The United States and Canada have the longest common border in the world. The terrestrial boundary (including small portions of maritime boundaries on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic coasts, as well as the Great Lakes) is 8,891 kilometres (5,522 miles) long. The border has been unmilitarized (unfortified) since 1814.
"The USA & Canada are the biggest trading partners in the world. 100 million people & 50 million vehicles cross the border every year through 115 ports of entry. Around $300 billion in commerce goes over the border each way every year -- nearly half of it over a single bridge, the [privately-owned] Ambassador Bridge between Detroit, Michigan, & Windsor, Ontario."
"When it is not following a waterway, like the St. Lawrence River or the Great Lakes, the boundary is a 20 foot-wide, monument-studded corridor, marked, cleared & maintained by the International Boundary Commission (IBC)... There once were hundreds of buildings on the border (many of which were used to serve liquor during Prohibition). Now there are less than 40."
See table at end of this web page naming Kiwanis peace monuments (including many identified by Zonia Babar in 1948). "United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border" describes many if not most of the 115 border crossings but mentions only three of the Kiwanis peace monuments -- at the Thousand Islands Bridge (NY/ON), Metaline Falls/Nelway (WA/BC) & Peace Arch (WA/BC) border crossings.
See special section below about three SunSweep monuments by sculptor David Barr. | Click here for list of Canada-US border crossings. | Click here for a website about boundary markers on the international border (49th parallel). | Click here for Wikipedia article on the US/Canada border. | Click here for Wikipedia article on the 49th Parallel North. | Click here for "A Not-So-Straight Story" from the New York Times. | Click here for "Atlas of the Land Entry Ports on the Canada-U.S. Border" by the Border Policy Research Institute (BPRI). | Click here for the Canada-United States Transportation Border Working Group (TBWG). http://www.thetbwg.org/index_e.htm
Right click image to enlarge.
|December 24, 1814 - Treaty of Ghent, Veldstraat 47, Ghent (Belgium). "Ended the War of 1812 between the USA & the UK. Restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum, restoring the borders to the lines before the war started in June 1812... Before news of the peace treaty reached the USA, American forces under Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815... Ratified by the U.S. Senate unanimously on February 18, 1815, [thus beginning] two centuries of peaceful relations between the USA & Britain, although there have been a few tense moments such as the Trent Affair [in 1861]." /// Image shows plaque on building where the treaty was signed in Ghent.||Circa 1815 - "Peace" (Allegory of the Treaty of Ghent) by John Rubens Smith [1775-1849], Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA).|
|April 27-28, 1817 - Rush-Bagot Treaty, Washington, DC (USA). "Provided for a large demilitarization of lakes along the international boundary, where many British naval arrangements & forts remained... With the separate Treaty of 1818, laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the USA & British North America." /// Image shows Kiwanis plaque placed April 29, 1935, at Columbia Residences (former Columbia Hospital for Women) where the treaty was signed in Washington, DC (see below).|
|1824 - Brock's Monument, Queenston Heights, Ontario (Canada). Vandalized in 1840 & replaced in 1859 by monument shown in image which "stands 57 m high. At the time it was completed, it was the second highest monument in the world (surpassed only by Christopher Wren’s monument commemorating the Great Fire of London). The monument’s base features sculpted lions & depictions of Brock’s achievements. The monument also has a fluted column that contains 235 steps leading to an enclosed observation deck. An impressive 4.8-m stone-carved statue of Sir Isaac Brock [1769-1812]" -- who embarrassingly defeated an American army in 1812. /// Monument can be seen from the USA.|
|August 9, 1842 - Webster-Ashburton Treaty, Ashburton House (home of the British legation), Lafayette Square, Washington, DC (USA). "Resolved several border issues between the United States & the British North American colonies." /// Image shows plaque in Lafayette Square. Its text: "Friendship between the United States and Canada was developed and strengthened by the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, on August 9, 1842, in the Old State Department Building which stood on this site. This treaty established the north-eastern boundary between the two countries. - This tablet placed by the Kiwanis Club of Washington in cooperation wtih the Committee on Marking Points of Historic Interest April 30, 1929."|
|June 15, 1846 - Oregon Treaty, Washington, DC (USA). Also called the Treaty of Washington. "Brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American & British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain & the USA since the Treaty of 1818." Image shows Border Marker #1 installed in Monument Park, Point Roberts, Washington (USA), in 1861. Inscribed "TREATY OF WASHINGTON, June 15th 1846."||1986? - Replica border monument, at Peace Arch, Washington (USA) / British Columbia (Canada). Inscription: "This monument commemorates the 125th anniversary of the 1857-1861 survey of the 49th parallel from the Gulf of Georgia to the summit of the Rocky Mtns. This parallel was declared the boundary between the United States and Canada by the 1846 Treaty of Washington and surveyed by a joint British and American boundary commission. This pillar is an exact replica of the original cast iron monuments used to mark this portion of the border between Point Roberts and the foothills of the Cascade Mountains during the 1857-61 survey. Dedicated to the surveyors and astronomers of the original boundary survey by the Land Surveyors' Association of Wshington and the Corporation of Land Surveyors of the Province of British Columbia in 1986 [?]."|
|August 1, 1848 - Niagara Railway Suspension Bridge over the Niagara River, joining the US & Canada. "The world's first working railway suspension bridge. It spanned 825 feet (251 m) & stood 2.5 miles (4.0 km) downstream of Niagara Falls, where it connected Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Niagara Falls, New York. Trains used the upper of its two decks, pedestrians & carriages the lower." At first, the bridge was temporary. The first locomotive crossed on March 8, 1855.|
|About 1849 - Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, Dawn, near Dresden, Kent County, Ontario (Canada). "This humble house became a crucial link in the Underground Railroad when it was settled by Josiah Henson [1789-1883], who escaped slavery in Kentucky in 1830. His autobiography in 1849 inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe to pen Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. Ner novel was credited by President Abraham Lincoln as a catalyst of the American Civil War."||Date? - Harriet Beecher Stowe House, Hartford, Connecticut (USA). monument."|
|1861 - Border Marker #1, Monument Park, Point Roberts, Washington (USA). Granite obelisk at the entrance to the park. Inscribed "TREATY OF WASHINGTON, June 15th 1846." "Just up the road from Lighthouse Park, Monument Park is home to border marker #1 on the US-Canada border. The small park overlooks the Strait of Georgia from its perch among the trees atop a small bluff. An easy walking trail follows the top of the vegetation-covered slope, then descends through a forest of giant old Douglas fir trees to a picturesque beach. This monument to the 49 parallel was fabricated in Scotland & New Westminster in 1861 & sits at the most western point in the northern Canadian-US border. The 8.23 acre park, with the north 60 feet of frontage on Marine Drive owned by the International Border Commission [sic], is composed of the lawn around the obelisk, forested uplands & steep slopes to the beach."|
|May 8, 1871 - Treaty of Washington, Washington, DC (USA). "Settled various disputes between the UK & the USA after the American Civil War, in particular the Alabama Claims."|
|September 14, 1872 - "Salle de l'Alabama / Hall of the Alabama," Hotel de Ville / City Hall, Geneva (Switzerland). An international tribunal meeting here settled the so-called "Alabama Claims" of the USA against the UK about actions of the CSS Alabama & other raiders during the US Civil War, thus establishing the principle of international arbritration. Translation of plaque: "On September 24, 1872, the Arbitration Tribunal convened by the Treaty of Washington rendered in this hall its decision on the Alabama claims thus settling in a peacable manner the differerences between the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain." /// Left image includes "Charrue de la Paix" / "Plow of Peace" made for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, & given to Geneva in 1876.|
|About 1906 - International Footbridge, Parc de la Frontière, Estcourt Station, Maine (USA) & Pohénégamook, Québec (Canada). At northernmost point in eastern USA. "Estcourt Station does not have public road access to the rest of Maine (without entering Canada)..., uses Quebec's area code 418 for telephone service & is connected to Hydro-Québec for electricity."|
|Date? - US/Canadian border, Hyder, Alaska (USA). "At the Canadian border at the edge of Hyder [is] a small stone building with a marker describing it as the first masonry building in Alaska. It was built as a military warehouse, but has been used for various things. Next to it is a bronze marker, like a miniature Washington Monument, marking the US-Canada border. Lots of other signs marked the border, too." // "Hyder is a census-designated place (CDP) in Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area. At the 2000 census the population was 97. Hyder has achieved fame as a point in Alaska accessible to automobile & motorbike travelers in Canada who want to say that they have been to Alaska. Hyder is also recognized as the easternmost town in Alaska... Hyder is notable for being the only place in Alaska not to use the state-wide 907 area code, instead using the area code of 250 allocated for British Columbia. Tourists will also find that Hyder uses Canadian time, the common currency is Canadian, they observe Canadian holidays, send their children to Canadian schools, and if you call the police a Canadian Mountie will respond."|
|Date? - Boundary monument & flags, White Pass Summit, between Skagway, Alaska (USA), & Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (Canada). At border between Alaska (USA) & British Columbia (Canada). Photos taken from passing trains of the White Pass & Yukon Route (WP&YR), a 110 mile (180 km) narrow gauge line not connected to any other railroad.|
|September 6, 1921 - International Peace Arch, Peace Arch Park, US/Canadian Border, Blaine, Washington (USA), & Douglas, British Columbia (Canada). Commemorates the centennial of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the War of 1812 between the US & Great Britain. Click here for the Wikipedia article. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 60-61. Entry #1211 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).||Date? - Peace Arch, Peace Arch Park, US/Canadian border. What is this? Added to the park after 2000?|
|1922 - Fountain of Time, SE portion of Washington Park , Cottage Grove Avenue, Washington Park, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Immediately west of the Midway Plaisance. Based on lines by English poet Austin Dobson [1840-1921]: "Time goes, you say? Ah no, Alas, time stays, we go." Shows a cloaked figure of time observing the stream of humanity flowing past. Commemorates a century of peace between Great Britain & the USA. Sculptor Lorado Taft [1860-1936] took 14 years to complete what was called the "largest single group of statuary in existence." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 62-63. Entry #270 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|September 16, 1925 - Harding International Good Will Memorial, Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). "The Kiwanis Club - Pesident Harding was a Kiwanian - initiated a drive for a grand memorial to him in Stanley Park, at the site where he spoke. The monument was designed by Vancouver sculptor Charles Marega (also a Kiwanian)." /// US President Warren G. Harding [1865-1923] died not long after visiting Vancouver to dedicate this monument. Click here for YouTube video. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 64-65. Entry #1241 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|August 7, 1927 - Peace Bridge, Niagara River, US/Canadian Border between Buffalo, New York (USA), & Fort Erie, Ontario (Canada). A "dramatic state-of-the-art, $1.2 million LED lighting system replaced the current avian unfriendly up-lighting" at the end of 2008. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 66-67. Entry #1208 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|November 11, 1927 - Canadian Cross of Sacrifice, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia (USA). "A bronze sword adorning a 24-foot gray granite cross designed by Canadian architect Sir Reginald Bloomfield [1856-1942]." From cemetery website: "Few countries enjoy the bonds of goodwill & friendship that the US & Canada share. Our common border remains the longest unguarded frontier on earth, and our nations have shared triumphs and tragedies throughout history. It was in this spirit of friendship that in 1925 Canadian PM MacKenzie King [1874-1950] first proposed a memorial to the large number of US citizens who enlisted in the Canadian Armed Forces, and lost their lives during WW-I. Because Canada entered the war long before the USA, many Americans enlisted in Canada to join the fighting in Europe."||Date? - Cross of Sacrifice, Bayeux War Cemetery, Normandy (France). Also by Canadian architect Sir Reginald Bloomfield [1856-1942]. "Usually present in Commonwealth war cemeteries containing 40 or more graves. It is normally a freestanding four point limestone Latin cross in one of three sizes ranging in height from 18 to 32 feet."|
|May 30, 1928 - Memorial to prisoners of war from the War of 1812, Dartmoor Prison,County of Devon (England). "Many thousands of American POW's were incarcerated at Dartmoor War Depot. The youngest prisoner was only 12 years old, his name being on the memorial behind the prison, which still holds over 600 inmates as of 2015 (these are current UK prisoners convicted of criminal offences)." Inscription: "To the glory of God and in loving memory of the two hundred and eighteen American sailors and soldiers of the War of 1812 who died here this memorial gateway is erected by the National Society United States Daughters of 1812, 30th May 1928." /// Right image shows one of two newer monuments listing all known American POW's buried here.|
|June 12, 1930 - Shrine Peace Memorial, Exposition Park, 2 Strachan Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). "Presented to the people of Canada by Imperial Potentate, Noble Leo V. Youngworth, on behalf of the 600,000 members of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Shriners) to commemorate the peaceful relationships existing for over a century between Canada and the United States." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 70-71. Baber called this the "Universal Peace Statue." "A limestone seat just back of the monument is inscribed 'Peace be on You - On You be the Peace."" Entry #1333 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|1930 - Ambassador Bridge Plaque, Ambassador Bridge, Detroit River, between Detroit, Michigan (USA), & Windsor, Ontario (Canada). From a blogger in Windsor: "For years, and years, I’ve wanted to get a photo of the great bronze plaques [sic] on the Ambassador Bridge, but I’ve never had the chance. Well, this weekend, I spent 1-1/2 hours crossing in the bridge [on foot or in slow traffic?]. The only highlight was the chance to grab a few shots of the bronzes [sic]. A large monongram of 'JMS' is visible. My good friend Einar came up with the sculptor Jonathan M. Swanson [1888-1963]. From what I gather, this was one of his largest works. Inscribed, 'The visible expression of friendship in the hearts of two peoples with like ideas and ideals – 1930.' We sure have come a long way in the last 77 years. I’m not sure how similar we our [sic] to our American neighbours anymore, and it’s a shame." /// NB: Ambassador Bridge opened on November 11, 1929. Miniatures of the 1930 plaque (about 3 x 2-1/2 inches) were issued (apparentely to commemorate the completion of the bridge) & today are sometimes sold on eBay. Upper & lower left images show the original plaque. Lower right image (copyright by medallicartcollector.com) is a 70x100 mm bronze paperweight designed by Jonathan M. Swanson [1888-1963]. Reverse side says "Compliments of J.W. Austin" who was treasurer of the bridge project.||1930 - Detroit-Windsor Tunnel (USA & Canada). The second busiest crossing between the USA & Canada. Image shows boundary under Detroit River.|
|June 31, 1931 - Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio (USA). "Honors those who fought in the Battle of Lake Erie, during the war of 1812, but in equal part it is here to celebrate the long-lasting peace between Britain, Canada & the USA." /// "352 foot (107 m) - the world's most massive Doric column. Fourth tallest monument in USA (only Gateway Arch, San Jacinto Monument, & Washington Monument are taller). Beneath the stone floor lie the remains of three American officers & three British officers. Constructed by a multi-state commission 1912-1915 "to inculcate the lessons of international peace by arbitration & disarmament." Although substantially completed in 1915, funding problems prevented the proper completion. In 1919, the federal government assumed control of the monument & provided additional funding. Official dedication was celebrated on July 31, 1931. In 2002, 2.4 million dollars was spent on a new visitor center. Visited by 200,000 people each year." Closed for repairs 2009-2012. Entry #818 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).||2011 - New Baltimore, Michigan (USA). North of Detroit. "Lynn & Wayne Bell stand behind the 10 foot scaled replica of the Perry's Victory & International Peace monument at their home on September 15, 2011. Wayne Bell recently had it made for his wife; he proposed to her at that monument about 20 years ago."|
|June 18, 1932 - Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Alberta (Canada) & Montana (USA). "Oldest international peace park [sic]." Established on the initiative of Rotary International. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. Upper image is cover of Saturday Evening Post for August 5, 1961, showing a happy family on the international border. Click here for Wikipedia article. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 72-73. Entry #1210 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|2007 - Peace Exhibit, Goat Haunt Ranger Station, Glacier National Park (USA). At south end of Upper Waterton Lake. No road access! "Visitors can view a new International Peace Park exhibit at Goat Haunt. The exhibits explore the history of the Peace Park - the world's first - as well as the meanings of peace in the world." ["Celebrating 75 Years of Peace & Friendship," National Park Service, July 19, 2007].||>2007? - Peace Exhibit, Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). At north end of Upper Waterton Lake. Peace Exhibit exists according to Nigel & Antonia Young.|
|July 14, 1932 - International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) & Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). "2,339 acre botanical garden on the world’s longest unfortified border." Includes two 20-story concrete Peace Towers, Peace Chapel, and 9/11 Memorial. Click here for Wikipedia article. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 74-75. Entry #1209 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
| July 1932 - "Frontiers Unfettered by Any Frowning Fortress," City Hall, 65 Niagara Square, Buffalo, New York (USA). East mural in lobby of Buffalo's
gigantic 32-story city hall. By New York City artist William de Leftwich Dodge [1867-1935]. "Depicts Buffalo as an international gateway to Canada. The border of the mural consists of ears of corn & two doves symbolizing peace. The central figure of a woman, Buffalo as the Angel of Peace, holds a warrior under each arm, uniting them with her grasp. One warrior represents the US & the other represents Canada, each clutching their respective flags." Second image shows ceiling with the mural at one end. |
"On the left the United States, [is] represented by consumer prosperity. Some details: * Woman wearing 1920’s clothing styles, including cloche hat, boa, high heels, dress and wrap, and carrying purse, another shoe, jewelry and jewelry box, and bolt of fabric * Man wearing shorts and knickers, carrying two model cars (Thomas, 1902-1919, and Pierce-Arrow, 1901-1938, were auto companies prominent in Buffalo’s history). * Farmer with farming tools; woman with treadle sewing machine * Background: City Hall, Niagara Falls & the Peace Bridge."
"On the right Canada is represented by an offering of furs & fisheries. Some details: * Mother with her son who is clutching a book and pointing him toward the United States as the land of opportunity and youth. * Fur trapper, wearing fringed buckskin pants and moccasins, with snow shoe carrying trapped animals. * Man carrying basket of fish. * Native in canoe loaded with green branches * Background: A Canadian city (Fort Erie?) & the Peace Bridge."
|June 25, 1933 - Old Crossing Treaty Monument, Red Lake County Park, Huot, Red Lake County, Minnesota (USA). Life-sized bronze statue of a Chippewa/Ojibwe man holding a peace pipe. Sculpted by Carl C. Mose [1903-1973]. At the site of the 1863 Treaty of Old Crossing between the US government & Red Lake/Pembina Ojibwe in which the Ojibwe cede about 11,000,000 acres of the Red River Valley (an area approximately 180 miles long north-to-south & 127 miles wide) for $510,000 & various goods, provisions & presents. This same site was well-known even before the treaty. For about 30 years in the mid-1800's it was the chosen location by oxcart drivers - freighting goods on the Pembina Trail between St. Paul & today's Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada) - to cross/ford the Red Lake River. For the last 20 years, Old Crossing Treaty Park has been used by L'Association des Francais du Nord / The association of the French of the North (AFRAN) to host a multi-cultural Chautauqua & French Festival in late August. The festival involves native Americans & Canadians, Metis, Red River Valley residents of French-Canadian descent & people of other ethnic heritage."|
Three monuments commemorating the Rush Bagot Peace Treaty of 1917:
|1934 - Rush-Bagot Memorial, Old Fort Niagara, New York (USA). "An early armaments agreement was signed by the US & Great Britain in 1817. Named for its chief negotiators, Richard Rush [1780-1859] & Sir Charles Bagot [1781-1843], the treaty limited naval forces on the Great Lakes. The true monument to such efforts is today's unfortified 4,00-mile (6,400km) United States-Canada border. In clear weather the skyline of Toronto, Ontario can be seen across the 27 miles (43km) of Lake Ontario."/// Includes Unfortified Boundary Plaque on left side (upper image). Fort Niagara dates from 1726.||April 29, 1935 - Rush-Bagot Memorial Tablet, Columbia Residences (former Columbia Hospital for Women), 2425 L Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Marks place where the Rush-Bagot agreement was signed April 18-19, 1817, to bring about the removal of armed vessels from the Great Lakes. Erected by Kiwanis International. One of 40 peace monuments on Zonia Baber's world map c.1948. Entry #1162 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).||Date? - Rush-Bagot Treaty plaque, Royal Military College of Canada, General Crerar Crescent & Valour Road, Point Frederick, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Placed by Ontario Heritage Trust. Visited by EWL.|
|January 21, 1935 - Kiwanis Peace Plaque, Ambassador Bridge, Detroit River, between Detroit, Michigan (USA), & Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Inscribed: "This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than a century old friendship between these countries, a lesson of peace to all nations." According to Zonia Baber, "Kiwanis International has excelled all other groups in this country in the number of peace symbols they have established." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 76-77. Left image imperfectly scanned from Baber. All information about this monument is from Baber. Not found on any other web site. This is one of at least 30 such plaques, but very few are shown on the World Wide Web. At the end of this web page, there is a table showing all known Kiwanis peace plaques, including 14 named by Baber. /// "This is one of only 3 bridges connecting Michigan & Canada over its entire 721 mile water boundary. It connects the two largest cities on the Michigan/Ontario boundary, Detroit & Windsor & is the busiest commercial crossing on the entire boundary, with 8,000 trucks per day, nearly 3 million per year, carrying around half of the merchandise trade between the two largest trading partners in the world, Canada & the USA."|
|June 18, 1938 to 1967 - Clifton Gate Pioneer Memorial Arch, Niagara Falls, Ontario (Canada). "Designed by Toronto architect William Lyon Somerville [1886-1965]... Intended to provide a majestic welcome to American visitors pouring over adjacent Honeymoon Bridge to see the Canadian Falls." Before the arch was completed, the bridge collapsed into a frozen river on January 27, 1938. The arch was declared a traffic hazard, removed in 1967 (Canada’s centennial year) & replaced with a parking lot. /// Right image shows the arch in the foregroud, Honeymoon Bridge at left & American Falls in the background.||
||After 1974 - One of two big stone medallions, northeast corner of Jarvis & Front Streets, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Connected to a large wall of carved stone panels (right image) in the side yard of Mackenzie House, a city museum at 82 Bond Street. All were salvaged from the Memorial Arch in Niagara Falls.|
|January 21, 1940 - 25th Anniversary Plaque, Downtown Detroit , Michigan (USA). Inscribed "The first Kiwanis Club was founded on this site, Janurary 21, 1915." /// "Kiwanis International is an international, coeducational service club...[now] headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana (USA) & is found in more than 80 nations & geographic areas." /// "Kiwanis became 'international' with the chartering of the Kiwanis Club of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada) in 1916."|
|June 17, 1940 - Peace Carillon, Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan (USA). 85-foot tower designed by Clarence Day. Inscribed: "Dedicated to the glory of God and in the hope of everlasting peace betweeen the peoples of the Dominion of Canada and of the Vnited States of America. Monvment Bvilders of America -AD 1940." Funds raised by journalist Nancy Brown who wrote a column for the Detroit News called "Experience" from 1919 to 1942. The 49-bell carillon was restored & computer automated in 2005. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 58-59. Entry #498 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|November 11, 1941 - International Peace Monument (Bench), Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan (USA). Carved on the back of the bench are an eagle with 13 stars for the USA & a crown & lion for Canada. Inscribed "With this everlasting witness we keep peace with our neighbors as they have kept peace with us throvghovt the years." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 78-79. Entry #494 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|May 6, 1942 - Zero Mile Plaque, Great Alaska Highway. Text: "ZERO MILE and the official starting point of the GREAT ALASKA HIGHWAY constructed between 1942 and 1944, and extending for 1,523 miles from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Fairbanks, Alaska.." /// "Being cast in brass doesn't mean it's true. [Click the link to read] comments about the errors." /// May 6, 1942, is the date construction began during World War II. "The original military road was 1,670 miles long, but by the time it had been upgraded to an all-weather highway in 1943-1944, [a] sign in Dawson Creek stated the length as 1,568 miles."|
|August 2, 1948 - On Niagara River, but where? Plaque inscribed "1948-1948. At this site stood the first Niagara suspension bridge built in 1848. That bridge and its three successors have given one hundred years of uninterrupted service to the peoples of the United States and Canada and have stood as monuments to the friendship existing between these two countries. They have symbolized to all the world that nations may live at peace with one another..."||August 2, 1948 - US stamp commemorating a "Century of Friendship, United States-Canada, 1848-1948." Shows a steam locomotive & passenger cars on the Niagara Railway Suspension Bridge over the Niagara River, joining the US & Canada. "I had a heck of a time determining exactly what event occurred in 1848 to begin that history. Neither Scott [stamp guide] nor the USPS 'Postal Service Guide to U.S. Stamps' was any help - both just say this is the US-Canada Friendship Issue... Finally, in desperation, I looked at my old H. E. Harris U.S Stamp Album, and the caption under Scott 961 reads 'This stamp marked a century since the Niagara River was first spanned by a bridge, and 100 peaceful years along the mutually unguarded border.'"|
|1953 - Bust of Heinrich Lammasch, The Arkadenhof, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria). Heinrich Lammasch [1853-1920] was a great Austrian peacemaker: Professor of Penal Law & International Law, & scholar/publicist, as well as active as diplomat (& the last prime minister of imperial Austria). He had strong links with the peace movement. As "a member of the Hague Arbitration Tribunal,... he arranged the Newfoundland dispute between Great Britain & the USA [in 1910]." Information courtesy of Peter van den Dungen.|
|July 17, 1958 - Peace Monument, Robert Moses-Robert H. Saunders Power House & Dam, St. Lawrence-Franklin Deleno Roosevelt Power Project, St. Lawrence River between Massena, New York (USA), and Cornwall, Ontario (Canada). The dam's 32 turbine-generators are divided equally by the international border, with the two sections operated independently by the New York Power Authorty (NYPA) and Ontario Power Generation (OPG). Queen Elizabeth II dedicated the monument on the international border inside the power house.|
|August 20, 1964 - Roosevelt Campobello International Park, Campobello Island, New Brunswick (Canada). "From 1883 onward, the Roosevelt family of Hyde Park, New York (USA), made Campobello Island their summer home. Their son, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would spend his summers on Campobello from the age of one until, as an adult, he acquired a larger property - a 34-room 'cottage' - which he would use as a summer retreat until 1939. It was here that Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., was born in August 1914." This is where FDR suddenly contracted polio in August 1921 at age 39. Image shows the Roosevelt Cottage in what became the international park on August 20, 1964. NB: Only bridge to Campobello Island is from Maine (USA). The l,l58 hectare (2,800 acre) park also contains "Sunsweep," stone monument by sculptor David Barr (qv). Entry #1264 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|February 15, 1965 - Canada's new flag makes its first official appearance. This date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day.|
|November 28, 1965 - Added plaque under original Kiwanis plaque at Peace Arch on border at Blaine, Washington (USA). Text: "IN COMMEMORATION OF one hundred and fifty years of peace, 1814-1964 between Canada and the United States of America. The signing of the Columbia River Treaty on September 16th, 1964, at this International Peace Arch Park by the president of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, and the Prime Minister of Canada, the Right Honorable Lester B. Pearson P.C. Erected and dedicated to continued peace and goodwill of the peoples of Canada and the United States by Kiwanis International on November 26, 1965."|
||1976 - Carilion Bell Tower, International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA), and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). Constructed by North Dakota veterans as a US Bicentennial project. Contains bells made in England in 1932 but not donated to the Peace Garden until 1969.|
|1977 - 13-cent stamp commemorating "Peace Bridge 1927-77." Fiftieth anniversary of the Peace Bridge between Buffalo, New York (USA), and Port Erie, Ontario (Canada).||1977 - 12-cent stamp commemorating "Peace Bridge 1927-77." Fiftieth anniversary of the Peace Bridge between Buffalo, New York (USA), and Port Erie, Ontario (Canada).|
|1979 - Kluane-Wrangell-St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek. This is a "transfrontalier park system" located at the borders of Yukon Territory (Canada), Alaska (USA) & British Columbia (Canada). It is declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for the spectacular glacier and icefield landscapes as well as for the importance of grizzly bears, caribou and Dall sheep habitat. The total area of the site is over 32,000,000 acres (130,000 km²). Entry #1212 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).|
|1982 - Canada's new name: "Until the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was commonly used to identify the country. As Canada acquired political authority and autonomy from the United Kingdom, the federal government began using simply 'Canada' on state documents. The transition away from the use of 'Dominion' was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, which refers only to Canada. Later that year, the national holiday was renamed from Dominion Day to Canada Day. Section 4 of the 1867 BNA Act also declares that: 'Unless it is otherwise expressed or implied, the Name Canada shall be taken to mean Canada as constituted under this Act.' And this has been interpreted to mean that the name of the country is simply Canada."|
|1982 - Peace Towers, International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). 120 foot (36.6 meters) tall with four columns representing people from the four corners of the world coming together to form two similar but distinct nations with a common base of democracy & beliefs.||July 14, 1982 - 20-cent postage stamp commemorating the 50th anniversary of the International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada).|
|July 24, 1983 - "Canadians & Americans spanned the international border at Thousand Islands Bridge, linking New York & Ontario, to protest nuclear weapons & border harassment of peace activists."|
|July 1-4, 1987 - Commemorative coins for Friendship Festival. Inscribed "Peace Bridge, Buffalo-Fort Erie, 'The bridge that peace built.'" /// "The Friendship Festival is an annual celebration of the bond between Canada & the US. This event is held in Fort Erie, Ontario, & Buffalo, New York, which are connected by the Peace Bridge. The festival began in 1987 & is held from June 29 to July 4. These dates encompass Canada Day (July 1) & Independence Day (July 4). The festival also marks the nearly 200 year state of official peace between the two neighbors since the end of the War of 1812."|
|May 3, 1989 - New Canadian Embassy, 1746 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Closest embassy to US Capitol. Left image shows embassy flags, Pennsylvania Avenue & Capitol dome as seen from neighboring Newseum. Right image shows inuksuit & Pennsylvania Avenue from inside the embassy. Both images by EWL 31Oct2011.|
|1992 - Charlie Brooks Memorial Peace Fountain, Peace Park, Detroit River, Windsor, Ontario (Canada). At former Coventry Gardens. Charles Brooks [1915–1977] was born in Windsor & grew up during the Great Depression. He witnessed first-hand the devastation that Windsor citizens endured at that time time, and these experiences caused him to become a labour union activist & first president of United Auto Workers Local 444. He was assassinated by an upset employee of Chrysler Motors." Entry #1342 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Visited by EWL.|
|1993? - Pacific Crest Trail Monuments, on US/Canadian Border (Washington & British Columbia) & on US/Mexican border (California & ______). Identical wooden monuments 2,650 miles apart at each end of the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT).|
| 1998 - "At the Un-National Monument along the Canadian Border" by William E. Stafford (from "The Way It Is: New & Selected Poems," copyright © 1998 by William E. Stafford [1914-1993], Graywolf Press, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA): |
This is the field where the battle did not happen, where the unknown soldier did not die.
|October 20, 2001 - Gateway to Freedom, Hart Plaza, Detroit, Michigan (USA). Depicts a group of slaves on US soil looking towards Canada and freedom. Detroit was on the central route to freedom, the "underground railroad." Sculpted by Ed Dwight of Denver, Colorado. A collaboration of "Detroit 300" & the International Underground Railroad Monument Collaborative.||October 20, 2001 - Tower of Freedom, 100 Pitt Street East, Windsor, Ontario (Canada). "Faces the Gateway to Freedom monument across the Detroit River and together are called the International Memorial to the Underground Railroad. A 22 foot tower with a bronze Flame of Freedom. Sculpted by Ed Dwight of Denver, Colorado. The monument honours the harrowing journey made by thousands in search of freedom and pays tribute to Ontario’s role in the Underground Railroad."|
|. 2003 - Unfortified Boundary Marker, Skagway Pass, between Yukon Territory (Canada) & Alaska (USA). Same as White Pass (qv)? "On Skagway Mountain Road that heads from Skagway towards Whitehorse in the Canada Yukon territory." /// "With contributions of Kiwanis clubs in Canada (mostly BC) and the U.S. (mostly Washington) this stone monument on the Alaska/Canada border reads: 'This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than a century old friendship between these countries, a lesson of peace to all nations.' The monument was erected in 2003, over twenty years after Canada officially dropped the word "Dominion of" from its title."|
|Proposed in 2004 - "The Welcoming," Nelson, British Columbia (Canada). Also known as the "Draft Dodger Monument." "A 60-foot Peace-Sign base of rock & pools of water, with the '3-fingered' end of the Peace-Sign indicating the journey from all parts of the US, & where the 'Water Arches' indicate the US/Canadian border, where there is an American man & woman being welcomed by a Canadian with outstreached arms & welcoming hands." "Roughly 125,000 Americans crossed the border into Canada during the 1960's & 1970's because of their opposition to the Vietnam War. Many settled in the Nelson area... The plan got the attention of FOX-TV News in the US & has come under fire from Americans, veterans groups & some Canadian politicians. As a result of the criticism, the city of Nelson, afraid of alienating US tourists, has distanced itself from the proposal." "More recently, servicemen deserting from America's war with Iraq have found their way to Nelson."|
|2006 - "Underground Railroad Bicycle Route," Adventure Cycling Association. "Exploring the route to freedom" from Mobile, Alabama (USA) to Owen Sound, Ontario (Canada).||August 27, 2007 - "In Unity We Soar," Blaine High School, Blaine, Washington (USA). Moved permanently to the high school after temporary exposition at the Peace Arch (qv).|
|Date? - Peace Gardens, Perry Victory & International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, South Bass Island, Ohio (USA). "'Planting the Seeds of Peace' is an annual event [on the Canadian holiday of Queen Victoria Day] at Perry's Victory that commemorates the long-lasting peace between Canada, Great Britain & the United States through the arts, music, gardening & educational activities for all ages. In the afternoon, area gardeners young & old are invited to help plant the park's new peace gardens on the corner of Toledo & Bay View Avenues & the corner of Hartford & Bay View Avenues." /// "Park Superintendent Blanca Alvarez Stransky explains 'Gardens are synonymous with peace & transcend all language barriers. The planting of a peace garden at the Memorial is the perfect method for expressing the park’s dual mission - commemorating the War of 1812 & honoring the long-lasting peace between countries.'" /// When were "the park's new peace gardens" first created?|
|May 2010 - Dry Stone Wall Arch, at office of the Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve, Ivy Lea, Ontario (Canada). "Wallers from as far away as, Rochester, New York, & Montreal, Quebec, came by to lend a helping hand. John-Shaw Rimmington, a professional dry stone waller from the Toronto area, led the brigade of seven for this two-day project." /// Ivy Lea is a hamlet in the Thousand Islands area of the St. Lawrence River.||Date? - Lions Club Friendship Arch, near Ivy Lea, Ontario (Canada). "Located on the Canada/USA border." There are similar Lions Club Friendship Arches in other locations.|
|Date? - "Canada & the US in addition to being each other’s largest trading partners share the longest undefended border in the world. They celebrate this on International Peaceful Borders Day during the first week in July. International Falls, Minnesota, & Fort Frances, Ontario, celebrate by holding a PEACE PULL. A 1500 rope [sic] is stretched between Pat Roche Landing in International Falls & Sorting Gap Marina in Fort Frances, and the Tug-O-War begins! (Unfortunately the Peace Pull was not held this year, but plans are being made for 2016.)"|
|2012 - Honorary International Peace Garden, Holland Land Office Museum, Main Street, Batavia, New York (USA). Created for the bicentennial of the war of 1812. "11,000 sq ft 350' long by 25' X 30'. [Includes] a memory/celebration walk, a monument of Paulo Busti who was responsible for the settlement of the area, a military monument with a globe of the world, a design of a mill stone to honor the placement of the early setlement as it is along side a creek, several benches for a peaceful safe place to relax right at the crossroads of western New York, 23 flags flying that will respresent each country that has a [IPGF] garden & a three sided information kioas [sic] to announce community events." /// Part of the War of 1812 Bicentennial Peace Garden Trail.|
|2014 - "United Divide" Exhibit, Center for Land Use Interpretation (CLUI), 9331 Venice Boulevard, Culver City (near Los Angeles), California (USA). "[Fully] titled "United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border," the exhibit presents the nation’s northern boundary as a kind of continental cross-section & describes the relationship between these two countries by considering the incidental & intentional cultural objects that the boundary line creates. Features more than 1,100 captioned images divided into five regional chapters & shown on five touchscreens, as well as printed & digital maps & graphics, & an official stainless steel border monument on loan from the International Boundary Commission (IBC)."|
|Future - Peace Memorial & Garden, behind the Johnson-Phinney building, 117 Cass Street, Monroe, Michigan (USA). From Monroe News, February 18, 2016: " The Monroe County Historical Society is raising money to construct a peace memorial and garden honoring the 200 years of peace between the United States, Canada & Britain. “Two hundred years of peace is unusual,” Mrs. Guyor said. “Even though we were enemies then, since that time we have fought as brothers in arms in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm and now.” The relationship should be acknowledged and celebrated, Mrs. Guyor said. “We have been more than allies,” she said. “Why do we not want to celebrate that?” A bronze sculpture, which already has been created, will sit atop a black granite base. The sculpture was made by Joseph de Angelis, who created a similar piece in the Navy Yard Garden [King's Navy Yard Park] in Amherstburg, Ontario, Monroe’s sister city. The bronze piece, which stands more than 5 feet tall, includes three intertwining muskets that sprout five roses at the top. A Native American feather is featured on one of the muskets. “Roses are a sign of peace,” Mrs. Guyor explained. “The feather is very important because of the Native American contribution.” Local artist Darlene Belair designed the monument, which will stand about 14 feet overall. Along the sides of the granite are cannon barrels, Mrs. Belair said. “We wanted to tie in the war and peace,” she said. " WAR OF 1812/GUNS/US-CANADA/SISTER CITIES|
"A Lesson Of Peace To All Nations."
From "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001), Entry #1207: "During the 1930s-1950s, Kiwanis erected 31 plaques & tablets all along the border & elsewhere to celebrate the lasting peace between the two countries. The markers typically feature two female figures holding wreaths that surround the seals of the two nations. The US figure also carries a cornucopia, & the Canadian figure a sheaf of wheat, representing bounty. One tablet says: 'The unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than a century-old friendship between these countries -- a lesson of peace to all nations.'" /// Although Bennett claims there are 31 monuments, he names only 13. Perhaps his source of information was Zonia Baber (1948) because she named the same 13. /// From Kiwanis Club of Swift Current (Saskatchewan): The cairn dedicated at Monchy [see below] on October 13, 1957, "was the 29th Peace Cairn. Since then, 12 more have been erected [representing a total of 41]." /// Identified below are 28 Kiwanis markers (68% of 41) -- 20 (74% & of 27, 49% of 41) with photos! Do other Kiwanis monuments survive, and, if so, where are they?
27 (of 41?) Unfortified Boundary Monuments by Kiwanis International
by Zonia Baber (1948)
|April 30, 1929||Lafayette Square Historic District, Washington, DC (USA)||Webster-Ashburton Treaty Plaque||Text: "Friendship between the United States and Canada was developed and strengthened by the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, on August 9, 1842, in the Old State Department Building which stood on this site. This treaty established the north-eastern boundary between the two countries. ---- This tablet placed by the Kiwanis Club of Washington in cooperation wtih the Committee on Marking Points of Historic Interest April 30, 1929."|
|1934||Pawtucket, Rhode Island (USA)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque,
International Friendship Grove & Garden
|Not found on-line.||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge.
|January 21, 1935||""On January 21, 1935, 20 years after the birth of Kiwanis, a unique program was launched by Kiwanis to mark the boundary between the two friendly countries. A symbolic boundary marker was placed on the Ambassador Bridge, which connects Detroit, Michigan, to Windsor, Ontario. The boundary tablet featured a man & a woman holding wreaths of olive leaves, signifying peace & friendly relations between Canada & the United States. By the end of the decade [i.e. by 1940], 16 tablets marked the boundary between the North American nations." (quoted from Kiwanis Magazine, centennial issue, January/February 2015.|
|January. 21, 1935||Ambasssador Bridge, between Detroit, Michigan, & Windsor, Ontario||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, Ambassador Bridge||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001). Left image is screen shot from Centennial Issue of Kiwanis Magazine (Jan/Feb 2015). Right image was imperfectly scanned from Zonia Baber (1940); right click image to enlarge, then left click to focus. According to Baber, "Kiwanis International has excelled all other groups in this country..." /// How does this Kiwanis plaque relate to the 1930 plaque (shown above)?|
|April 29, 1935||Columbia Hospital for Women (now Columbia Residences), Washington, DC (USA)||
Rush-Bagot Memorial Tablet, placed by Kiwanis International
|At site of the British Legation where the treaty signing took place.
Entry #1162 in "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge.
|May 6, 1935||Calais, Maine, & St. Stephen, New Brunswick||Kiwanis Peace Plaque on St. Croix Bridge||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001). /// 1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. /// Image from biker blog by Sturgis Chick: "There’s a plaque on the bridge that marks the line between the US and our incredible northern neighbor, Canada."|
|July 2, 1935||Port Huron, Michigan (USA). At or near the Blue Water Bridge.||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, on St. Clair River, across from Sarnia, Ontario||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. /// Image is from HistoricBridges.org. Source does not say where the marker is (or was) & does not identify the cylinder seen under the marker.
|April 25, 1936||Blaine, Washington (USA & Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, adjacent to Peace Arch, between US & Canadian Customs Houses||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. /// "United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border" says "There are monuments and plaques of all kinds. Some discuss historical points about the boundary, others simply commemorate commemoration... The local Kiwanis Club monument, commonly found at crossings, dated 1936, and saying 'This unfortified boundary line between the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America should quicken the remembrance of the more than century old friendship between these countries a lesson peace to all nations.'" /// Note lower plaque added November 28, 1965.
|1936||Fort Frances, Ontario (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, across Rainy River from International Falls, Minnesota (USA)||Not found on-line.||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge.
|1936||Sault Sainte Marie (Canada or USA)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, on St. Mary's River||Not found on-line.
||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. Image is from Digital Collections, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee & is captioned "1932, United States, boulder monument on knoll overlooking Sault Sainte Marie Canals." It shows a ship in theSt. Mary's River but may not show the Kiwanis monument.
|1936||Roosevelt Bridge, Cornwall, Ontario (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, across St. Lawrence River from Hyando, New York||Not found on-line.
||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. Image shows the Roosevelt Swing Bridge on the south side of Cornwall Island, south of the Canadian Customs House... Its opening on June 30, 1934, was a major event. Twenty-eight years later, the Cornwall canal received a new bridge which would line the sky for the next 52 years."
|1936||Cornwall, Ontario (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Not found on-line.||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge.
|Sept. 12, 1936||Emerson, Manitoba (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque, near NW corner of Minnesota||Not found on-line.
||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. Image shows border crossing in Emerson from the US border. It was closed in 2003, & its building is said to be rented by USDA for cattle inspection. "The crossing 3 miles west at Pembina, North Dakota, is 5th busiest along entire Canada-US border & 2nd busiest west of the Great Lakes."
|July 18, 1937||International Peace Garden, between North Dakota (USA) & Manitoba (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Cairn & Plaque
||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).
1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. Left image from Digital Collecitons of IUPUI in Indianapolis shows "presentation" in 1937. Right image is from website of Manitoba Historical Society & also shows IBC monument.
|July 22, 1937||Lacolle, Quebec (Canada). NB: There are three Lacolle crossings.||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001). 1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. /// EWL inquired in this area on August 21, 2012, but could not dermine how to find this plaque. /// Image is screen shot from "Empire State Kiwanian" (July 2008) which shows stone monument deccorated with US eagle & Canadian beaver & saying "dedicated by the New Jersey - Ontario - Quebec - Maritime Districts."|
|August 24, 1937||On international border, Trout River, New York (USA).||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||1 of 13 in Entry #1207 "Peace Movement Directory" by Bennett (2001).. 1 of 13 named by Baber after Ambassdor Bridge. /// Found & photographed by EWL on August 21, 2012. See map & account of this incident below.|
|June 9, 1938||Pigeon River Bridge, Fort William, Ontario (Canada).||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Images are from "Gateway to Northern Ontario History" website. /// See"Border Peace Plaque Formally Dedicated," Fort William Daily Times Journal, 9 Jun 1938. Re Fort William Kiwanis Club; Port Arthur Kiwanis Club; Duluth Kiwanis Club; Pigeon River; Pigeon River Bridge; Memorial Peace Plaque; Boy Scouts. Full text available on microfilm."|
|August 18, 1938?||"Rift Bridge" (central part of the Thousand Islands Bridge), near Alexandria Bay, New York (USA)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Info & left image from Alan DeYoung (director of 1000 Islands International Tourism Council, Alexandria Bay, NY), 22August2012. /// Right image from "United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border" which says "This is a major crossing, with Interstate 81, and up to 2 hour delays in the Summer. The boundary snakes through small channels around the islands in the diffused river, until it runs between Wellesley & Hill Islands & underneath the Thousand Islands Bridge... The Kiwanis Club plaque, visible at many crossings, is the only monument between the Ports of Entry." /// August 18, 1938, is the date on which President Roosevelt & PM Mackenzie King cut the ribbon on the Rift Bridge to officially open the larger 1000 Islands Bridge.|
|Date?||Metaline Falls/Nelway border crossing, on Highway 31, Washington/British Columbia.||Kiwanis Peace Monument & Plaque||"United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border" says "The first of 13 official road crossings in Washington. The border comes over a cliff from the east, and drops across the crossing. It passes through the Kiwanis club plaque, a common feature of the border, and through the International Boundary Commission (IBC) monuments..." /// Left image (blown up from right image) is best available photo of the Kiwanis plaque. Kiwanis monument is directly behind IBC monument.|
|June 3, 1939||Paterson/Frontier Border Crossing, Paterson, British Columbia (Canada).||Kiwanis Peace Monument & Plaque||Info & images from Karen Struve, Colville, Washington, 29March2016. Left image shows Tom Dodson (age 92) at the Kiwanis monument on 25March2016. Right image is press photo showing 2 girls (one from each country) who helped dedicate the monument in 1939 at a ceremony attended by 8,000 people. Dodson's wife Shirley Wyley Dodson (then age 14) is the girl at left. Dodson added the small stone in 1989 to increase the number of sponsoring Kiwanis clubs from 12 to 17. /// In email from Dodson 02April2016: "The plaque appears to be brass but is actually painted gold, and to my knowledge it has never been painted since the dedication in 1939... The monument has been moved twice as the road was changed and may be moved again as we were told there is a chance the [Canadian] building will be replaced." /// See close-up at TOP of this web page.|
|July 1, 1939||Front Park (near Peace Bridge over Niagara River), Buffalo, New York (USA).||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Image from City of Buffalo Public Art Collection which says "Bronze Plaques on Granite Base with Smooth Face and Rough Sides [on] Baird Drive median, near the toll plaza of the Peace Bridge." Info & former image of marker on Busti Avenue was from "Historic Markers, Monuments & Memorials in Buffalo, NY" (apparently no longer on-line).|
|1948||From "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber, 96-page paperback published by Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Room 635, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 5, Illinois: "Kiwanis International has excelled all other groups in this country in the number of peace symbols they have established." This book names 13 such locations (as shown in this table).|
|1953||Highway 87, Oroville, Washington (USA)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||All written info about this plaque is from a single sentence in a short undated newspaper article (from Olympia, WA) about state authorities' delaying approval of a Lions Club peace arch at the same location. Image shows four friendship monuments & one IBC monument moved from perevious locations to the new combined inspection station on the border between Oroville & Osoyoos, British Columbia. Kiwanis plaque is seen at far left, and Lions Club peace arch in middle.|
|August 4, 1957||Alaska Highway Milepost 1223, Alaska (USA).||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Image from University of Alaska. Info from Alaska State Archives. Plaque is apparently attached to a fence. Note attached little plaque (indicating that the full-size place was originally designed for installation on a different date?).|
|October 13, 1957||Monchy/Morgan Border Crossing, Saskatchewan (Canada) & Montana (USA).||Kiwanis Peace Cairn & Plaque||
||Info & images from website of Kiwanis Club in Swift Current, Saskatchewan (Canada). "Charlie Warren & his family supplied the 3000 lbs. of French Lisk (sandstone) for the column of the Cairn, and the granite plaque that commemorated international goodwill. Kiwanians from Malta (MT) laid the concrete base...Judged by [Kiwanis] International as the most beautiful of the 29 dedicated to that time. Both Clubs have met for Kiwanis picnics at the site during recent years." Restored in 2001.|
|Undated||From website of Kiwanis Club in Swift Current, Saskatchewan (Canada): "[The] Kiwanis Peace Cairn at Monchy... was the 29th Peace Cairn dedicated by Kiwanis Clubs in the U.S. and Canada. Since the Monchy Cairn was built, 12 more have been erected at crossing points between Canada and the U.S. [for an implied total of 41 markers]. Recently, a few are appearing on the Mexico-U.S. boundary after Kiwanis Clubs were organized in Mexico."|
|August 24, 1958||Mount Eisenhower, Banff National Park, Alberta (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Not found on-line
||From Bruno Engler fonds: Still Photography Series:" "Ceremony to dedicate plaque at Mount Eisenhower broadcasted over CFAC radio." /// NB: Mount Eisenhower reverted to its original name Castle Mountain in 1979. Image shows Castle Mountain from the Trans-Canada Highway.|
|April 20, 1961||From Healdsburg Tribune, Enterprise and Scimitar: "Canada-U.S. Goodwill Week Will Be Observed by Local Kiwanis Club. There are now thirty-two Kiwanis-sponsored peace markers along the three thousand mile Canada-U.S. border... The announcement was made at the time of the 1961 observance of Canada-U.S. Goodwill Week which is scheduled for the period, April 2l-April 29. Although originated by Kiwanis, [the week] now enjoys wide participation in both countries. The peace markers, each of which has been erected by Kiwanis clubs on opposite sides of the common border, working in concert, are located at all principal ports of entry. Two of them are located away from the border - one in Washington, D.C. and one at the site of Mount Eisenhower in the Canadian Rockies."|
|November 17, 1962||On Lewiston-Queenston Bridge over Niagara River Gorge between Lewiston, New York (USA), & Queenston, Ontario (Canada)||Kiwanis Peace Plaque||Bridge opened November 1, 1962, & Kiwanis plaque dedicated 16 days later. Plaque says "Canada" whereas previous & later Kiwanis plaques say "Dominion of Canada." Permanently removed from the bridge circa 2012 due to renovations & elimination of pedestrian walkway. Rededication on June 10, 2013, on side of historic (1816) Little Yellow House, 476 Center Street, Lewiston, NY (with new yellow & blue plaque entitled "Kiwanians Promoting Peace: Then & Now") & adjacent to 1812 Bicentennial Peace Garden of International Peace Garden Foundation (IPGF). Images of plaques & Little Yellow House are from information submitted by Anton Schwarzmueller of Wilson, New York, to The Historic Marker Database of Springfield, Virginia.|
|April 24, 1963||From The Park City Daily News of Bowling Green, Kentucky: "Contrast at Borders. Barbed wire and a fortified wall [in West Berlin] provide strong contrast to a lonely [sic] stone border sentinel on the eve of the 40th annual observance of Canada-United States Goodwill Week, April 28-May 4. Standing guard at the Canada-U.S. border three miles north of Oroville, Washington is a Kiwanis Peace Marker, a symbol of the friendship that exists beween the two great North American countries. Thirty-two other Kiwanis Peace Markrs are located along the 3,000 mile border, the longest unfortified boundary in the world.""|
|May 31, 1982||On Alaska Highway between Tok, Alaska (USA) & Beaver Creek, Yukon Territory (Canada).||Kiwanis Peace Cairn & Plaque||"On May 21, 2010, members of the University Kiwanis Club [in Anchorage] joined with members of all other Alaska/Yukon Division Kiwanis Clubs to upgrade the Alaska Highway Kiwanis monument at the Alaska/Yukon Territory border. This monument was originally installed back in 1982 by the Alaska/Yukon Kiwanis members." /// Also photographed by Philip Greenspun of MIT on July 4, 2008.|
|Date?||In Port Stanley, Ontario (Canada).||???||All information 17April2015 from Dr. John Button of Morpeth, Ontario. Date, history & location not yet confirmed. NB: Port Stanley is on the north shore of Lake Eire and not on the US Border.
||April 4, 1990||From Chino Valley [?] Review: "Kiwanis observe Canada/United States Goodwill Week. Members of the Kiwanis Club of Chino Valley [Arizona] will mark Canada/United States Goodwill Week April 22-28... Canada-United States Goodwill Weeek was originated in 1922 by Kiwanis International and now enjoys wide participation in both countries... The most noteworthy of the permanent projects has been the dedication of some three dozen Kiwanis Peace Markers along the common border..."
||2001||From "Peace Movement Directory: North American Organizations, Programs, Museums and Memorials," McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, entry number 1207: "Kiwanis International (1934-). During the 1930s-1950s, Kiwanis erected 31 plaques and tablets all along the border and elsewhere to celebrate the lasting peace between the two countries..."
||July 4, 2003
|| On Klondike Road to Skagway, Alaska (USA).
||Kiwanis Peace Cairn & Plaque
||Info & images from an anonymous travel blog, 6633 North: "We come to a welcome to Alaska sign & a plaque that tells you this is a border between two nations at peace with one another. The Canadian border crossing is first, and there is no stopping. The American border is 16 miles down the road, and the border agent was very friendly. We drop down into the valley quickly & just before we reach Skagway, we take the road to Dyea (pronounced die-ee)."
||July 2008||From "Empire State Kiwanian:" "US and Canada Toast Friendship. ...In 1921, Kiwanis International adopted a resolution to celebrate the signing of the Rust-Bagot Treaty in 1817... In [the present] time of passport discussions and policy changes, Canada-United States Goodwill Week observances reaffirm and further build upon our continued camaraderie. The photo on right, depicts such a relationship between Kiwanis members across borders... The establishment of thirty-five Kiwanis peace markers along the common border now exist [sic] including the one depicted which is located [one of the three [LaColle crossing[s in Quebec opposite New York state]..." See above under date of July 22, 1937.
||January February 2015||From Centennial Issue of Kiwanis Magazine: "O Canada!...When leafing through the pages of The
Kiwanis Magazine, it is apparent that Canada-US relations was a hot topic
in the late ’20s and early ’30s. On January 21, 1935, 20 years after the birth of
Kiwanis, a unique program was launched by Kiwanis to mark the boundary
between the two friendly countries. A symbolic boundary marker was placed
on the Ambassador Bridge, which connects Detroit, Michigan, to Windsor,
Ontario. The boundary tablet featured a man and a woman holding wreaths
of olive leaves, signifying peace and friendly relations between Canada and
the United States. By the end of the decade, 16 tablets marked the boundary
between the North American nations."
Incidentally, the three buildings which stradle
the international boundry in this image are an
apartment house in current use & a duty free store
that has been shuttered for years. Formerly the store
was a bar & restaurant called the Frontier Grill.
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