , but you can also alone or with a companion on the go. Luxury facilities on board. Do not want to go out ? For example, you can sunbathe on the deck or your hairstyle to take in hand at the hair salon. You can also take a look at the gift shop. There you will find solid fun gifts for those at home." Fine dining. Every evening our chefs cater for a full dinner and once a week we spoil you with a festive dinner. On Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday, dinner followed by an evening entertainment program. The volunteers and our crew ensure that your every need." /// J. Henry Dunant [1828-1910] was founder of the Red Cross & receipient of the first Nobel Peace Prize (1901).

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1997 - Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Johan de Wittlaan, International District, The Hague (Netherlands). "After the Chemical Weapons Convention was signed in Paris in 1993, the OPCW was established in 1997 to monitor the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention." When visited on 4 September 2013, the OPCW was presumably studying new evidence of chemical weapons in Syria. The OPCW received the Nobel Peace Prize on 11 October 2013.

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May 1999 - Third Hague Peace Conference, The Hague (Netherlands). Where held in The Hague? "The Third Conference envisioned by US Secretary of State Elihu Root [1845-1937] was held in The Hague in May 1999, at the initiative of the Russian & Dutch governments. It was not a treaty-making conference like the first two, but a centennial commemoration on the theme, 'The Peaceful Settlement of Disputes: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century.' Rather than hover in the wings of the following year's conference as in 1899 and 1907, civil society this time held its own conference, 'The Hague Appeal for Peace 1999.' It sent a clear message to the world's policy makers on issues with which they failed to address in the first two rounds: (How to eliminate the causes of war; including racism, colonialism, poverty and other human rights violations, the limitation of arsenals to a reasonable level for territorial defense, the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction including nuclear ones, the establishment and utilization of conflict resolution mechanisms (as an interim measure on the way to abolish war), improvements in humanitarian law, and most importantly, the creation of a culture of peace for the world's war-oppressed people."


April 17, 2000 - Millenium International Peace Garden, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Or May 2002? One of many International Peace Gardens in different countries. Presented to The Hague by Canada.


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April 18, 2002 - World Peace Flame #1, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Later World Peace Flames are in New South Wales (Australia), Tennessee (USA), Wales (UK) & elsewhere in the Netherlands (qv). Click here for a web page about eternal peace flames around the world, including a section about the World Peace Flame in various locations.


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July 1, 2002 - International Criminal Court (ICC), Maanweg 174, The Hague (Netherlands). The court intends to construct permanent premises in Alexanderkazerne, to the north of The Hague, but is currently housed in interim premises on the eastern edge of The Hague (as shown in the image). Although its official seat is in The Hague, its proceedings may take place anywhere. The ICC also maintains a liaison office in New York City and field offices in places where it conducts its activities. As of 18 October 2007, the court had field offices in Kampala, Kinshasa, Bunia, Abéché and Bangui.


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April 22, 2004 - World Peace Flame Pathway, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Contains a rock from each of the 197 nations which signed the world peace agreement.


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June 5, 2004 - Gandhi Statue, Hobbemaplein, The Hague (Netherlands). By artist: Karel Gomes. Part of a monument to memorize the immigration of Hindus to Suriname and to The Hague. Information courtesy of Nike Liscaljet.

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June 2004 - Peace Palace Model, Madurodam Miniature City, Scheveningen, The Hague (Netherlands). "1:25 scale model of the famous international courthouse (qv) built in 1913 as a gift from the American, Andrew Carnagie [sic]. Even details the attached gardens and terraces." "[This is] the third since the park’s inception in 1952. Creation of a new replica had become necessary as the earlier model had detoriated in the open air theme park."


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2004 - Peace Benches, The Hague (Netherlands). At the World Peace Flame (qv) in front of the Peace Palace (qv). Two benches paid for by the Carnegie Stichting / Carnegie Foundation on the occasion of its centennial. At least one is by artist Moki Last. (Image made by Steve Fryburg has been lost?)

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2006 - Children's Monument, Rabbijn Maarsenplein, The Hague (Netherlands). "A monument for 1700 Jewish children from The Hague who were killed by the Nazis in the Second World War. Consists of six chairs or stairs with the names and the ages on them of the victims. These names were handwritten by school children of today. The monument is also a playground for children."


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2007 - World in Peace(s)?, The Hague (Netherlands). In entrance hall of the new building behind the Peace Palace which holds the Peace Palace Library & the Hague Academy of International Law. Shows all countries in the world in arbitrary places. Left image courtesy of Steve Fryburg. Unofficial title courtesy of Nike Liscaljet. Who deserves credit for this work?
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Date? - Muurschildering vrede / Peace Mural, The Hague (Netherlands). "Peace Art on the city streets in The Hague." What date & precise location? Image courtesy of Steve Fryburg.

February 24, 2008 - Khojaly Massacre Memorial, Kamperfoeliestraat Park, The Hague (Netherlands). "Dedicated to the victims of the Khojaly Massacre (Genocide) that took place in the town of Khojaly carried out by the Armenian armed forces against the Azerbaijani population on February 25–26, 1992." /// "An initiative of Azerbaijani Diaspora & another one built in Ankara (Turkey) commemorating the Khojaly Massacre [on February 25-26, 1992, in Nagorno Karabag (Azerbaijan)]. Another memorial will be constructed in Budapest (Hungary)."
January 28, 2009 - Peace Pole, at Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). The Peace Pole is in the extreme right of the image.


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February 15, 2010 - Secretariat office, International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Laan van Meerdervoort 70 NL-2517 AN, The Hague (Netherlands). Near the Peace Palace. First Secretariat Administrator is Ms Nike Liscaljet. Phone & fax 0031-70-3450202, email secretariat@museumsforpeace.org. Images courtesy of Steve Fryburg.
Welkom | Willkommen | Bienvenu | Bienvenida | Velkommen

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May 18, 2010 - United Nations Flag Parade, Johan de Wittlaan, The Hague (Netherlands). "In 2010 The Hague, in addition to other key UN cities, was granted [by whom?] its own, permanent flag parade consisting of 200 flags. The Hague is home to the highest number of international organisations, such as the International Court of Justice & the International Criminal Court, in the Netherlands... Extends [in front of the OPCW & World Forum convention center] from Rooseveltplantsoen to Bel Air Hotel. Lights in the ground illuminate the flags when it is dark. The parade consists of the flags of the 192 UN Member States, the flag of The Hague, and the flag of the United Nations. Unveiled by Alderman Frits Huffnagel &a group of international students. UN Flag Parades are also located in, among other cities, New York, home to the headquarters of the United Nations, and Geneva."


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December 9, 2010 - Humanity House (HH), Prinsegracht 8, The Hague (Netherlands). "Tells you more than simply the story of emergency aid & international humanitarian law. Visitors hear, see & experience the true stories of victims of disasters & conflicts all over the world... A spectacular journey of discovery makes the unimaginable imaginable. Humanity House is not only a museum but also a platform that regularly hosts lectures, debates, workshops, exhibitions & film evenings. Humanity House offers schools an educational programme that confronts children aged 10 & older with life in a refugee camp." Click here for video. Information courtesy of Peter van den Dungen.

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November 2011 - Bertha von Suttner Gebouw / Building, Laan van Meerdervoort 70, The Hague (Netherlands). Existing building renamed by Alderman De Jong. "Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914] was in The Hague for the inauguration of the Peace Palace in 1913. In the evening, she held debates about world peace in the Kurhaus Hotel. The Hague was her city. On the eve of World War, she implored the world to peace. She already called for an international organization that would act as war threatened." The building houses "smaller international organizations" such as Equalinrights, European Association of History Educators (EUROCLIO), Global Human Rights Defence (GHRD), International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Netherlands Helsinki Committee (NHC), United Network of Young Peacebuilders (UNOY) & Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organization (UNPO).


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May 30, 2012 - Visitors Centre, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Opened by Dame Rosalyn Higgins, former president of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), by switching on the exhibition. "The festive afternoon started by a word of welcome by Chairman of the Carnegie Foundation, Mr. Bernard Bot. "Outside the gates of the Peace Palace every day hundreds of tourists take a picture of the impressive façade. From now on it is possible to get acquainted with the compelling history of the Peace Palace & its current significance on the world's stage. The state-of-the-art building with striking titanium roof is designed by British architect Michael Wilford. In the exhibition area information about the Peace Palace & the institutions (The ICJ, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Hague Academy of International Law & Peace Palace Library) are brought to the attention in an attractive way with several historical objects, images & film."
Comment: Unfortunately, the Peace Palace is NOT open to the public (except for a limited number of guided tours of limited duration on Saturdays oply). The new Visitors Centre serves a barrier to inform tourists about the Peace Palace without letting them go inside (like the museum in France which substitutes for a visit to the endangered Lascaux cave). Its reception area (right image) sells just a few books, thus squandering a major opportunity to distribute information on peace & justice issues to an international audience.


September 25, 2012 - "Long Walk to Freedom," Johan de Wittlaan, International District, The Hague (Netherlands). Statue of Nelson Mandela by Arie Schippers. "Looks towards the Peace Palace. Stands more than twice life size... Originally scheduled to be unveiled by the great man himself on Nelson Mandela Day July 18th [Mandela's birthday], the unveiling had to be postponed due to Nelson Mandela’s frail health. The statue was finally unveiled by Desmond Tutu on the 25th September 2012."
Comment: On 4 September 2013, I walked over to shake Mandela's hand. Here's another monument with a problem. Not a single word of explanation. WHO is this guy, and WHY plunk his stature in the middle of a Hague sidewalk/footpath?

November 26, 2012 - Monument to Victims of Chemical Weapons, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), The Hague (Netherlands). "Given to the OPCW by the Islamic Republic of Iran & unveiled by Iran’s Deputy Foreign Minister for International Affairs, H.E. Mohammad Mehdi Akhoundzadeh on first day of the 17th Session of the Conference of the States Parties. Represents a victim gradually losing his/her life from the effects of chemical weapons whose body is simultaneously converted into peace doves. Created by Taher Sheykh-ol-Hokamaii, instructor at the University of Tehran’s faculty of fine arts."
Comment: On 4 September 2013, I had to walk almost completely around the OPCW building to find the Iranian monument against chemical warfare. It's not doing much good hidden BEHIND a big building and accessible only to workers cleared to have access to a sensitive facility. I read in the New York Times that 19 OPCW inspectors arrived in Damascus on 2 Oct 2013. The Iranian monument should be a symbol of (1) the current controversy in Syria AND (2) the current controversy in Iran (different WPD's for different blokes), but it isn't.


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May 29, 2013 - Peace Bench, Carnegieplein / Carnegie Square, The Hague (Netherlands). "Deputy Mayor Marjolein de Jong (Culture, City Centre and International Affairs) & Steven van Hoogstraten, general director of the Carnegie Foundation, released doves on 29 May to inaugurate a completely renewed Carnegieplein in The Hague. A stilt walker then revealed the ‘peace bench’ created by the artist Egbert Schuttert. The granite sitting area features the word ‘peace’ written in all the languages of the United Nations Member States. The entrance to the Peace Palace, worldwide symbol of peace and justice, has undergone a true metamorphosis over the last few months. The square fits in better with the allure of the palace, which will celebrate its 100-year anniversary in August 2013. The Carnegieplein is now restricted to traffic. Tour buses are no longer allowed to park on the square but may use the five designated parking spots along the edge of the square. More greenery has been added to the square itself and the flower boxes are in the same style as the garden in front of the Peace Palace. The ‘peace bench’ was built around the green space. The memorial to the Second World War was moved closer to the historic trees by the square so that it is given its full due. The newly designed square has been given historic lampposts which fit nicely with the Peace Palace."


August 28, 2013 - Bust of Countess Bertha von Suttner, Main Hall, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). Unveiled on exact centennial of the Peace Palace by another female Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Leymah Gbowee of Liberia. Sculpted by Judith Pfaeltzer of Amsterdam. Left image by EWL shows Hope Elizabeth May with the bust on 3 September 2013. Right image shows Edward W. Lollis, Hope Elizabeth May & Roy Tamashiro. Not to be confused with another bust of von Suttner unveiled 6 days later in The Hague city hall (qv).
Comment: It took 100 years for von Suttner -- the woman most importantly identified with the Peace Palace and the first female to receive a Nobel Peace Prize -- to be memorialized in the Peace Palace.


September 2-3, 2013 - Symposium: "Celebrating Peace Philanthropy and Furthering Peace Education - In the Footsteps of Andrew Carnegie," Academy Hall, Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Sponsored by the International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP). Speakers: Tadatoshi Akiba, Colin Archer, Hetty Burgman, David Cortright, Robert C. Croll, Donald Ferencz, Steve Killelea, Edward W. Lollis, Hope Elizabeth May, Federico Mayor, Theodor Meron, Betty Reardon, Jennifer Allen Simons, Gillian Sorensen, William Thomson, Sakuji Tanaka, Peter van den Dungen (1st day chair), Rien van Gendt, Steven van Hoogstraten, & Cora Weiss (2nd day chair). (NB: Middle image shows another group.)

September 2, 2013 - Release of the book "Monumental Beauty: Peace Monuments and Museums Around the World, Academy Hall, Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands). By Edward W. Lollis, Peace Partners International, Knoxville, Tennessee (USA), 75 pages. "This is the first book to reveal the beauty, the variety, and the meanings of peace monuments and museums. Arranged chronologically, it shows a selection of 416 peace monuments and museums from 70 countries and from all eras as far back as the Greeks and Romans." Lower image shows Peter van den Dungen introducing the author.


September 2, 2013 - Peace Philanthropy Gala, Ridderzaal / Salle des Comtes / Hall of Knights, The Hague (Netherlands). One of a series of events commemorating the centennial of the Peace Palace. The Ridderzaal is an ancient building restored 1898-1904 to serve its present purposes. It was the venue of the Second Hague Peace Conference, June-October 1907. Left image by EWL shows the stage erected for the gala on 2 September 2013 (opposite the throne). September 2, 2013 - Peter van den Dungen, Kazuyo Yamane & Edward W. Lollis at Peace Palace Philanthropy Gala, Ridderzaal / Hall of Knights, The Hague (Netherlands).
October 9, 2008 - Peter van den Dungen, Kazuyo Yamane & Edward W. Lollis at 6th International Conference, International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Kyoto University of Arts and Design, Kyoto (Japan).


September 3, 2013 - Opening of Exhibition "Peace Philanthropy - Then and Now," Atrium, City Hall, The Hague (Netherlands). Actually on exhibit August 15-September 21, 2013.Exhibition created by Prof. Peter van den Dungen, general coordinator of the International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP). Left image shows Gillian Sorensen at poster describing her boss, philanthropist Ted Turner. Right image shows philanthropist Cora Weiss photographing poster describing herself. Both images by EWL.
Comment: List of philanthropists featured in the exhibition: -Jan Bloch, -Richard Branson, -Andrew Carnegie, -Young Seek Choue, -Cyrus Eaton, -Henry Ford, -Edwin Ginn, -Mo Ibrahim (‘African Good-Governance Prize’), -Bill & Melinda Gates, -Akio Komatsu, -Joan Kroc, -Nobuo Nakano, -Alfred Nobel, -Priscella Peckover, -John D. Rockefeller Jr., -Albert K. Smiley, -Ted Turner, -Johan Wateler (Hague banker), -Cora Weiss (‘The Hague Appeal for Peace’). /// It's a pity that the posters of this exposition are not on-line so that they can be seen by the entire world.


September 3, 2013 - Release of the book "The Stars of Eternal Truth and Right: Bertha von Suttner's Campaign for Peace, Social Justice, and Womanhood," City Hall, The Hague (Netherlands). By Arthur C.G.M. Eyffinger, Wolf Legal Publishers, Oisterwijk (Netherlands), 216 pages. "The substance of this book captures the gist of her views & ideals by way of hundreds of citations gathered from her Memoirs, Diaries & Correspondence, and handpicked from the tracts, novels & papers that constitute the rich yield of her unstoppable scholarly, literary & journalistic endeavours. The sum total is a fascinating portrait of an intriguing woman & public figure, a steadfast advocate of Women`s Lib & the Cassandra of Peace on the eve of the Guns of August. Dr. Arthur Eyffinger (The Hague, 1947) is classicist & law historian."


September 3, 2013 - Unveiling bust of Bertha von Suttner, City Hall, The Hague (Netherlands). "As part of our Centennial celebrations we are honored to [welcome] the beautiful bust of Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914] lovingly sculpted by Ingrid Rollema. On the June 21, 2013, we celebrated the 99th anniversary of von Suttner's death." /// Left image by EWL shows Roy Tamashiro & Fumi Hoshino with the bust. Right image by Hope Elizabeth May shows the artist in her studio; apparently she permitted no in-focus photo of the bust before its unveiling. /// Not to be confused with another bust of von Suttner unveiled 6 days earlier in the Peace Palace (qv).

September 9, 2013 - Ten Commemorative Stamps for Centennial of the Peace Palace. Based on art works (monuments in the palace). "The stamp sheetlet features the motto 'voor vrede door recht / Peace through Justice' illustrated by linking ten works of art to ten themes relating to the concept of peace. It is a sheet of ten stamps, each with a value denomination of 1, for mail within the Netherlands. This value denomination also serves as the first figure of the number of the anniversary: 100. The first circle shows remarkable detailing from an artwork in the Peace Palace. The second circle contains the motto 'voor vrede door recht,' and within that the theme in question. Five of the stamps highlight the five virtues that underpin or promote peace: friendship, unity, industry, justice and truth. The other five stamps depict things which can only thrive or even survive in peace: the arts, free trade, prosperity, science and security. The stamps were designed by Mart Warmerdam, of Mart. Warmerdam Design. He explains: 'I intentionally decided against using the famous silhouette of the Peace Palace, and instead chose to zoom in on the interior of the building. That way I can show that the Peace Palace is about more than the outside of the building and its distinctive architecture. Inside you also see a lot of beautiful and often very symbolic things.'"

The ten stamps [Google translation]: Artes - art (1st stamp) Detail of products manufactured by The Royal Delft glazed wall tiles 'chef d' oeuvre' in oriental style, designed by Leon Senf (1860-1940). // Amicitia - friendship (2nd stamp) Bronze medallion embossed Amicitia on the large entrance gates of the palace, donated by Germany, designed by architect Bruno Möhring (1863-1929) and manufactured by Schultz & Holdefliess. // Justice - justice (3rd stamp) Detail of one of the seven stained-glass windows in the Central Hall, a gift from Netherlands. The windows were designed by the Dutch artist Adolf le Compte (1850-1921) . In the middle window is a female figure, Peace, with behind rising sun with golden rays with the text 'Pax in Terris / Peace on Earth.' Inner windows (side) good things that belong to peace. Outer windows (both sides) the horrors of war. // Mercatura - free trade (4th stamp) 17th century portrait of Hugo Grotius, painted Iin oil by Michiel Jansz of Mierevelt (1566-1641) . Hugo Grotius defended his book 'Mare Liberum / Free Sea' that the sea is free to act, to sail or to discover . The sea can therefore be claimed/owned by any country. // Scientia - science (5th stamp) Detail of the marble flooring in the Entrance Hall with text 'Sol Justitiae Illustra Nos' (Sun of righteousness, beschijn us), laid in Cosmatenpatroon . The floors were designed by architect Henry Wijdeveld (1885-1987) and implemented by Bear & Gnirrep from Amsterdam. With some imagination can be recognized in an atom. // Veritas - truth (6th stamp) Reliefs of sandstone that is part of one of the walls in the Grand Courtroom. It was designed by the Dutch sculptor Show Dupuis (1877-1937) . The proposed allegory, Veritas, is identified by the mirror in which she looks and refers to self-knowledge . From this detail I could find no supporting picture Who can to help me (batehijlkema@hetnet.nl)? // Concordia - concord (7th stamp) Detail of a monochrome study for a tapestry, which can be seen behind the court in the Small Courtroom. Howeer, the French designer, Olivier Merson (1846 1920) died prematurely, allowing the tapestry, a gift from France, was never made ??and the study found a place in this important room of the Permanent Court . This tapestry glorified Peace in the middle Goddess of Peace under her feet with the war, they trampled. Peace Goddess is flanked by all the good things to weigh is expressed as arts and science. // Securitas - security (8th stamp) Detail of a tile picture of a vestal virgin (priestess of Roman goddess Vesta, foster care and well-being) designed by Herman Rosse (1887-196 ) and performed by Royal Porcelain & Rozenburg pottery . // Prosperitas - prosperity (9th stamp) Detail (Peace Goddess with child) from the vault painting above the Main Hall, designed by Herman Rosse (1887-1965) & executed in oil and gold leaf . // Industria - zeal (10th stamp) Stained-glass window in the Party Room, designed by Herman Rosse (1887-1965), manufactured by JW Gypsum, donated by The Society of Industry."


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September 21, 2013 - Vredesloop den Haag / Peace Run The Hague, The Hague (Netherlands). On International Day of Peace. "Inspired by Peace One Day." /// "It is known that the Vredesloop Den Haag is an unique event. Also the course is special occasion. Following the course you will see several historical monuments & locations what makes this course a unique one: Peace Palace, Van Karnebeek fountain, Peace proverb Hendrik Coenraad Dresselhuys, Constantyn Huygens, Yugoslavia Tribunal, Dutch East Indies Monument, Graveyard Sint Petrus Banden, St. Johan & St. Philip church, Catshuis (residence of the prime minister), UN Flag parade, Bankaplein roundabout & Maris monument." /// Will this become an annual event?


October 1, 2013 - Carillon Bell, Peace Palace, The Hauge (Netherlands). "The Carillon Foundation The Hague with this bell (ca. 775 kg, tone fis1, pedal key es1) on October 1, 2013 Peace Carillon completed. The clock was a gift to mark the centenary of the Peace Palace." [Google translation from Dutch] Info courtesy of Peter van den Dungen.


March 21, 2014 - "Discover Peace in Europe" (Peace Trails), Konfliktkultur - Discoverpeace, Breitenfeldergasse 2/14, Vienna 1080 (Austria). Seven trails in Berlin (Germany), Budapest (Hungary), Manchester (England), Paris (France), The Hague (Netherlands), Torino (Italy) & Vienna (Austria). Image shows map of Vienna (Austria), just one of the seven trails. Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek & Peter van den Dungen 11March2014. /// From Peter van den Dungen, General Coordinator, Inernational Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), March 17, 2010: "The city has published several brochures which are relevant & of interest, [and] there is a walk specifically for youngsters... In 1999 (during the large Hague Appeal for Peace conference), I helped organise a peace history symposium, and as part of this conducted a peace history walk in the city. The group was about 25 strong, with many leading US and European peace historians, all dear friends. Of course, the focus was very much on the famous 1899 and 1907 peace conferences. Regrettably, many of the buildings and places included had no plaques or memorials. This also applied to the building which was the first home of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), the creation of which was the most significant and lasting outcome of the 1899 conference..."

(2) Peace Monuments in Amsterdam (Netherlands)

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1945-2010 - Anne Frankboom / Anne Frank Tree, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Unintentional monument. Horse chestnut tree 150-170 years old. Blown down by high winds on August 23, 2010. Mentioned 3 times in "Diary of Anne Frank."

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June 12, 1998 - Anne Frank Tree, corner of Garrick Street & New Row, London (England). In front of the British Library. Planted by Anne Frank Trust. Has plaque on pub wall. Info courtesy of Valerie Flessati (2012). This is 1 of 45 monuments in her "Peace Trails through London," page 4.
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May 3, 1960 - Anne Frank Huis / Anne Frank House, Prinsengracht / Prince's Canal, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Unintentional monument. Hiding place of Anne Frank [1929-1945] and her family during World War II. The house was turned into a museum in 1960, and the museum was expanded in 1999. See Video & Website. Visited by EWL. H
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Date? - Statue of Anne Frank, outside Westerkerk / Western Church, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Near the museum. By Mari Andriessen [1897-1979].
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1934-1942 - Apartment block, Merwedeplein, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Unintentional monument. Where the Frank family lived from 1934 until 1942. H
March 25-31, 1969 - First "Bed-In," Presidential Suite (Room #702), Amsterdam Hilton Hotel, Amsterdam (Netherlands). "Knowing their March 20, 1969, marriage would be a huge press event, John & Yoko decided to use the publicity to promote world peace. They spent their honeymoon in the presidential suite for a week, inviting the world's press into their hotel room every day between 9 am & 9 pm." Lennon wrote "Give Peace a Chance" during this "Bed-In." When asked by a reporter what he was trying to achieve by staying in bed, Lennon had answered spontaneously "All we are saying is give peace a chance."
1993 - Nooit Meer Auschwitz / Auschwitz Memorial, Wertheimpark, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Cracked mirror by Jan Wolker.

On May, 8 1995 - Gingko Boom / Gingko Tree, Kriegsgräberstätte / Germany War Cemetery, Timmermannsweg 75,Ysselsteyn, Province of Limburg (Netherlands). "A so-called Gingko tree was planted at the entrance area of the graveyard on the occasion of the 50th remembrance of the end of World War II. This was a signal against war & violence. This kind of tree was the first that begun to blossom again after the dropping of the atomic bombs over Hiroshima & Nagasaki in 1945. That way it became a symbol of hope - hope for peace in a better world... Close to the German border, this is the only German military cemetery in the whole Netherlands. 85 killed soldiers from the First World War & almost 32.000 from the Second World War are buried here on a territory of 28 hectares. For each killed soldier one cross has been placed. The data (name, grave location, dates of birth and death, rank - if known) have been written on the crosses with white color. There are approximately 5000 unknown soldiers buried on this cemetery. These are buried in graves with crosses on which it reads "Ein Deutscher Soldat". Information courtest of Peter van den Dungen 18Nov2014.

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1995 - Museum voor Vrede en Geweldloosheid / Museum for Peace & Nonviolence, Minahassastraat 1, Amsterdam (The Netherlands). A mobile museum with no goal to establish a fixed museum. Started as the Vredesboot / Peace Boat anti-war museum by 10 local peace organizations in the Netherlands & Belgium. Current name adopted in 1998. Seeks a future where a culture of peace & non-violence prevails. Brings peace exhibitions to museums, libraries, churches, schools & town halls. Has a small office & mini-museum in Delft & a storage facility is in Soesterberg.Publishes Vredesboot (Peaceboat) mazazine twice a year. Chairman is Hein van der Kroon. Left image shows a mobile exhibit about the Austrian pacifist Franz J []. Member of International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP)."
2002 - "Shared Past, Common Future," Nationaal Monument Slavernijverleden / National Slavery Monument, Oosterpark, Amsterdam (Netherlands). By Surinamese born artist Erwin Jules de Vries. "Commemorates the abolition of slavery in the Netherlands in 1819."
2003 - "Holocaust" by Belgian artist Jan Theuninck. "An ecphrastic work by Jan Theuninck. The work is exposed at Dutch Boekgrrls."
2004 - "Wargasm," Museum for Peace & Nonviolence (a virtual museum), Amsterdam (Netherlands). By Belgian artist Jan Theuninck. "Psychoanalysis of a warrior and of a political decision maker. Acrylic on canvas."
2004 - "Yperite," Museum for Peace & Nonviolence (a virual museum), Amsterdam (Netherlands). "This painting by Jan Theuninck is an anti-war statement and a symbol of peace. The painting depicts the terror, caused by chemical warfare, and the thousands of deaths on the battlefields. It has been made in acrylic on canvas, measures are 70 x 100 cm." www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Yperite-Jan..." English translation: "Yperite. Late at night a mist fills the valley. without knowing it suffocates like a dark power. on the fields our dead bodies and under the grass a brown soil."
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July 9, 2005 - Monument in memory of Anne Frank, Merwedeplein Square, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Anne Frank [1929-19458] lived on the Merwedeplein from 1933 to 1942. In 2004, bookseller Gert-Jan Jimmink proposed a monument. It was sculpted by local sculptor Jet Schepp.
March 18, 2007 - De Schreeuw / The Scream, Oosterpark, Amsterdam (Netherlands). 4.5 meter stainless steel sculpture by artist Jeroen Henneman memorializing Dutch author and film maker Theo van Gogh [1957-2004] who was assassinated November 2, 2004, by Mohammed Bouyeri, a Dutch-Moroccan Muslim. "Symbolizes freedom of speech and how Van Gogh was made speechless." One side shows a profile of Theo van Gogh, crying with mouth wide open, and the other side shows him with his mouth closed.

(3) Peace Monuments in Rotterdam (Netherlands)

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c.1510 - Il Figlio Prodigo / The Prodigal Son, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (Netherlands). By Hieronymus Bosch [c1450-1516]. Also known as The Wayfarer, The Vagabond or The Pedlar.

April 30, 1622 - Standbeeld van Erasmus / Statue of Erasmus, Square in front of Sint Laurens Church, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Click here for Wikipedia article about Desiderius Erasmus [1466-1536].
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1842 - Gymnasium Erasmianum / Erasmiaans Gymnasium, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Founded in 1328. Second oldest school in the Netherlands. Renamed for Erasmus in 1842. More than a century older than its namesake, and it is unclear whether Erasums attended. School motto is "Ex Pluribus Unum" / "Unity Through Diversity."

1968 - Deur "Oorlog en Vrede" / Door of Peace and War, Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk, Grotekerkplein 27, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Bronze by Italian sculptor Giacomo Manzů [1908-1991]. "Celebrates the heart of Europe destroyed by WW-II the elegy of death and the strength of life; below the wrapped forms of despair and fratricide, and the cry of innocence; in the midde a lonely cloth that marks a caesura, a sense of emptying, the fall; in the top, in an ascensional dynamism, the naturalness of existence, the cloth of life and of victory, as in a resurrection." [Maria Antonietta Malleo, Gernika, 2005]
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1973 - Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam / Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands).
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September 6, 1996 - Erasmusbrug / Erasmus Bridge, Nieuwe Maas / New Meuse River, Rotterdam (Netherlands).

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March 2005 - Huis van Erasmus / House of Erasmus, St. Huis van Erasmus, Bergweg 279-B, Rotterdam (Netherlands). "Fulfils a platform function for the fostering of a culture of peace and active non-violence, carrying the motto ‘Peace in the world, safety in the city.' An initiative of Humanistisch Vredesberaad and Pais. The Foundation is a member of Rotterdam Vredesstad, the Platform Vredescultuur and the Humanistische Alliantie, and is a partner of People Building Peace Nederland."
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October 28, 2005 - Erasmushuis Rotterdam / Erasmus House, Grotekerkplein 5, 3011 GC, Rotterdam (Netherlands). "Aims to Erasmus a clear and recognizable every Dutchman in place to provide the experience and, for visitors, in the cityscape of Rotterdam. This is facilitated by propagating the ideas of Erasmus of Rotterdam in the society and beyond."
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2008 - Stadswandeling Erasmus in Rotterdam / Erasmus City Trail in Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Describes 24 points of interest related to Desiderius Erasmus [1466-1536]. Created by Stichting Erasmushuis Rotterdam.
Date? - Albert Schweitzer, Deventer (Netherlands).

(4) Peace Monuments in Utrecht (Netherlands):

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About 1946 - Monument voor de Wereldvrede / Monument for World Peace, Utrechtseweg 183 (near Ziekenhuis De Lichtenberg / Lichtenberg Hospital, Amersfoort, Province of Utrecht (Netherlands). Moved after 1953 from garden of artist Jacob N. Nieweg [1877-1955], local chairman of "Kerk en Vrede / Church and Peace," who campaigned for "No More War." Three sided pyramid inscribed in Dutch ("Wereld Vrede door Federale Wereld Regering"), English ("World Peace by Federal World Government") & Esperanto ("Mond Paco per Federacia Mond Registaro"). Monument has a sphere (globe?) on top & a four quadrant circle (earth symbol?) above each inscription. Compare the WFBN, UWF & Japanese logos below. On December 1, 2008, an article on page 3 of the Amersfoortse Courant described the monument's 80th anniversary [sic]. Images & information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek. Correction received 7Dec2014 from Rudolf van Hengel. Click here for article by Jojanneke Clarijs.



Date? - Twee Monuments voor de Wereldvrede / Two Monuments for World Peace, Leusden, Province of Utrecht (Netherlands). Abour 3 km from Amersfoort. One is inscribed "World / peace / by / federal / world / government" (“Wereld / vrede / door / federale / wereld / regering”). The other is inscribed "Life is sacred. / Make it a safe." (“Het leven is heilig. / Maak het ook veilig.”) in Dutch, English & Esperanto. Acording to Jojanneke Clarijs, all three monuments were constructed by Hendrik van der Kraan AC [1888-c.1967], a member of the World Federalist Movement Netherlands (Wereld Federalisten Beweging Nederland) (WFBN) and the National Propaganda Foundation for World Federal Government (Nationale Stichting Propaganda voor Federale Wereldregering) (NSPFW) and publisher of the pacifist newspaper "Ban the war, Now!" ("Ban de oorlog uit, Nu!"). Photo & all information from article by Jojanneke Clarijs.


1949 - Monument of Resistance, Domplein / Old City, Utrecht (Netherlands). Limestone statue (6-meters in height) by artist Corinne Franzén-Heslenfeld. Shows classical woman figure holding, heroicly, the burning torch of resistance. Symbolizes the resistance and the large role of Utrecht women in the resistance. Engraved in the base are four lines by poet Jan Engelman, litterally translated: "Memorial to your dead who fought the good fight in justice. Carry on their flame. They still exist. But in the glow is our new life." Image courtesy of Steve Fryburg. Inscription courtesy of Nike Liscaljet.


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November 12, 2005 - "VREDE IS COOL," reception hall, IKV/Pax Christi, Hoog Catharijne Shopping Centre, Godebaldkwartier 74, Utrecht (Netherlands). Has sayings about peace, e.g. "Vrede is vliegen / Peace is flying," "Vrede is verbondenheid / Peace is connectedness." Painted by 7 young refugees from Utrecht Asylum Seekers Centre tutored by artist Senad Alic from Serbia-Montenegro & theatre designer Majid Hassan from Sudan, working for the National Foundation for the Promotion of Happiness in Amsterdam. (IKV (Interchurch Peace Council) established in 1966 by 9 churches.) Information & image courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi International).


May 5, 2007 - "Walk of Freedom," from the Dom Tower to Parc Transwijk, Utrecht (Netherlands). "Students (age 12-15) were asked to design tiles, and the subject was freedom/peace /liberty. 120 tiles were picked and are now part of the walk." Tile in left image shows the two finger peace sign. Tile in right image says "PEACE is more than 2 fingers!!!" (The Dom is the tallest church tower in the Netherlands.) Left image courtesy of Steve Fryburg. Information courtesy of Nike Liscaljet (INMP).

(5) Peace Monuments in Remainer of the Netherlands:

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Date? - Leiden American Pilgrim Museum, Beschuitsteeg 9, Leiden (Netherlands). In a building dating to about 1365-1370. Next to the bell tower of the Hooglandse Kerk church. Operated by the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum Foundation (Jeremy Bangs, director). Click here for list of Mayflower passengers. /// Information courtesy of Marten van Harten.

March 17, 2010 - "Baggage," scattered throughout Leiden (Netherlands). "Six vintage suitcases carved from different rock types... Erected in memory of the Jewish fellow citizens who were killed during World War II. Maker is the Dutch-Israeli artist Ram Katzir. On March 17, 1943 in Leiden & surroundings a raid took place in which all Jews who were not in hiding were arrested & deported. 270 of them were killed in the concentration & extermination camps... By whom are these different suitcases left behind? The two side by side in the Zonneveldstraat forgotten by a mother & child? What stories hides the elegant suitcase at the Vliet? And what happened to the young owner of the basalt suitcase at the Roodenburgstraat? The apparently casually placed suitcases are in fact an anti-monument, with absence in the leading role. The title refers literally to what each of us takes in life, but also what we leave behind. Luggage is an intimate monument which will start the dialogue. And will stimulate young & old thinking about the consequences of exclusion by people from one another. /// Information courtesy of Marten van Harten 04Jan2016. HOLOCAUST 2010 STONES INVISIBLE


Date? - Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork / Memorial Center Camp Westerbork, Westerbork, Middenveld, Drenthe (Netherlands). Westerbork functioned during the WW-II to assemble Roma and Dutch Jews for transport to other Nazi concentration camps. Now a museum. Left image shows Rails Monument, part of a former railroad track which was used during WW-II to transport people to and from the camp, including Anne Frank. Right image shows the Appelplatz Memorial, made of a small rectangular stone for each person who had stayed at Westerbork and later died in a Nazi camp. The stones have a silver flame insignia for Roma and Sinti and a Star of David for Jewish victims. (Appelplatz means square used for roll call.)

October 7, 1983 - "Protection of Our Future," Peace Symbols Zone, Nagasaki Peace Park, Nagasaki (Japan). From the city of Middelburg, The Netherlands (Nagasaki's sister city). "Shows a mother protecting her infant child from danger, representing that we must protect not only the present generation but also the coming generation as well so that the people of the world can live in peace together."


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1987 - Portrait of Bert Röling, "De Boom van Kennis / The Tree of Knowledge" (muurschildering / mural), Auditorium, Academy Building, University of Groningen, College Square, Groningen (Netherlands). Bert Röling [1906-1985] was a Dutch jurist who helped found the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) in 1964. Huge mural painted by his son Mathijs Röling & by Wout Muller. Lower right corner includes Röling in white hair (similar to his official portrait in the university's senate room) & what appear to be three students.


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May 9, 2004 - World Peace Flame #5, Cadzand, Zeeland, (Netherlands).

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June 5, 2005 - World Peace Flame #6, Juliana Park, Venlo, Limburg (Netherlands).

Date? - Sentinels of Venlo, River Maas / Meuse, Venlo, Limburg (Netherlands). "The bridge that connects Venlo and Blerick is guarded by four colossal statues by Shinkichi Tajiri." "Include bases nine meters high, warn against continued aggression, violence and war. They act as symbolic guardians of the Second World War on both sides of the heavily devastated city."


July 24, 2015 - Memorial plaque, Reformed Church, Nuenen, near Eindhoven, Brabant (Netherlands). Dedicated on Pentecost Sunday to commemorate the centennial of a peace sermon by Nuenen minister Bart de Ligt [1883-1938]. On the wall inside the small former Protestant church (called the "Van Gogh church"). De Ligt "was a Dutch anarcho-pacifist & antimilitarist. He is chiefly known for his support of conscientious objectors... In 1910, he was appointed pastor of the Reformed Church at Nuenen where his father had been pastor 25 years before." Information courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi International).


Future - Mahrishi Tower of Invincibility, Meru (Netherlands). "The founder of the Global Country of World Peace, His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi [1918-2008], who has touched the lives of millions of people around the world, and who is loved and acclaimed from ever quarter of society, has achieved the fulfilment of his teaching. After working tirelessly for over fifty years to fulfil his universal mission to bring enlightenment, peace, and invincibility to the whole family of man, he announced in January 2008 that his work is complete and fulfilled. On the fiftieth anniversary of Maharishi’s inauguration of the Spiritual Regeneration Movement, the Rajas of the Global Country of World Peace wanted to offer a gift to commorate Maharishi’s world wide achievements, a gift of appreciation for all that he has done for each individual and all nations, by building the first Maharishi Tower of Invincibility in Meru, The Netherlands, which will become a place of world pilgrimage."

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