32 Notable Peacemakers in Russia
1821-1881 - Fyodor Dostoevsky - Novelist, essayist & philosopher. Wrote Poor Folk (1846), Crime & Punishment (1866), The Idiot (1869), Demons (1872) & The Brothers Karamazov (1880).
1822-1907 - Baron de Staal - aka Georg Friedrich Karl von Staal. Head of Russian delegation & President of 1st Hague Peace Conference in 1899. Conf
1828-1910 - Leo Tolstoy - Novelist. Wrote "War & Peace" in 1869 & "Anna Karenina" in 1877. Helped Doukhobors move to Canada. P
1842-1904 - Vasily Vereshchagin - Painter of Russian battles. Painted "The Apotheosis of War" in 1871. P
1842-1921 - Peter Kropotkin - Geographer, economist, activist, philologist, zoologist, evolutionary theorist, philosopher, writer & prominent anarchist.
1845-1894 - Alexander III - Emperor of Russia, King of Poland & Grand Prince of Finland 1881-1894. Fought no major wars, for which he was styled "The Peacemaker."
1845-1909 - Feodor Martens - Diplomat & jurist. Represented Russia at the Hague Peace Conferences in 1899 & 1907 (during which he drafted the Martens Clause). Conf
1836-1910 - Alexandre Ivanovitch de Nelidoff - Diplomat. Ambassador to France. President of 2nd Hague Peace Conference in 1907. Laid cornerstone of Peace Palace. Conf1850
1868-1918 - Nicolas II - Tsar (emperor) of Russia. In 1998 proposed a conference on peace & disarmament, leading to the First Hague Peace Conference in 1899.
1869-1928 - William (Big Bill) Haywood - Labor organizer. Led strikes. Co-founded Industrial Workers of the World. Fled to Soviet Union in 1921.
1874-1947 - Nicholas Roerich - Artist, mystic, philosopher, scientist, writer, traveler & public figure. Created Banner of Peace in 1935. Died in India.
1879-1940 - Leon Trotsky - Marxist revolutionary & Soviet politician. Founder of the Red Army. Opposed Stalin. Exiled to Mexico. Affair with Frida Kahlo [1907-1954]. Assassinated.
1887-1985 - Marc Chagall - Stained glass peace windows in Jerusalem, France & New York City (United Nations).
1889-1968 - Pitirim Sorokin - Political activist in Russia. Then founded Department of Sociology at Harvard Univdersity. Called communism a "pest of man."
1890-1960 - Boris Pasternak - Poet, novelist & translator. Best known for "Doctor Zhivago" (1958). Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature, but the USSR Communist Party forced him to decline. 19581900
1901-1973 - Eugene Rabinowitch - Biophysicist. Urged 6/45 that US not use atomic bomb (Franck Report). Founded Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. See Leo Szilard.
1911-2007 - Anatol Rapoport - Mathematical psychologist. Contributed to general systems theory & social modeling.
1913-1992 - Menachem Begin - Led Zionist underground. PM 1977-83. Signed peace treaty w/Egypt. 1978 w/Anwar al-Sadat1917 - October Revolution
1920-1992 - Isaac Asimov - Biochemist & humanist. Wrote >500 books & about 90,000 letters. One of the "Big Three" science fiction writers. 1984
1921-1989 - Andrei Sakharov - Nuclear physicist. Dissident & human rights advocate. Husband of Yelena Bonner (qv). 1975 1980
1923-2011 - Yelena Bonner - Nurse. Human rights advocate. Exiled to Gorky. Wife of Andrei Sakharov (qv).
1929-Alive - Evgueni Chazov - Cardiologist. Co-founded International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) in 1980. 1985
1931-Alive - Mikhail Gorbachev - Last head of state of USSR 1988-91. 1990 Year? 1998
1934-Alive - Zurab Tsereteli - Sculptures at United Nations headquarters in NYC & for 9/11 in New Jersey.
c1940-Alive - David Barr - Sculptor. Made "Sun Sweep" in 3 places on US/Canadian border (1964) & "Arctic Arc" on both sides of the Bering Strait (1986).
1941-Alive - Svetlana Gannushkina - Mathematician & human rights activist. Contender for Nobel Peace Prize.1950
1951-Alive - Alexander Ogorodnikov - Chairman of the Russian Orthodox Argentov Seminar, peace activist, Gulag survivor & founder of several humanitarian organizations.
1958-2009 - Natalia Estemirova - Human rights activist. On board of Russian human rights organisation Memorial. Abducted from her home in Grozny, Chechnya.
1971-Alive - Sergei Guriev - Economist. Criticized trial of Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Fled Russia in 2013 & went to France.
1972-1985 - Samantha Reed Smith - Schoolgirl. Made good will visit to Soviet Union during Cold War at age 11. Accidential death at age 13.
1974-2009 - Stanislav Markelov - Human rights lawyer. Participated in publicized cases, including those of police violence victims & journalists.
1983-Alive - Edward Snowden - Computer expert for CIA & NSA. Disclosed top secret US & UK mass surveillance programs in 2013. Fled to Russia.
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