Mary Arizona "Zonia" Baber [1862-1955] was an American geographer & geologist best known for developing a method for teaching geography. She was involved in many social causes & worked to popularize peace monuments.
She was born August 24, 1862, in Clark County, Illinois (USA), and died in 1955 at the age of 93. She had a lifelong association with Flora Juliette Cooke, who was the first director of the School of Education at the University of Chicago, then named principal of the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago (1901-1934), & author of "Nature Myths & Stories for Little Children."
Baber worked initially as a teacher of geography & as a principal in a private school. She earned a teaching credential in 1885 at Cook County Normal School (now Chicago State University). Beginning in 1889, she traveled widely in the US & Latin America.
In 1895, she began working at the University of Chicago & was in the first field class in geology to which women were admitted. In 1899-1900, she traveled 'around the world' (including Asia & the Middle East) & later the Pacific, & southern & eastern Africa. She obtained her Bachelor's degree (BS) from the University of Chicago in 1904.
She was Head of the Geography Department at Cook County Normal for a decade, then Associate Professor in the Department of Education (not Geography) at the University of Chicago (1901-1921). An active organizer, when others procrastinated in efforts to support teachers. She organized a meeting at her home in Englewood, Illinois, on January 12, 1889, with Prof. Rollin D. Salisbury, Prof. Wallace W. Atwood, Mr. Charles E. Peet, Dr. Henry B. Kuemmel & Miss Kate Kellogg, where she said:"I suggest the founding of a Geographic Society in Chicago, similar to the National Geographic Society in Washington, which will bring together not just professional geographers, but all those who travel and study for pleasure. With lectures and field excursions, the public may be brought to understand the importance of geography."This led to the founding of the Geographical Society of Chicago in 1898. She was involved with the Society for 50 years, served as its president 1900-1904) & received the society's Gold Medal (lifetime achievement award) in 1948.
In 1927, seeking recommendations for women speakers for the Chicago Geographical Society, she wrote to Harriet Chalmers Adams [1875-1937], first president of the Society of Women Geographers (SWG) to ask for a list of women who might speak on geographical subjects: 'Men speakers are almost invariable chosen, first from lack of knowledge of women geographers, and second from prejudice.'"
Baber challenged the norms throughout her life. She was strongly committed to feminist, anti-racist, anti-imperialist & environmental politics. She was active in the leadership of many organizations & gave regular public lectures. Titles of some of her own public presentations clearly show her political commitments.
Among her activities were serving as Chair of the Race Relations Committee of the Chicago Women's Club, on the Executive Committee of the Chicago Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), & on the Board of Mangers of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF).
She served as chairman of the WILPF's Pan-American Committee & worked with the Asociacion Puertoriquena de Mujeres Sufragistas & the Liga Social Sufragistas of Puerto Rico. In 1926, she represented the women of Puerto Rico in the extension of suffrage to the country.
As a member of the WILPF's Peace Symbols Committee, Baber made a project of collecting & publicizing 'peace symbols,' principally public monuments of various kinds. She assembled pictures & explanations of these objects into books, traveling exhibits & presentations, which circulated in both religious & secular settings: 'schools, churches, conferences, or missionary societies.' A photograph of the [Geneva] peace plow figured prominently in her productions."
Sources of information: Patricia Appelbaum, Baber Family Tree, Geographical Society of Chicago, Society of Women Geographers (SWG), Wikipedida & Women of Achievement & History.
Baber, Zonia (March-June 1937), "Peace Symbols," Chicago Schools Journal, vol. 18, pp. 151-158. Zonia Baber [1862-1955] was a geographer, geologist, peace activist & member of the Peace Symbols Committee of the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). "Baber described some 20 'peace gardens' along the US-Canadian border. These were built after World War I in commemoration of the Rush-Bagot agreement a hundred years earlier.""
Baber, Zonia (January 1938), “Build Monuments to Goodwill,” Fellowship, 7 pages.
Baber, Zonia (Date?), "Distribution of Peace Monuments," world map (with notations). "Part of material gathered by Baber for Peace Symbols Committee of the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), 1937-1949." Contains about 39 dots representing peace monuments - probably same as described in Baber (1948). Put on-line by the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Right click corners of image to enlarge.
Baber, Zonia (1948), "Peace Symbols," 96 pages, paperback, published by Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Room 635, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 5, Illinois, or 2006 Walnut Stree, Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania, price $1.00. Borrowed from Illinois State Library. Dedication: "Miss Baber dedicates this book to the cause of World Peace, and on her eighty-sixth birthday presents it as a gift to the WILPF." Describes 40 peace monuments. Includes "Supplementary Materials" on "Early Peace Treaties Made by the U.S. Government" & 2 "verses concerning racial equality."
1956 - Grave of Zonia Baber, Evergreen Cemetery (Section E), Lansing, Ingham County, Michigan (USA). Mary Arizona "Zonia" Baber [1862-1955] was an American geographer & geologist best known for developing a method for teaching geography. She was involved in the WILPF & many other social causes & worked to popularize peace monuments.
March 28, 2013 - "Zonia Baber: 'The Public May Be Brought to Understand the Importance of Geography,'" by Dana Hunter, Scientific American. "Zonia Baber [1862-1955] is one of those people you aspire to be and fear you will never manage to become even half as good as... Born during the American Civil War and lived straight through to see two world wars and the beginning of the Cold War. No wonder she was inspired to develop strong anti-war and anti-imperialism beliefs. Why have I never heard of her before? She truly achieved marvelous things for women, teaching, geography, the peace movement and the womens movement. What a woman!" /// "Dana Hunter is a science blogger, SF writer & geology addict whose home away from SciAm is En Tequila Es Verdad. Her book "Really Terrible Bible Stories vol. I: Genesis" is available on Amazon. Follow on Twitter @dhunterauthor."
40 Peace Monuments Described by Zonia Baber (1948)
Date Location Name as Used by Zonia Baber Name as Used Today (with web link) Notes c370 BC Athens, Greece Irene (Eirene), Greek Godess of Peace Statue of Eirene, Glyptothek, Munich (Germany) "Statue made by Cephisodotus, father of Praxieles." 28 BC Asia Minor Pax: Roman Goddess of Peace Medallion On eBay for $962.50:
"AUGUSTUS 28BC Ephesus Mint PAX Cista Mystica
LARGE Ancient Silver Roman Coin RARE"
"Earliest Roman personification of peace." 9 BC Rome Ara Pacis Augustae Altar of Augustan Peace "Symbol of Pax Romana" 1339 Siena, Italy Pax Pax, Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico "Personification of Peace." 1683 Near Philadelphia William Penn Peace Treaty Elm Treaty Elm, Sackamaxon "Only treaty not sworn to & never broken." (Voltaire) 1876 Philadelphia Peace Plow, Centennial Exposition Charrue de la Paix, Alabama Hall
Hotel de Ville, Geneva (Switzerland)
Celebrates the 10th anniversarry of the Universal Peace Union. 1886 Bedloe's Island, New York Statue of Liberty Statue of Liberty National Monument "Gift from the people of France." 1892-1940's Jackson Park, Chicago Japanese Temple (Ho-O-den) Former Japanese Pavilion (of which the Kasuga Stone Lantern remains in Osaka Garden) For World's Columbian Exposition. Destroyed by fire during WW-II. 1893 Chicago Columbian Peace Plow,
World's Columbian Exposition
Toured Europe after Chicago, but where is it now? "An appropriate & attractive display [of] the Peace Societies." Made by John Deere & Company. 1903 The Netherlands Peace Palace at The Hague Vredespaleis / Peace Palace "Gift of Andrew Carnegie to the nations of the World." Mar. 13, 1904 Agentina & Chile Christ of the Andes Cristo Redentor de los Andes, Uspallata Pass "Famous monument by Mateo Alonzo." Oct. 4, 1909 Berne, Switzerland Universal Postal Union Monument Weltpostdenkmal "Commemorates UPU's 25th anniversary in 1874." Nov. 15, 1910 Chatanooga, Tennessee Central Historical Memorial, Peace Monument New York Peace Monument, Point Park, Lookout Mountain "The most important and the largest of the New York Monuments at Chattanooga." Aug. 16,1914 Norway & Sweden Century of Peace Monument Fredsmonument, Morokulien "Dedicated in the presence of thousands of enthusiastic nationals from both sides of the boundary." Sept. 6, 1921 Blaine, Washington International Peace Arch International Peace Arch "Commemorates more than 100 of peace between the two countries." Sept. 1921 Chefoo, China Memorial Arch Cannot find. Chefoo is now Yentai. "In honor of American citizens." 1922 Chicago The Fountain of Time Fountain of Time, Midway Plaisance Park "Commemorating a hundred years of peace between England and the United States." 1925 Riverside, California Frank A. Miller Testimonial Peace Tower Frank A. Miller Testimonial Peace Tower & Friendshp Bridge, Mount Rubidoux Replica from Spain. For "promotion of civic beauty, community righteousness & world peace." Sept. 16, 1925 Vancouver, British Columbia Harding International Good Will Memorial Harding International Good Will Memorial, Stanley Park "No grim-faced fortifications mark our frontiers..." Aug. 7, 1927 New York & Canada International Peace Bridge Across the Niagara River Peace Bridge, between Buffalo & Fort Erie "Dedicated by Prince of Wales & Vice-President Dawes." Aug. 24, 1928 Havana, Cuba Pan-American Fraternity Tree Arbol de la Fraternidad Americana, Parque de la Fraternidad Americana "On the occasion of the holding of the sixth Pan-American Congress." June 12, 1930 Exposition Park, Toronto Universal Peace Statue "Angel of Peace", Shrine Peace Memorial "To the Cause of Universal Peace... By Ancient Order of Nobles of Mystic Shrine for N. America." 1930 Flanders, Belgium Flemish Peace Shrine IJzertoren Museum of War, Peace & Flemish Emancipation "Described in an issue of World Events, March 1, 1937." 1930-1940's Athens, Greece Peace Lighthouse on Summit of Mount Lycabettus "Was to be re-lighted each time the League of Nations was in session [but] was destroyed by the Germans in World War II." "In honor of...[27th] Congress of Universal Peace." 1932 St. Paul, Minnesota Indian God of Peace,
Ramsey County Court House
"Vision of Peace" "ByCarl Milles Carl Milles, the great Swedish artist." June 18, 1932 Alberta & Montana International Peace Park Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park "Had its origin at the annual good-will meeting of the Alberta & Montana Rotary Clubs in 1931." July 14, 1932 Manitoba & North Dakota International Peace Garden International Peace Garden "Originated at annual meeting of Association of Gardeners from the U.S. and Canada in Toronto in 1929." Jan. 21, 1935 Detroit & Windsor Kiwanis Peace Plaque, Ambassador Bridge Cannot find. Click here for table listing all 13 Kiwanis monuments on US/Canadian border as named by Barber. 1935 Laredo Bridge Pan-American Friendship Symbol Cannot find. "One For All, All For One." "First visible expression of international good will on our southern boundary." July 1, 1936 Mexico-Laredo Highway Friendship Monument Cannot find. Erectred by the "American Colony in Mexico" 56 miles from the City of Mexico. June 16, 1936 International Peace Bridge Record of a Pilgrimage of Friendship
of the Associated Country Women of the World
Cannot find. "Dedicated to the rural women of this continent.
Marks the crossing...into Canada of a delegation.."
1936 Peace Memorial to the members of the Congress who voted against entrance
into World War, 1917
Cannot find. (Yens often painted coastal views.) Painting by Karl Yens [1868-1945]. Features Jeanettee Rankin [1880-1973]. Nov. 1936 La Plata, Argentina, S.A. International Peace Garden Jardin de la Paz Also "Mast of Nations" & a museum. July 4, 1938 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Eternal Light Peace Monument Peace Light Memorial "Peace Eternal in a Nation United" Nov. 23, 1938 Cardiff, Wales National Temple of Peace & Health Welsh National Temple of Peace & Health (Temple of Peace) "Let temples of peace arise throughout the world
to be a constant reminder to each nation..."
July 3, 1939 Lake George, New York New York State Peace Memorial to Isaac Jogues Isaac Jogues Memorial, Lake George Battlefield Park "Ambassador of Peace from New France" 1940 Belle Isle, Detroit, Michigan Peace Carillon Peace Carillon "To aid in the musical part of the Annual Easter Sunrise Service." Sept. 16, 1941 San Antonio, Texas Statue of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla,
a fraternal gift of Manuel Avila Camacho
Statue of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Hemisfair Park "Father of Mexican Freedom" by Adolfo Ponzanilli of Mexico City. Nov. 11, 1941 Belle Isle, Detroit, Michigan International Peace Monument International Peace Monument (Bench) "Erected by the Monument Builders of America." Sept. 5, 1944 Brewster County, Texas Big Bend National Park Big Bend National Park "The last great wilderness of Texas. The park faces faces Mexico on three sides."
The remainder of this web page identifies the 40 monuments in Zonia's 1948 book (& on her map):
Right click any image to enlarge.
|c370 BCE - Statue of Irene / Eirene, Glyptothek, Munich (Germany). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 8-9. Roman copy of a votive statue of the Greek Goddess of Peace. Original was executed in bronze by Cephisodotus the Elder (perhaps the father or uncle of Praxieles) & set up in the Agora of Athens after 371 BC to commemorate the Common Peace / Koine Eirene of that year. Although the original is now lost, it was copied in marble by the Romans, and one of the best surviving copies is in the Munich Glyptothek. According to Baber, "there is no known record of a statue personifying peace produced earlier than this one of Irene." World's oldest peace monument?|| c370 BCE - Statue of Irene / Eirene, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, New York (USA). Another Roman copy. |
|28 BCE - Pax: Roman Goddess of Peace Medallion (Asia Minor, now Turkey). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 10-11. According to Baber, this is "the earliest Roman personification of peace... Produced in honor of the Emperor Augustus [63 BC - 14 AD]. Here Pax [Roman goddess of peace] holds a caduceus, emblem of peace, in her right hand; behind her a serpent (a symbol of healing in Greek & Roman art) rises from a cist or chest containing emblems of the goddess; the whole is surrounded by a laurel wreath." /// Image is from an offer on eBay for $962.50: "AUGUSTUS 28BC Ephesus Mint PAX Cista Mystica LARGE Ancient Silver Roman Coin RARE."|
||January 30, 9 BCE - Ara Pacis Augustae / Altar of Augustan Peace, Rome (Italy). Built by Roman emperor Augustus Caesar [63 BC - 14 AD]. Enclosed in 2006 by new building designed by American architect Richard Meier (seen in right image). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 12-13.|
|1338-39 - Pax, Sala della Pace / Peace Hall, Palazzo Pubblico (town hall), Siena, Tuscany (Italy). Part of the fresco entitled "Effects of Good Government in the City & Countryside" by Ambrogio Lorenzetti [c1290-1348]. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp.14-15.|
|1682 - Great Elm Tree, Sackamaxon, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Also called Treaty Elm. Unintentional monument. At place where proprietor William Penn [1644-1718] signed peace treaty with Delaware Indians. Blew down in a storm on March 5, 1810. Left image by Thomas Birch [1779-1851] was engraved in 1804. Right image by George Lehman [d.1870] was engraved by him in 1827 (note the new obelisk in the lower margin). An Elm Tree descendant was planted here on May 6, 2010. Also see 1827 (obelisk), 1893 (park), 1976 (marker), 1982 (statue) & 2010 (second tree). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 16-17.|
|1876 - "Charrue de la Paix" / "Plow of Peace," Salle de l'Alabama / Hall of the Alabama, Hotel de Ville / City Hall,, Geneva (Switzerland). Made for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). /// "Offerte à la Ville et au peuple de Genève après avoir figuré comme symbole de paix à l'exposition de Paris en 1878. Elle fut confectionnée avec les sabres que des officiers américains avaient cédés lors d'un congrès pour la paix tenu en 1872 [sic] à Philadelphie par l' "Universal Peace Union." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 18-19.||May 10-November 10, 1876 - Centennial Exposition, Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "First official World's Fair in the USA."|
|October 28, 1886 - Statue of Liberty / La Liberté éclairant le monde, Bedloe's Island, New York City, New York (USA). "Gift to the USA from the people of France. Depicts a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch & a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue has become an icon of freedom & of the USA." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 20-21.|
|1893 - Columbian Peace Plow, Chicago, Illinois (USA). WHERE IS THIS NOW? /// "Cut its first furrow on the platform of the Parliament of Religions. It was made for the Universal Peace Union [UPU] by [John] Deere & Co., Moline, Illinois." /// "In 1893, under the auspices of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), a committee was appointed. Out of this committee a decision was made to create a PEACE PLOW from historical relics collected. The committee began to search for a plow-maker. Deere & Company jumped at the opportunity. Twenty-two thousand metal relics were represented in the original plow along with over 200 historical pieces of wood, each one with an interesting history." /// "In 1893, for the World's Fair in Chicago, Deere & Company commissioned [clutch inventor] Charles W. Borg [1861-19??] to create the 'Columbian Peace Plow,' which was a plowshare composed of historic swords. Some 22,000 metal relics went into the alloy from which the blade was cast. The beam and handles contained thousands of historic wood relics, some no bigger than a dime. The Columbian Peace Plow was exhibited at Bunker Hill [Massachusetts], in several states, on the battlefield of Runnymede [England], the Paris Exposition of 1900 [France] & at numerous world peace meetings in Europe. The plow was to have its home at the National Museum in Washington [Smithsonian Institution]." /// Lower image shows "[the] fabulous re-creation of such an important historical piece... This beautiful pewter replica of the original Columbian Peace Plow was painstakingly hand crafted using original documents obtained from the Deere & Company Archives and carefully placed in a specially fitted die-cut foam to ensure its safe arrival to your collection." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 24-25.|
|1893-Destroyed in 1940's - Japanese Pavilion, World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair), Chicago, Illinois (USA). "A replica of the Phoenix Hall (Hodo), the only surviving building of Fujiwara Michinaga's palace [at Uji, near Kyoto], which was converted to a temple, Byodo-in, in 1052." /// Burned down during WW-II (arson?). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 22-23. /// Another, permanent replica was constructed about 1970 in the Valley of the Temples, Oahu Island, Hawaii (qv).||1893 - Kasuga Stone Lantern, Osaka Garden, Jackson Park, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Only surviving part of the Japanese Pavilion at the World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair) in 1893.|
|March 13, 1904 - Cristo Redentor de los Andes / Christ of the Andes, Uspallata Pass, Andes Mountains (Argentina/Chile). Celebrates the Peace of King Edward VII [1841-1910] of England. The statue was cast from melted military armaments, and hauled thirteen thousand feet to the top of the mountain by the armies of both nations. The monument was on the cover of Time Magazine, December 17, 1928. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 28-29.||1912 - Peace Statue, Kings Road, Brighton/Hove (England). Depicts the Angel of Peace. Celebrates King Edward VII [1841-1910] of England after he brought about peace between Argentina & Chile.|
|1909 - Weltpostdenkmal / Universal Postal Union Monument, Bern (Switzerland). Bronze & granite. By René de Saint-Marceaux. The five continents join to transmit messages around the globe. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 30-31.|
|1910 - New York Peace Monument, Point Park, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Tennessee (USA). "The largest structure in the park, standing at a height of 95 feet with the base being 50 feet in diameter." Statues at peak are soldiers from North & South shaking hands. One of the first "peace" monuments after the Civil War of 1861-1865. Erected by State of New York. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 46-47.||1917 - Ohio Peace Monument, Cravens House, Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, Tennessee (USA). Base of monument depicts a female figure surrounded with grain, machinery & other fruits of peace. Click here for other Civil War peace monuments. Erected by State of Ohio.|
|August 28, 1913 - Vredespaleis / Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, The Hague (Netherlands). Constructed just before World War I by the Carnegie Foundation -- and still owned by the Carnegie Foundation. (Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] previously paid for the Pan American Union building -- now the Organization of American States (OAS) -- in Washington, DC (USA) in 1910.) The Peace Palace is now home of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), the Peace Palace Library, and the Hague Academy of International Law. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 26-27.|
||August 16, 1914 - Fredsmonument / Peace Monument, Morokulien, between Magnor (Norway) and Eda (Sweden). Morokulien is a tiny international territory commemorating the 1905 negotiations which created peace between Norway & Sweden and led to Norwegian independence ("dissolution of the union"). Both images show the 18-meter Fredsmonument. The name Morokulien combines the Norwegian & Swedish words for "fun." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 32-33.|
|September 6, 1921 - International Peace Arch, Peace Arch Park, US/Canadian Border, Blaine, Washington (USA), & Douglas, British Columbia (Canada). Commemorates the centennial of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the War of 1812 between the US & Great Britain. Click here for the Wikipedia article. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 60-61. Entry #1211 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).||Date? - Peace Arch, Peace Arch Park, US/Canadian border. What is this? Added to the park after 2000?|
|September 1921 - Memorial Arch, Chefoo, Shandong province (China). "Granite arch at the entrance to a school... Was erected by a wealthy Chinese merchant, Lui Dze Heng, in honor of American citizens. He was once helped by an American Consul & wished to show his appreciation of Americans. Inscribed: 'Dedicated to and Erected in Honor of The Citizens of the United States of America, Our Friends Across the Sea. May There Be Eternal Peace Between the Two Peoples. Liu Dze Heng, September 1921.'" 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 34-35. Image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Not found on any other web site. /// According to Wikipedia, "the Chefoo School - aka Protestant Collegiate School or China Inland Mission School - was a Christian boarding school established by the China Inland Mission - under [Britisher] James Hudson Taylor [1832-1905] - in 1880. Its purpose was to provide an education for the children of foreign missionaries & the foreign business & diplomatic communities in China... In November 1942, staff & remaining students were interned at Temple Hill Japanese Internment Camp. In summer 1943, they were moved to Weihsien Internment Camp, where they remained until liberated by American paratroopers [on August 12, 1945]." Chefoo is now Yantai.|
|1922 - Fountain of Time, Midway Plaisance Park, Cottage Grove Avenue, Washington Park, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Commemorates century of peace between Great Britain & the US. Sculptor Lorado Taft [1860-1936] took 14 years to complete what was called the "largest single group of statuary in existence." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 62-63. Entry #270 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|December 13, 1925 - Frank A. Miller Testimonial Peace Tower & Friendshp Bridge, Mount Rubidoux, Riverside, California (USA). "Erected...in recognition of his constant labor in the promotion of civic beauty, community righteousness & world peace." Frank Augustus Miller [1857-1935] founded the Mission Inn in Riverside & Institute of World Affairs (which is now the World Affairs Council of Inland Southern California). Tower bears the names & coats of arms of all nations as of 1925. Bridge is replica of the Alcántara bridge in Spain. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 48-49. Entry #111 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|September 16, 1925 - Harding International Good Will Memorial, Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). US President Warren G. Harding [1865-1923] died not long after visiting Vancouver to dedicate this monument. Click here for YouTube video. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 64-65. Entry #1241 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|August 7, 1927 - Peace Bridge, Niagara River, US/Canadian Border between Buffalo, New York (USA), & Fort Erie, Ontario (Canada). When the bridge opened, Buffalo & Fort Erie each became the chief port of entry to their respective countries from the other. At the time, it was the only vehicular bridge on the Great Lakes from Niagara Falls to Minnesota. A "dramatic state-of-the-art, $1.2 million LED lighting system replaced the current avian unfriendly up-lighting" at the end of 2008. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 66-67. Entry #1208 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|1928 - Arbol de la Fraternidad Americana / Pan-American Fraternity Tree, Parque de la Fraternidad Americana Havana (Cuba). "This historical & political tree was planted in 1928, during the VI Pan American Conference held at Havana [January 16 - February 20, 1928]. It is a ceiba-tree, & earth was sent by every American Country to plant this tree which must grow with the good will of Latin & Saxon Americas towards Peace & Progress in a friend-ship way." /// "As a remembrance of the VI Pan-American Conference, the Fraternity Tree was planted in this square, which has taken this name. Secretary of P.W., Mr. Cespedes, has made great success in planning this handsome square on Parisian lines built in the tropics, with tropical gardens and plants and colonial details. Havana is continually beautifying herself; this is only the start. Sooner or later Havana will be the prettiest city of all of the Americas. Come again!" 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 36-37. Images are postcards from 1941 & 1947.|
|1929-Destroyed in 1940's - Peace Lighthouse, summit of Mount Lycabettus, Athens (Greece). "In honor of the meeting in Athens, Greece, of the [27th] Congress of Universal Peace... The dedication took place after the arrival of the members... At eight P.M. 600 Boy Scouts, carrying Venetian lanterns, started marching through the city and up to the summit of the mountain, where they lighted the Peace Lighthouse, which shone like an enormous star thoughout the sessions of the Congress. It was to be re-lighted each time the League of Nations was in session. [But] this monument was destroyed by the Germans when they moved into Greece in World War II." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 40-41. Left image scanned from Baber. All information from Baber. NB: Baber dates this monument from 1930, but the conference took place October 6-10, 1929.|
|June 12, 1930 - Shrine Peace Memorial, Exposition Park, 2 Strachan Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). "Presented to the people of Canada by Imperial Potentate, Noble Leo V. Youngworth, on behalf of the 600,000 members of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners) to commemorate the peaceful relationships existing for over a century between Canada and the United States." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 70-71. Baber called this the "Universal Peace Statue." "A limestone seat just back of the monument is inscribed 'Peace be on You - On You be the Peace."" Entry #1333 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|1930 - IJzertoren Museum of War, Peace & Flemish Emancipation, IJzerdijk 49, Diksmuide / Dixmude, Flanders (Belgium). IJzertoren / Yser Tower is is named after the Yser River which formed the frontline during most of World War I. The 84-meter tower was illegally demolished the night of March 15-16, 1946. The perpetrators were never caught but were thought to involve Belgian military and former resistance fighters in an atmosphere of post WW-II repression. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 38-39. Site of 4th International Conference of the International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP). Images show the rebuilt tower. Right image is brochure for the 4th INMP conference in 2003.|
|June 18, 1932 - Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Alberta (Canada) & Montana (USA). "Oldest international peace park [sic]." Established on the initiative of Rotary International. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. Upper image is cover of Saturday Evening Post for August 5, 1961, showing a happy family on the international border. Click here for Wikipedia article. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 72-73. Entry #1210 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|2007 - Peace Exhibit, Goat Haunt Ranger Station, Glacier National Park (USA). At south end of Upper Waterton Lake. No road access! "Visitors can view a new International Peace Park exhibit at Goat Haunt. The exhibits explore the history of the Peace Park - the world's first - as well as the meanings of peace in the world." ["Celebrating 75 Years of Peace & Friendship," National Park Service, July 19, 2007].||2007? - Peace Exhibit, Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). At north end of Upper Waterton Lake. Peace Exhibit exists according to Nigel & Antonia Young.|
|July 14, 1932 - International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). "Proposed in 1928 by Dr. Henry J. Moore of Islington, Ontario, while attending a gathering of gardeners in Greenwich, Connecticut, so 'the people of the two countries could share the glories found in a lovely garden & the pleasures found in warm friendships.'" /// Now a "2,339 acre botanical garden on the world’s longest unfortified border." Various monuments built over the years, including Peace Cairn (far right), Peace Carillon (qv), Peace Chapel, two 20-story concrete Peace Towers (see below) & 9/11 Memorial. Lower left image is air view looking to southwest; border crossing highway is in foreground. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 74-75. Entry #1209 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Click here for Wikipedia article.||1932 - Cairn, International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). Text of plaque: "To God in His Glory we two nations dedicate this garden and pledge to ourselves that as long as men live we will not take up arms agtinst one another."|
|January 21, 1935 - Kiwanis Peace Plaque, Ambassador Bridge, Detroit River, between Detroit, Michigan (USA), & Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Inscribed: "This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than a century old friendship between these countries, a lesson of peace to all nations." According to Zonia Baber, "Kiwanis International has excelled all other groups in this country in the number of peace symbols they have established." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 76-77. Left image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Not found on any other web site. This is one of at least 30 such plaques, but very few are shown on the World Wide Web. Click here for a table showing all known Kiwanis peace plaques, including 14 named by Baber.|
|1930 - Ambassador Bridge Plaque, Ambassador Bridge, Detroit River, between Detroit, Michigan (USA), & Windsor, Ontario (Canada). From a blogger in Windsor: "For years, and years, I’ve wanted to get a photo of the great bronze plaques [sic] on the Ambassador Bridge, but I’ve never had the chance. Well, this weekend, I spent 1-1/2 hours crossing in the bridge [on foot or in slow traffic?]. The only highlight was the chance to grab a few shots of the bronzes [sic]. A large monongram of 'JMS' is visible. My good friend Einar came up with the sculptor Jonathan M. Swanson [1888-1963]. From what I gather, this was one of his largest works. Inscribed, 'The visible expression of friendship in the hearts of two peoples with like ideas and ideals – 1930.' We sure have come a long way in the last 77 years. I’m not sure how similar we our [sic] to our American neighbours anymore, and it’s a shame." /// NB: Ambassador Bridge opened on November 11, 1929.|
|1935 - Pan-American Friendship Symbol, Laredo Bridge, bewteen Laredo, Texas (USA), & Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas (Mexico). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 80-81. Image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Not found on any other web site.||April 15, 2000 - World Trade Bridge, between Laredo, Texas (USA), & Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas (Mexico). Eight-lane bridge for commercial traffic only. "Named in honor of a free World Trade market, because international trade is one of the key components to the Laredo/Nuevo Laredo economies."|
|1936 - "Peace Memorial to Members of the U.S. Congress Who Voted Against Entrance Into World War, 1917." WHERE IS THIS MEMORIAL PAINTING TODAY? By Karl Yens [1868-1945]. "Photograph by E. F. Caldwell, Arch Beach, Cal." Depicts a forest with an allegorical figure, boy, girl & dog in foreground, surrounded by "To Motherhood, Jennett Rankin, Missoula, Mont. 1880-19," the names of 8 Senators, and the names of 49 Representatives. Jeanettee Rankin [1880-1973] voted against WW-I and WW-II. Inscription: "To the Memory of those Heroic Men, Senators and Representatives, who, having ignominy heaped upon them by a frenzied people, victims of mendacious propagdanda, dared stand forth on those fateful days of April, 1917, to cast their votes against the resolution driving us into an iniquitous foreign war." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 52-53. Entry #578 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Bennett apparently copied his information from Baber. This painting has not been found on any other web site.|
|1936 - "Record of a Pilgrimage of Friendship on the Associated Country Women of the World," International Peace Bridge, Niagara River, between Buffalo, New York (USA), & Ontario (Canada). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 68-69. Image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Not found on any other web site.|
|1936 - Friendship Monument, Mexico-Laredo Highway (Mexico). 56 miles from Mexico City. "During the exercises at this uveiling, Ambassador Josephus Daniels [1862-1948] said, in part: 'I trust the words inscribed upon this monument will be a record of present friendship and a future deeper and broader understanding between Mexicans and Americans.'" 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 82-83. Image scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Not found on any other web site.|
|1936 - "Vision of Peace," Memorial Concouse, St. Paul City Hall, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Largest carved onyx figure in the world. Weighs 60 tons & oscillates 66 degrees left & right. Although dedicated in 1936 to the war veterans of Ramsey County, pacifist sculptor Carl Milles [1875-1955] sipulated that it should symbolize world peace. Officially named "Vision of Peace" in 1994. Milles also created "____of the Waters" in St. Louis, Missouri, & "God the Father of the Rainbow" in Stockholm, Sweden (qv). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 50-51. Entry #542 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|November 1936 - Jardin de la Paz / International Peace Garden, La Plata, Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). "Es un jardín conformado por las flores nacionales de cada país con representación diplomática en Argentina. Junto a la planta, hay una placa con el nombre del país, de la flor y su imagen. Al lado, la bandera nacional respectiva. Es un semicírculo, como dejando abierta la entrada a otras flores. Un bonito llamado a la paz, donde las flores y las banderas confraternizan en una ciudad que es un gran jardín. Un grandioso jardín, que también podría abrazar el canto de las aves nacionales." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 42-43. According to Babar, the park contained both a "Mast of Nations" & a museum.|
|July 3, 1938 - Peace Light Memorial, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (USA). Dedicated by President Franklin Deleno Roosevelt on 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg in presence of elderly veterans from both sides of the Civil War. Also known as Eternal Light Peace Memorial. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 54-55. Vandalized on January 8, 2009 (right image).|
|November 23, 1938 - Welsh National Temple of Peace and Health (Temple of Peace), Cardiff (Wales). A non-religious civic building designed by the architect Sir Percy Thomas. Across the street from the National Assembly. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 44-45. One of 13 sites on the MAW Peace Map of the British Isles as of January 2009.||1988 - National Garden of Peace, behind the Temple of Peace, Cardiff (Wales). Marks the 50th anniversary of the Temple of Peace. Home to a number of commemorative trees & plaques, including a colourful plaque to mark the 20th anniversary of the walk from Cardiff to Greenham Common.||May 15, 2005 - Welsh monument to Conscientious Objection, National Garden of Peace, Cardiff (Wales). Inscription: "If the right to life is the first of all human rights, being the one on which all other rights depend, the right to refuse to kill must be the second."|
|July 3, 1939 - New York State Peace Memorial to Isaac Jogues, Lake George Battlefield Park, Lake George, New York (USA). Born in Orléans (France),"Isaac Jogues [1607-1646] was a Jesuit priest, missionary & martyr who traveled & worked among the native populations in North America. He gave the original European name to Lake George, calling it Lac du Saint Sacrement / Lake of the Blessed Sacrament. In 1646, Jogues was martyred by the Mohawks near present day Auriesville, New York. Jogues, Jean de Brébeuf & six other martyred missionaries, all Jesuits or laymen associated with them, were canonized in 1930, and are known as 'The North American Martyrs' or 'St. Isaac Jogues & Companions.'" 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 56-57.|
|June 17, 1940 - Peace Carillon, Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan (USA). 85-foot tower designed by Clarence Day. Inscribed: "Dedicated to the glory of God and in the hope of everlasting peace betweeen the peoples of the Dominion of Canada and of the Vnited States of America. Monvment Bvilders of America -AD 1940." Funds raised by journalist Nancy Brown who wrote a column for the Detroit News called "Experience" from 1919 to 1942. The 49-bell carillon was restored & computer automated in 2005. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 58-59. Entry #498 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|September 16, 1941 - Statue of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Hemisfair Park, San Antonio, Texas (USA). "A Fraternal Gift of Manuel Avila Camacho." Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla [1753-1811] was a Mexican priest & a leader of the Mexican War of Independence. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 84-85.|
|November 11, 1941 - International Peace Monument (Bench), Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan (USA). Carved on the back of the bench are an eagle with 13 stars for the USA & a crown & lion for Canada. Inscribed "With this everlasting witness we keep peace with our neighbors as they have kept peace with us throvghovt the years." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 78-79. Entry #494 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|1944 - Big Bend National Park, Texas (USA). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 86-87. Baber called Big Bend "the last great wilderness of Texas. The park faces faces Mexico on three sides." This image is very nearly identical to the black-and-white photo Baber chose to illustrate her book.|
|About 1783 - "Peace of Paris, 1783", Diplomatic Reception Rooms (Top Floor), U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Painting by Benjamin West [1738-1820] of the American delegation at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens [1724-1792] & William Temple Franklin [1760-1823]. The British delegation refused to pose, & the painting was never completed." (The preliminary articles signed in Paris on November 30, 1782, were only effective when a similar treaty was signed by Britain & France, which French Foreign Minister Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes [1717-1787], quickly negotiated. France signed preliminary articles of peace with Great Britain on January 20, 1783, which were followed by a formal Peace of Paris signed on September 3, 1783.)||1806-1860 - Tripoli Monument or Peace Monument, Navy Yard, Washington, DC (USA). Made in Italy by Charles Micali. Damaged by fire during the War of 1812. Moved to West Grounds of the US Capitol in 1831. Moved to US Naval Academy (USNA), Annapolis, Maryland (USA) in 1861 (qv). Plaque: "The oldest military monument in the United States honors heroes of the War against the Barbary Coast Pirates [1801-1805], the new republic's first war..." Renovated in June 2000.|
|April 14, 1876 - Emancipation Memorial, Lincoln Park, East Capitol Avenue & 12th Street, Capitol Hill, Washington, DC (USA). Dedicated by Frederick Douglass & President Ulysses Grant. Sculpted by Thomas Ball. "Depicts Abraham Lincoln holding his Emancipation Proclamation and standing over Archer Alexander [1828-1880?] breaking the chains of slavery. Alexander was the last slave captured under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850." Right image shows this monument on the cover of "Standing soldiers, kneeling slaves: Race, war, and monument in nineteenth-century America," by Kirk Savage (1999).|
|1878 - Naval Peace Monument, The Mall, Washington, DC (USA). Commemorates role of US Navy during the Civil War. Facing the US Capitol is Peace, a classical figure draped from the waist down and holding an olive sprig. The monuments's other alegorical figures are Grief, History & Victory. Sculpted from Carrara marble in Rome (Italy) by Franklin Simmons [1839-1913].|
|July 16, 1899 - Friedensengel / Angel of Peace, on opposite side of Luitpoldbrücke over Isar River, Munich, Bavaria (Germany). Celebrates 25 years of peace since war with France 1870-71. Erected 1896-99 by sculptors Heinrich Duell, Georg Pezold & Max Heilmaier. "Rising above the terraces in the axis of the Prinzregentenstrasse is the 38-metre 'Angel of Peace,' which is the dominant feature of the park and is often regarded as a symbol of Munich. Created to mark the 25 years of peace after the 1871 Treaty of Versailles, it is mounted on a 23-metre column above a small hall, and is modelled on Athena, goddess of wisdom and peace, but also goddess of 'strategic' war. She holds Nike in her hand, the goddess of victory. The Friedensengel provides a spectacular view of the city, and is sited above a superb terrace, which is unfortunately marred by heavy traffic." Lower left image shows temple at the base of the column. Lower right imges show Prinzregentenbrücke / Prinzregenten Bridge over the Isar (1900-01, architect: Theodor Fischer).|
|June 7, 1902 - International Museum of War & Peace, Luzern/Lucerne (Switzerland). World's first peace museum. "Although created by Ivan Bloch, aka Jean de Bloch [1836-1902], a Polish-Russian entrepreneur & author of the 6-volume master work, La Guerre Future / Is War Now Impossible? (1898), Bloch died in Warsaw at the beginning of 1902, and the museum was inaugerated in Shooting Festival Hall by Frédéric Passy & Bertha von Suttner (who respectively received the 1st & 5th Nobel Peace Prizes in 1901 & 1905). Museum moved to Museggstrasse in 1910 & closed in 1920 due to lack of patronage during World War I. Site is now Culture & Congress Centre by French architect Jean Nouvel (1998). See "The International Museum of War and Peace at Lucerne" by Peter van den Dungen, Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Geschichte, vol, 31, pp, 185-202 (1981).|
|1912 - Pamatnik Mohyla Míru / Cairn of Peace & Muzeum Brnenska / Brno Regional Museum, Prace, Moravia (Czech Republic). "85-foot monument commemorates Battle of Austerlitz (aka Battle of the Three Emperors), December 2, 1805, when Napoleon defeated the Austrian & Russian coalition, leading to the Peace of Pressburg (Bratislava). Within the memorial there is a chapel and small museum (moderized in 2005), while on the outside, four female statues symbolize France, Austria, Russia & Moravia." Member of International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP).|
|June 31, 1931 - Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio (USA). "Established to honor those who fought in the Battle of Lake Erie, during the War of 1812, but in equal part it is here to celebrate the long-lasting peace between Britain, Canada & the US." /// "A 352 foot (107 m) monument — the world's most massive Doric column — was constructed by a multi-state commission from 1912 to 1915 "to inculcate the lessons of international peace by arbitration & disarmament." Beneath the stone floor of the monument lie the remains of three American officers & three British officers. It is among the tallest monuments in the USA (the Gateway Arch, San Jacinto Monument & Washington Monument are taller). World's tallest peace monument? Although substantially completed in 1915, funding problems prevented the proper completion of a fully realized memorial complex. In 1919 the federal government assumed control of the monument & provided additional funding. The official dedication was celebrated on July 31, 1931. In 2002, $2.4 million was spent on a new visitor center. The memorial is visited by 200,000 people each year." Entry #818 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|September 4, 1938 - May 30, 1942 - Monument à la gloire des Américains / Monument to the Glory of the Americans, Point-de-Grave, Le Verdon, Mouth of Gironde River (France). Expressed gratitude for US help during World War I. 75 meters tall (vs. 45.5 meters for the Statue of Liberty). Tallest peace monument in Europe? Cornerstone laid September 6, 1919, by French President Raymond Poincaré [1860-1934]. Dedication (lower left image) attended by John F. Kennedy [1917-1963] representing his father, the US Ambassador in London. Lower right image shows a stele (plaque) about 10 meters high which was erected in 1947 to mark the spot. Its inscription reads: "Ici s'élevait le monument érigé à la gloire des Américains - Aux soldats du général Pershing défenseurs du même idéal de droit et de liberté qui conduisit en Amérique La Fayette et ses volontaires partis de ce rivage en 1777 - Le monument symbolisait la fraternité d'armes et l'amitié franco-américaine - Il fut détruit le 30 mai 1942 par les troupes d'occupation allemandes - Il sera réédifié par le peuple français - They have destroyed it, we shall restore it."|
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