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146 Peace Parks Around the World
(Both Small & Large)

N.B.: The difference between a small "park" & "garden" can be subtle. | Click here for peace gardens. | Click here for peace trees, forests, groves & prairies.

Click here for Wikipedia article on peace parks. | See below for special section on Pacific Rim Parks.
Click here for website of the Peace Parks Foundation (PPF), Stellenbosch (South Africa).
Click here for information about "Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution," MIT Press.
Click here for website of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland (Switzerland).
Click here for information about Peace Parks Across Canada, a 1992 project of the International Insititute for Peace through Tourism (IIPT), Stowe, Vermont (USA).

In Western languages, the word "park" (parc, parque, parco) is used to label lands designated for public or semi-public purposes (recreation, nature, industry, housing, parking etc.).

Of course parks are usually given proper names. Most (but not all) of the parks identified on this web page have the word "peace" (paix, paz, frieden, etc.) in their names and are therefore called "peace parks" (parcs de la paix, parques de la paz, friedensparks, etc.) by their creators, owners, and visitors (whatever others may say).

Others do in fact see things differently. Many scholars ignore small peace parks (even though they are specifically named "peace parks"), choose to consider only large "transfrontier parks" and international "conservation areas" (whether or not the word "peace" is part of their names), and use the term "peace park" for various kinds of parks which do not have the word "peace" in their names.

I often rely on Wikipedia, but Wikiepedia's article on "International Parks" is especially confusing. Wikiedia considers "peace park [to be] another name for a transboundary protected area" (TBPA) and asserts that a TBPA is "a protected area that spans boundaries of more than one country or sub-national entity, where the political border sections that are enclosed within its area are abolished. This includes removal of all human-made physical boundaries, such as fences, allowing free migration of animals and humans within the area... Such areas are also known by terms such as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCA's) or peace parks."

Since I maintain a worldwide database of "peace monuments," I choose to apply the same criteria to "peace parks" as I do to any other kind of peace monument. If it has "peace"(or a synonym like "reconciliation," "tolerance," "concord," or "friendship") in its formal name, I count it as a peace park (whether small or large, whatever its creators meant by "peace"). If it has the name of a notable peacemaker in its name (e.g. William Penn, Anne Frank, Sadako Sasaki, Ludwik Zamenhof, and Nobel Peace Prize laureates like Theodore Roosevelt, Lester Pearson, and Cordell Hull), I count it as a peace park. I also include large parks (e.g. "transfrontier parks") not named for peace but intentionally created to serve a peaceful purpose.

I do not, however, count the small patches of land which necessarily surround statues and other peace monuments, unless of course the patch is specifically named a "peace park," e.g. "Peace Arch Park" which surrounds the International Peace Arch on the border between Washington state and British Columbia.

Nor do I ncessarily count the park-like grounds of peace institutions, all of which now contain peace monuments. The League of Nations building in Geneva (Palais des Nations) was constructed in pre-existing Ariana Park, a private estate until 1890. The grounds of UN headquarters in New York City are a converted industrial site. UN buildings in Vienna occupy an area called the "Vienna International Centre" (VIC). UNESCO headquarters in Paris include a Japanese Peace Garden. The only example shown below is the 1913 formal garden adjacent to the Peace Palace (World Court headquarters) in The Hague.

The foregoing discussion serves to illustrate that the generic term "peace park" does not enjoy a universally accepted definition. Like all monuments, most peace parks (whether or not named for "peace") were named by local, often self-appointed committees with little if any knowledge of monuments (parks) previously named elsewhere by other local committees. And, even if a naming committee were to have perfect knowledge of all precedents, nothing requires it to make a consistent decision. In addition, "parks" (unlike bells, statues, fountains, murals, plaques, poles, towers, buildings, and many other forms of peace monuments) can be (and often are) called by other names (e.g. gardens, groves, reserves, memorials, plazas, squares, forests, and sanctuaries).

We should therefore expect no consistency in nomenclature. I would, in fact, cast doubt on the very utility of the term "peace park" if it were not in such wide use that the term cannot be ignored. Somehow, the concept and the combined name -- "peace park" -- have seeped into the collective consciousness, and it can be expecteed that addtional tracts of land will continue to be dedicated as peace parks in scattered parts of the word by local promoters seemingly with little if any knowledge of the scores of peace parks which already exist.

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This web page identifies about 130 peace parks, and the following table classifies 122 peace parks in 42 different countries by year of origin and approximate size (tiny, medium and large). Eighteen peace parks which straddle (or are otherwise related to) international boundaries are identified in red.

-- Tiny peace parks are relatively inexpensive and easy to create (and to abandon). The following table identifies 68 tiny peace parks (about 4/5 of which have come into existance since 1990), but there are probably many more scattered throughout the world (known locally but unrevealed by the Internet). See my separate web page for peace gardens. Many peace gardens could have been called peace parks (and vice versa). Small "gardens" are relatively easy to create but require continual maintenance and are often abandoned. There are three or four international chains of small peace parks but only one chain of peace parks: Seven Pacific Rim Parks in seven countries (1994-2013).

-- Medium-sized peace parks are larger, more expensive, more developed, and therefore more easily identified. The following table identifies 40 medium-sized peace parks (abut half of which were in existance before 1990), but exact sizes (in hectares or acres) often lacking, and the number of peace parks classified tiny, medium, and large is therefore somewhat uncertain.

Medium-sized peace parks owe much of their popularity to Hiroshima (1954), Nagazaki (1955), and Okinawa (1972) where reclaimed land was set aside after World War II to help bring about the repose of souls lost during the war and to help propagate the plea that such tragedies as the atomic bomb not happen again. The Japanese word heiwa (translated "peace") served to convey these meanings. In contrast, monuments in Europe and America memorializing the Holocaust and other 20th century tragedies usually do not have "peace" in their names..

-- The truly large peace parks are generally in remote, relatively undeveloped areas (and therefore associated with the preservation of nature and management of wildlife) and often on international frontiers (and therefore often associated with international cooperation, friendship, and security). The following table identifies 14 examples (of which four have not yet come formally into existance). The first large peace parks in 1932 excited the public imagination, and the literature has been full ever since of proposals for large peace parks in many parts of the world. A few books and articles about large peace parks are noted below (see 1989, 2007, 2009 and 2010).

As is widely acknowleged, a century of peace inspired a number of peace monuments on the "undefended" border between the United States and Canada in the 1920's and 1930's. Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park (1932) became a model for "transfrontier" parks in Latin America in the 1980's and in Africa in the first decade of the 21st century. It has been apparently difficult to apply the model to areas of historic conflict and hostility, and much of the "peace park" literature is filled with plans and hypothetical concepts, not with actual parks.

As seen in the table (and in the individual descriptions which follow), peace parks have existed since the 19th century, but the naming of small, local parks for "peace" did not become widespread until the late 1980's.

Time Periods
Tiny Peace Parks (68)
e.g. squares, neighborhood parks
Medium-Sized Peace Parks (40)
e.g. city parks, theme parks
Large Peace Parks (14)
e.g. national parks, wildlife reserves
Before 1910 (5) 1696? Plaza De La Paz, Guanajuato, Mexico
1851 Friendship Park, San Diego/Tijuana
1893 Penn [Peace] Treaty Park, Pennsylvania
c1908 Peace Park, Hopkinsville, Kentucky
1795 - Place de la Concorde, Paris, France
1910-1919 (4) 1910 Gippewyk Park, Gippewyk, Suffolk, England
1910 Peace Garden/Heiwa-en, London, England
1913 Peace Palace Garden, The Hague
1914 Morokulien, Norway/Sweden
1920-1929 (4) 1929 Amsterdam Park, Toronto, Ontario 1921 International Peace Arch, US/Canada
1921 Wigston, England
1927 Barber County, Kansas
1930-1939 (3) 1936 Cleveland Cultural Gardens, Ohio 1932 Waterton-Glacier, US/Canada
1932 International Peace Garden, US/Canada
1940-1949 (4) 1940 Jordan Park, Salt Lake City, Utah
1940 Belle Isle Park, Detroit, Michigan
1940 Great Smoky Mountains NP, TN/NC
1947 Theodore Roosevelt NP, North Dakota
1950-1959 (3) 1953 Ankara, Turkey
1954 Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan
1955 Peace Park, Nagasaki, Japan
1960-1969 (3) 1967 Lester B. Pearson Park, Tweed, Ontario
1968 Peace Plaza, Japantown, San Francisco, CA
1964 Roosevelt Campobello Intl Park, US/Canada
1970-1979 (6) 1970 Peace Park, Univ of Missouri, Columbia, MO 1972 Peace Memorial Park, Okinawa, Japan
c1973 Huntsville, Alabama
1974 Chamizal NM, El Paso, US/Mexico
1978 Mitzpor Shalom, Jerusalem
1979 Kluane-Wrangell-St Elias.., US/Canada
1980-1989 (8) 1986 Peace Park, Canberra, Australia
1987 Seaforth Peace Park, Vancouver, British Columbia
1988 Seattle Peace Park, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
1988 Peace Plaza, Salem, Oregon
1982 Kawasaki, Japan
1983 Friedenspark, Leipzig, Germany
1989 Parque de la Paz, San Jose, Costa Rica
1988 Parque Intl La Amistad, Costa Rica/Panama
1990-1999 (28) 1990 Japan-America Plaza, Seattle, Washington
1991 Peace Park, Dexter, Michigan
1992 Riverview, New Brunswick
1992 United Nations Square, Berlin, Germany
1993 Rotary Peace Park, Vegreville, Alberta
1993 Whitehorse, Yukon
1994 Pacific Rim Park #1, Vladivostok, Russia
1994 Place de la Paix, Montréal, Québec
1994 Parc de la Paix, Charlesbourg, Québec
1995 Parc de la Paix, Drummondville, Québec
1995 UN Peace Plaza, Independence, Missouri
1995 Khayelitsha Peace Park, South Africa
1995 Near Hanoi, Viet-Nam
1995 Highland, New York
1997 Cordell Hull State Park, Tennessee
1998 Saskatoon, Alberta
1998 My Lai, Viet-Nam
1998 Pacific Rim Park #2, San Diego, California
1990 Parque de la Paz, Managua, Nicaragua
1991 World Peace Sanctuary, Wassaic, NY
1992 Peace Park, Hamilton, Ontario
1993 Peace Memorial Park, Saiki, Japan
1994 Prairie Peace Park, Nebraska
1996 Jane Addams, Chicago, Illinois
1997 Grimaldi, Santiago, Chile
1998 Island of Ireland, Messines, Belgium
1998 Berlin Wall Memorial, Berlin, Germany
1998 Fuji Sanctuary, Asagiri Pleteau, Japan
2000-2009 (35) 2000 Japanese American, Washington, DC
2001 Pacific Rim Park #3, Yantai, China
2002 Keeling-Puri Peace Plaza, Rockford, Illinois
2002 Dili, East Timor
2003 TM Berry Intl Friendship Park, Cincinnati
2003 plac Przyjazni, Slubice, Poland
2004 Amitabha Peace Park, Sedona, Arizona
2004 Rotary PP, Parksville, British Columbia
2004 Pacific Rim Park #4, Tijuana, Mexico
2005 Parc Hibakusha, Mons, Belgium
2005 Rotary Intl Peace Park, Waterloo, Ontario
2005 Peace Park, Janesville, Wisconsin
2005 Peace Pole Park, Hamilton County, Ohio
2005 Peace Pilgrim, Egg Harbor, New Jersey
2006 Ballajura PP, Swan, Western Australia
2006 Peace Memorial Park, Portland, Oregon
2006 Esperantopark, Vienna, Austria
2007 Rotary Peace Park, Wellington, Florida
2007 Peace Park, Highland Middle School, NY
2007 World Peace Bell Park, South Korea
2008 Bamijan Peace Park, Bamiyan, Afghanistan
2008 Martin Luther King Plaza, Univ. of Maine
2008 Tolerance Park, Jerusalem, Israel
2008 Mayo Memorial PP, County Mayo, Ireland
2009 Pacific Rim #5, Puerto Princesa, Philippines
2009 Manchester Peace Park, Podujevo, Kosovo
2002 Anne Frank, Boise, Idaho
2002 Lüshun, China
2002 Green Island HR Park, Taiwan
2004 Tuskulenai PP, Vilinus, Lithuania
2006? Peace Park, Goldman Promenade, Jerusalem
2007 Peace Park, 228 Memorial, Taipei, Taiwan
2000 Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
2002 Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
2006 Greaer Mapungubwe Transfrontier Park
After 2009 (7) 2010 Pacific Rim Park #6, Jegu, South Korea
2010 "Path of Peace," Key Largo, Florida
2011 Southernmost PP, Key West, Florida
2013 Parque Johan Galtung, Alicante, Spain
2013 Pacific Rim Park #7, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2011 No Gun-Ri Peace Park, South Korea
2013 Nobel Peace Park, Eugene, Oregon
Future? (12) Newtown, Connecticut
Jardin Binacional, Tijuana, Mexico
Elko Community Peace Park, Elko, Nevada
Oush Grab Peace Park, Israel/Palestine
International Peace Park, Abuja, Nigeria
UN, Kyung Hee University, Suwon, South Korea
Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey
Naharayim, Israel/Jordan
Big Bend/Maderas del Carmen, US/Mexico
Khunjerab, China/Pakistan
Korean Demilitarized Zone
Balkans PP, Albania/Kosovo/Montenegro
Omitted because
date not found
(10)
Peace Square, Montréal, Québec
Civil Rights Memorial Park, Selma, Alabama
Tibetan Stupa Peace Park, Poolesville, Maryland
Peace Plaza, Rochester, Minnesota
Peace Park, Borneo, Malaysia
Peace Park, Ashbury, NSW, Australia
Kölner Friedenspark, Cologne, Germany
Parque de la Paz, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico
Peace Park, Tanilba Bay, Port Stephens, NSW, Australia
World Peace Gong Park, Kertalangu, Bali, Indonesia

Here's a cloud (word count) of all the words in this table:

Right click image to enlarge.
1696? - Plaza De La Paz / Plaza of Peace, Basilica Colegiata de Nuestra Senora de Guanajuato, Zona Centro, León, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico). Plaza contains statue of the Virgin Mary.

1795-1814, 1830 - Place de la Concorde, 8th arrondissement, Paris (France). "Between the Champs-Élysées to the west & the Tuileries Garden to the east. Designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel & named Place Louis XV in 1755... During the French Revolution the statue of Louis XV was torn down & the area renamed Place de la Révolution. The new revolutionary government erected the guillotine in the square, and it was here that King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. In 1795, under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, the name was changed back to Place Louis XV, and in 1826 the square was renamed Place Louis XVI. After the July Revolution of 1830 the name was returned to Place de la Concorde & has remained since."


1851 - Boundary Monument, Friendship Park, on international border between Border Field State Park, San Diego, California (USA), & Tijuana (Mexico). Monument of Italian marble made in New York, shipped around Cape Horn, and erected in 1851 (soon after the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848). When this area started being called "Friendship Park" has not been determined. Fence now separates the two countries and the monument. US side is open country. Mexican side is urban with a bull rings & lighthouse (base & shadow of which are visible in the 2nd image) very close to the monument.

1890's:


October 28, 1893 - Penn Treaty Park, Delaware (Columbus) Avenue & Beach Street, Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Alleged site of famous peace treaty signed by William Penn [1644-1718] and the Lenape Indians in 1683. Click here for Wikipedia article. See associated virtual PennTreatyMusuem.org. Mentioned by Tom Flores (2008).

1900's:


Circa 1908 - Peace Park, Hopkinsville, Kentucky (USA). Bequest by Hopkinsville native John C. Latham [1846-1909] of New York City, whose large tobacco warehouse on this site was destroyed by disgruntled tobacco growers (Night Raiders) on December 8, 1907. Click here for info about a Confederate Monument dedicated by Latham on May 19, 1887. World's first peace park?

Date? - "Place de la Grande-Paix-de-Montréal / Peace Square, between place d'Youville & rue William, Old Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada). "A narrow strip of grass & trees on Place d'Youville just east of Place Royale. It was here that the French signed a major peace treaty with dozens of aboriginal nations [on August 4, 1701]. It was also here that the first French colonists landed their four boats on May 17, 1642. An obelisk records the names of the settlers."

1910's:


1910 - Gippeswyk Park, Ipswich, Suffolk (England). 45-acres presented by Felix Thornley Cobbold MP JP [1841-1909] "to be maintained as a public park and recreation ground, and not to be used for the drilling, or instruction of soldiers, or for any military purposes whatsoever." "Gippeswick was a seventh-century town centred near the quay." Info & photo from Gerard Lossbroek (Pax Christi) 05/09.


1910 - Restored 2010 - Garden of Peace / Heiwa-en, Hammersmith Park, South Africa Road, White City, Shepherd's Bush, London (England). World's first peace garden? "Created in 1910 as a part of the great Japan-British Exhibition in which Meiji Japan fully demonstrated her technology & culture to the West for the first time." Restored for its centennial in 2010. "What remains of a much larger garden... the oldest traditional Japanese garden in a public place in Britain... renovated in accordance with the ancient principles & techniques that dictated its creation 100 years has created two new play spaces with a distinct Japanese inspiration." Chick here for story about "an ecstatic Japanese Matsuri-style garden party in the newly restored Heiwa-en (Japanese Peace Garden)" on May 23, 2010. /// "Allied with Britain since the Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed in London on January 30, 1902, Japan joined the Allies in World War I, seizing German-held territory in China & the Pacific in the process, but otherwise remained largely out of the conflict."


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August 28, 1913 - Peace Palace Garden, The Hague (Netherlands). Surround the Vredespaleis / Peace Palace (qv). "Considered among the most successful designs of the English landscape architect Thomas Hayton Mawson [1861-1933]. Mawson cleverly used a natural watercourse through the terrain, the famous Haagse Beek [Hague Creek], for the ponds. This brook rises in the nearby dunes & still flows along a watercourse under- neath the ponds to a large pond in the centre of The Hague, the Vijverberg." 2nd & 3rd images show plan of the gardens inside the Peace Palace paired with the bust of Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919]. 4th image is photo of the gardens under construction in 1911.


August 16, 1914 - Morokulien, between Magnor (Norway) & Eda (Sweden). Tiny international territory commemorating the 1905 negotiations which created peace between Norway & Sweden and led to Norwegian independence. Both images show the 18-meter Fredsmonument / Peace Monument. The name Morokulien combines the Norwegian & Swedish words for "fun."

1920's:


1921 - Peace Memorial Park, Historic Centre, Wigston, Leicestershire, England (UK). " Established by public donation [and] recently rejuvenated with a Heritage Lottery Fund grant, the park now boasts an award-winning pavilion [and is] home of Wigston's bowls clubs. ...an active Friends Group [partnered] with the council [to achieve] the lottery grant and continue to be involved in the ongoing management of the park." Floral display in left image spells out "Friends of Peace Memorial Park." Click here for other monuments named "peace memorial" in Commonwealth countries after World War I.

September 6, 1921 - International Peace Arch, Peace Arch Park, US/Canadian Border, Blaine, Washington (USA), & Douglas, British Columbia (Canada). Commemorates the centennial of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the War of 1812 between the US & Great Britain. Click here for the Wikipedia article. Entry #1211 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Peace Arch, Peace Arch Park, US/Canadian border. What is this? Added to the park after 2000?



1927 - Memorial Peace Park & Medicine Lodge Peace Treaty Pageant Grounds, Medicine Lodge, Barber County, Kansas (USA). Text of Kansas historical marker: "Medicine Lodge Peace Treaties. In October 1867, Kiowa, Comanche, Arapahoe, Apache and Cheyenne Indians [the Five Nations] signed a peace treaties with the Federal government. 15,000 Indians camped near by during the council, among them the famous chiefs Satanta [c1820-1878], Little Raven [d.1889] and Black Kettle [c1803-1868]. 500 soldiers acted as escort for the US commissioners. Interest in this colorful spectacle was so widespread that Eastern papers sent correspondents, among them Henry M. Stanley [1841-1904], who later was to find Livingstone in Africa. While the treaties did not bring immediate peace they made possible the coming of the railroads and eventual settlement. The site of the council was at the confluence of the Medicine river and Elm creek, a little southwest of Medicine Lodge. Every five years a treaty pageant is re-enacted in this amphitheater. In Medicine Lodge there is a commemorative monument on the high school grounds." Second image shows old entrance posts. Third image shows Peace Treaty Statue in town of Medicine Lodge.

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September 14, 1929 - Peace Fountain, Amsterdam Park, St. Clair Avenue W at Avenue Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Inscribed: "[Replica of] the fountain at [the Peace] Palace, The Hague. Presented by H.H. Williams...as a mark of his love [for peace]." /// A very successful Realtor who lived nearby, H. H. Williams donated the land for this park & the fountain in it. He went to Europe in search of a suitable fountain for the park & found what he wanted, a wall fountain near the entrance to the Peace Palace at The Hague. The Peace Palace had been built as a meeting place for all nations, in the hope of preventing any further world-wide wars. Williams had a replica built here which was unveiled the same day that the Peter Pan statue was dedicated across the road. The fountain has recently been restored. The park received its present name in 1974 when Totonto & Amsterdam became twin cities.

1930's:

June 18, 1932 - Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Alberta (Canada) & Montana (USA). "Oldest international peace park [sic]." Established on the initiative of Rotary International. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. Upper image is cover of Saturday Evening Post for August 5, 1961, showing a happy family on the international border. Click here for Wikipedia article. Entry #1210 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

2007 - Peace Exhibit, Goat Haunt Ranger Station, Glacier National Park (USA). At south end of Upper Waterton Lake. No road access! "Visitors can view a new International Peace Park exhibit at Goat Haunt. The exhibits explore the history of the Peace Park - the world's first - as well as the meanings of peace in the world." ["Celebrating 75 Years of Peace & Friendship," National Park Service, July 19, 2007].
2007? - Peace Exhibit, Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). At north end of Upper Waterton Lake. Peace Exhibit exists according to Nigel & Antonia Young.


July 14, 1932 - International Peace Garden, Dunseith, North Dakota (USA) and Boissevain, Manitoba (Canada). "2,339 acre botanical garden on the world's longest unfortified border." Various monuments built over the years, including Peace Cairn (qv), Peace Carillon (qv), Peace Chapel, two 20-story concrete Peace Towers & 9/11 Memorial. Click here for Wikipedia article. Entry #1209 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1940's:


1940 - International Peace Gardens, Jordan Park, Salt Lake City, Utah (USA). 8.25 acres. 24 gardens developed by ethnic & national groups 1948-1989. Initiated by Mrs. O. A. Wiesley, SLC Council of Women. Includes Little Mermaid from Copenhagen, the Matterhorn, Olmec Head from Mexico, "Peace on Earth" statue (qv), & 84 peace poles from the 2002 Winter Olympics (qv). Image shows Japanese garden added in 1950. Entry #996 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


September 2, 1940 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), North Carolina & Tennssee (USA). 814 square miles (2,108 square kilometers) divided almost equally between the two states. Only US national park created entirely from privately owned land. Dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Designated a UNESCO World Heritage area in 1983. Never called a "peace park" but meets all of the criteria of a "transfrontier conservation area" (TFCA) as defined by the Peace Parks Foundation (PPF) or of a "transboundary protected area" (TBPA) as defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).


June 17, 1940 - Peace Carillon, Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan (USA). 85-foot tower designed by Clarence E. Day (brother-in-law of James E. Scripps, publisher of the Detroit News). Funds raised by journalist Nancy Brown who wrote a column for the Detroit News called "Experience" from 1919 to 1942 The 49-bell carillon was restored & computer automated in 2005. Right image shows inscription: "Dedicated to the glory of God and in hope of everlasting peace between the peoples of the Dominion of Canada and of the Vnited States of America. Monvment Bvilders of America-AD 1941."Entry #498 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1941 - International Peace Monument (Bench), Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan (USA). Carved on the back of the bench are an eagle with 13 stars for the US & a crown & lion for Canada. Entry #494 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


April 25, 1947 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park, National Park Service (NPS), Medora, North Dakota (USA). Includes Roosevelt's two ranches: Maltese Cross (restored) & Elkhorn (remote). Established as Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park in 1947 & became a National Park in 1978. Roosevelt first went to ND in 1883 & spent about 300 days there over a 10 year period. Theodore Roosevelt [1858-1919] was US President 1901-1909 and received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.

1950's:


September 1, 1953 - Peace Park, Ankara (Turkey). "Surrounds Anitkabir (literally, "memorial tomb"), the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk [1881-1938], the leader of the Turkish War of Independence & the founder & first president of the Republic of Turkey. Called a Peace Park in honor of Ataturk's famous expression "Peace at home, peace in the world." It contains around 50,000 decorative trees, flowers & shrubs in 104 varieties, donated from around 25 countries." /// "Several trees & saplings were taken from Afghanistan, USA, Germany, Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, Finland, France, India, Iraq, England, Spain, Israel, Italy, Japan, Canada, Cyprus, Egypt, Norway, Portugal, Yugoslavia & Greece. Today, the Peace Park contains approximately 48,500 trees & plants, from 104 different species."


April 1, 1954 - Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima (Japan). Contains the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, the Hiroshima Peace Bell, and many other peace monuments. Left image is air view. Right image shows the cenotaph (right) and Hiroshima Boys Choir (left) during the annual Peace Memorial Ceremony on August 6 (Hiroshima Day). #26 of 56 "cenotaphs & monuments" on the Virtual E-Tour. Click here for Wikipedia article.Click here for peace monuments in Hiroshima.

August 9, 1955 - Nagasaki Peace Park, Matsuyama-machi, Nagasaki (Japan). Image shows 10-meter-tall Peace Statue created by sculptor Seibou Kitamura. Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and Urakami Cathedral are nearby. In 1978, the city of Nagasaki established a "Peace Symbols Zone" on both sides of the park and invited donations of peace monuments from countries around the world.

1960's:

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August 20, 1964 - Roosevelt Campobello International Park, Campobello Island, New Brunswick (Canada). "From 1883 onward, the Roosevelt family of Hyde Park, New York (USA), made Campobello Island their summer home. Their son, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would spend his summers on Campobello from the age of one until, as an adult, he acquired a larger property - a 34-room 'cottage' - which he would use as a summer retreat until 1939. It was here that Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., was born in August 1914." This is where FDR suddenly contracted polio in August 1921 at age 39. Image shows the Roosevelt Cottage in what became the international park on August 20, 1964. NB: Only bridge to Campobello Island is from Maine (USA). The l,l58 hectare (2,800 acre) park also contains "Sunsweep," stone monument by sculptor David Barr (qv). Entry #1264 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


1967 - Lester B. Pearson Peace Park, 108087 Highway 7 (Trans Canada Highway), Tweed, Ontario (Canada). "The Centennial project of Roy Cadwell & Priscilla Cadwell who donated the land. It was part of the Madoc/Tweed Art Centre of which they were the owners & directors." /// "The site of war memorials, trails & flower gardens that a 5-member board headed by Jim Burns (613-478-2744) has been slowly restoring since 2002." Lester B. Pearson [1897-1972] was a Canadian professor, historian, civil servant, statesman, diplomat & politician, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the UN Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis. Entry #1336 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Statue of Lester B. Pearson, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Lester Bowles Pearson [1897-1972] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.


1968 - Peace Pagoda, Peace Plaza, Nihonmachi/Japantown, San Francisco, California (USA). Designed by Japanese architect Yoshiro Taniguchi [1900-1955] and presented to San Francisco by the people of Osaka (Japan).

1970's:

1970 - Peace Park, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri (USA). After the shootings at Kent State University [in Ohio on May 4, 1970], students named an area of MacAlester Park "Peace Park" marked with a small monument. Image shows the nearby bridge. Visited by EWL.

May 1972 - Okinawa Peace Memorial Park, Mabuni Hill, Okinawa (Japan). "The Okinawa Peace Memorial Hall stands in the center of the park. As plans and arrangements were being made for the park, many memorials were constructed by the bereaved families and war comrades from each prefecture. This site represents the center of the battlefield. On Mabuni Hill itself there are about 39 memorials (as of March 1992), including Reimei-no-to and the National War Dead Peace Mausoleum. A memorial service is held every year by the Okinawa Prefecture on June 23, "Comfort Day." Click here for webpage about peace monuments in & near this park.
1975 - Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum, Peace Memorial Park, 614-Imabuni, Itoman, Okinawa (Japan). Relocated to new building in 2000. (Image shows the new building.) One of 9 Japanese institutions described in brochure for 6th International Conference of the INMP in 2008. Near the Cornerstone of Peace & other peace monuments.

About 1973 - Big Spring International Park, Corner of Church & Williams, Huntsville, Alabama (USA). "First picnic area established in 1898. Got its international flavor from various gifts given to the city from other countries. In 1973 Norway gave a 1903 light beacon as well as a 1924 fog bell. In 1987 Japan gave the city the red bridge which is now a main attraction in the park. The park also boasts 60 cherry trees from Japan and a park bench given by Great Britain." Info courtesy of Anna Lee.

February 4, 1974 - Chamizal National Memorial, El Paso, Texas (USA), & Parque Público Federal "El Chamizal," Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Corresponding parks in the US & Mexico. Both commemorate the peaceful settlement of the century-long Chamizal boundary dispute [1852-1963] and are located in the formerly disputed area. /// From National Park Service website: "A Peace Park. Chamizal is more than just an urban park to recreate or enjoy a quiet afternoon. These park grounds stand for peace; the peaceful settlement of a 100-year border dispute between nations. Not one shot was fired; not one war was waged..."

1978 - Mitzpor Shalom / Vista of Peace Park, between : Zionism Avenue 112 & 2nd November Road, Haifa (Israel). "A beautiful, serene, and peaceful park with a fantastic view of Haifa and the bay. The first public sculpture garden in the world dedicated solely to the works of a woman sculptor. Sculptress Ursula Malbin [b.1917] created all 29 of the statues in the Peace Park as well as some in the Ein Hod artist village. Sculptures include ______, Cat Lady, Trilli & Susi galloping to Mongolia, Guitarist Anonymous, Trillian & boy-friend Anonymous (because his clothes are off).

1979 - Kluane-Wrangell-St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek. This is a "transfrontalier park system" located at the borders of Yukon Territory (Canada), Alaska (USA) & British Columbia (Canada). It is declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site for the spectacular glacier and icefield landscapes as well as for the importance of grizzly bears, caribou and Dall sheep habitat. The total area of the site is over 32,000,000 acres (130,000 km²). Entry #1212 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


Date? - Civil Rights Memorial Park, just east of Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, Alabama (USA). A poorly maintained collection of folk murals & small monuments. "Overgrown & out of sorts, strewn with litter, broken glass, weeds, & defined by general lack of maintenance or interest..." The three monuments shown in right image (honoring Hosea Williams, John Lewis & Marie Foster/Amelia Boynton) were erected by Evelyn Lowrey [1925-2013] of Atlanta, Georgia.

1980-1985:


1982 - Nakahara Peace Park, Kosugi Area, Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture (Japan). Site of base given up by U.S. Army in 1975. Park has numerous peace sculptures, including "two parallel lightning bolts of assembled stone" (1983) by American sculptor James Sanborn (right image). Park is adjacent to 1992 Kawasaki Peace Museum (far right image). Kawasaki is adjacent to Tokyo. Photos by EWL 10/08.


July 20, 1983 - Friedenspark / Peace Park, Leipzig, Zentrum-Südost (Germany). "An open space of about 20 hectares in the centre of [the city], located between the Ostplatz to the north & the Russian Memorial Church (Russische Gedächtniskirche) to the south. The park was opened in 1983, after the secularisation & clearance, under the then East German regime, of the Neuer Johannisfriedhof ("New St. John's Cemetery"), which is what the space formerly was, and its thorough reconstruction."


Date? - Kölner Friedenspark/Cologne Peace Park, Oberländer Wall, Neustadt-Süd, Köln/Cologne (Germany). "4.5 hectare park in the city are just something special. everything is already overgrown with climbing plants, perfect gepfelgte green spaces and 1,000 corners where you can chill out cozy. Ideal conditions for Kub Viking chess, badminton, Frisbee or bocce. [Google translation]" /// "In honor of John Lennon [1940-1980], who has worked as a pacifist, not only with his music for peace, was inaugurated in December 2012 in Cologne Peace Park on the Upper Wall of the countries paved in mosaic "Imagine Circle." On the occasion of Lennon's birthday be on 9 October, two commemorative plaques at the "Imagine Circle" attached [right image]. One is solely dedicated to John Lennon, the other is provided with the inscription of the song lyrics "Imagine." What should not be missed at such occasion, of course, the music of the Beatles and the 60's in general. [Google translation]"

1986:

1986 - Canberra Peace Park, Canberra, Australian Capitol Territory (Australia). Established for UN International Year of Peace. Monument added in 1990.


1986 - International Institute for Peace through Tourism / Institut International pour la Paix par le Tourisme (IIPT), Fox Hill 13, Cottage Club Road, Stowe, Vermont (USA). Founded (in Canada?) by tourism consultant Louis D'Amore. Promoted "Peace Parks Across Canada" in 1992 (125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867). Has also erected peace monuments in several other countries. Entry #1007 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1987:

1987 - Seaforth Peace Park & Fountain, Burrard Street Bridge (south end), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Click here for air view.

1988:

1988 - Peace Plaza, Between City Hall & City Library, Salem, Oregon (USA). Click here for annual tree photos. Entry #848 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1988 - Integrated System of Protected Areas for Peace (SI-A-PAZ), (Costa Rica & Nicaragua). Cited by Antonia Young (2010) as a peace park. /// "In the 1980's, SI-A-PAZ was established to work with local communities to protect the area's natural resources. Local proposals however, met with indifference from both national governments. The result was an expansion of unsustainable activity by private investors, who established citrus plantations, logging & strip mining, creating considerable environmental degradation, with few benefits flowing to local residents. Responding to this failure, local producers, NGO's & government, decided to come together to create a strong local initiative to save SI-A-PAZ. Processes on both sides of the border have produced converging proposals for a sustainable development model. In Nicaragua, the Consejo para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Rio San Juan (CODECO) is coordinating the effort. In Costa Rica, it is the Plataforma Campesina para el Desarrollo de la Zona Norte. In 1998, ICCADES began supporting this process of dynamic communication between local communities, government & similar initiatives in Central America. The goal was to further the discussions and set the stage for the development & implementation of local plans for sustainable development of the basin."

September 12, 1988 - Seattle Peace Park, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). "Covers a territory of 1.5 acres. The Seattle-Tashkent Sister City Association along with Peace Corps Volunteers created the park, decorating it with a fountain, a mosaic map of the world [in image], a striking sculpture by a Seattle-based artist, many decorative and unique tiles designed by Seattle citizens, and planting the trees that have grown over the years and now shade half of the park." Photo courtesy of Anatoly Ionesov 11/08.


September 1988 - Parque Internacional La Amistad (PILA) / La Amistad International Peace Park (Costa Rica & Panama). Lies along the Talamanca mountain range. In San José, Cartago, Limón & Puntarenas Provinces of Costa Rica & Bocas del Toro & Chiriquí Provinces of Panama. "Declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1990. ...a little less than half of it is in Costa Rica. That leaves 207,000 hectares on the Panama side. Nearly all of this land is in the province of Bocas del Toro, but the 3 percent of it that pokes into Chiriquí province is far more accessible."

1989:


September 16, 1989 - Parque de la Paz / Peace Park, Sector Sur, San Jose (Costa Rica). "Antonio Quesada architect designed the park, like the Savannah in 1976... According to Culture Minister Guido Sáenz, the Peace Park cost ¢ 400 million Guido Sáenz 1986 [sic]."


McKean, John (September 30, 1989), "Places for Peace." "Makes the case for peace parks & peace gardens in town, cities & the countryside." John McKean is an architect & historian, He worked as journalist & critic before spending a dozen years as the Professor of Architecture at Brighton University (England). Recently concentrating on writing, painting, drawing and freelance lecturing."

Date? - Parque de la Paz / Peace Park, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico). "Has a large fountain in the center, which is lit up at night. The park is flanked on one side by the former Juárez Penitentiary, a formidable building which has a way of looking quite beautiful at sunset. The park is full of trees and very well groomed, and is a pleasure to stroll around & through. Sitting down on one of the benches & watching the world go by is pretty nice too. On Sundays, you can even stroll around the park & shop for a used car, as this area becomes Merida’s unofficial used car lot every Sunday morning."

1990:


1990 - Parque de la Paz / Peace Park, Plaza de la Paz / Peace Square, downtown Managua (Nicaragua). Commemorates the end of the Contra Conflict [1979-1990]. "The fierce weapon-buying campaign of President Violeta Chamorro (who became president on on April 25, 1990) eradicated the threat of persisting violence." "Basically, a huge hole was dug in the ground and then filled with guns and cement, part of the park sculpted into a lighthouse and an abstract modern structure of squares, while the other part of the park is really rough and crude, and looks as if they poured a bunch of concrete on the edge of a small hill and then started jamming rifles into the quickly setting concrete." The park now suffers from neglect, homelessness, and valdalism. Lower left image shows cement-covered AK-47's.

August 3, 1990 - Japanese American Historical Plaza & Bill of Rights Memorial, Gov. Tom McCall Waterfront Park, 2 Northwest Naito Parkway, Portland, Oregon (USA). "A unique and beautiful sculpture garden. Dotted with cherry trees, the plaza serves as a memorial to the Japanese Americans who were detained in concentration camps during WWII." "Dedicated to the memory of those who were deported to inland internment camps during World War II. In the memorial garden, artwork tells the story of the Japanese people in the Northwest - of immigration, elderly immigrants, native-born Japanese Americans, soldiers who fought in US military services during the war, and the business people who worked hard and had hope for the children of the future. A sculpture by Jim Gion, Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience, also graces the plaza."



August 6, 1990 - Sadako Peace Park, 40th Street & Roosevelt Way, NE, Seattle, Washington (USA). Initiative of conscientious objector Floyd W. Schmoe [1895-2001] who rebuilt homes in Hiroshima (Japan) & won the Hiroshima Peace Prize in 1998. Inscription: "Sadako Sasaki, Peace Child. She gave us the paper crane to symbolize our yearning for peace in the world. A gift to the people of Seattle from Fratelli's Ice Cream. Daryl Smith - Sculptor. 1990." Vandalized in December 2005 but repaired. Upper image shows Schmoe & peace cranes. Lower image shows hibakusha Ken Nakano of Kirkland, WA. Entry #1063 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


August 1949-1952 - "Houses for Hiroshima," at the foot of Ebasara-yama Hill, Eba-machi, Hiroshima (Japan). "Forestry scholar Floyd Schmoe [1895-2001] came up with a plan to build houses for people in Hiroshima. Friends Pacific Yearly Meeting and the Japan Friends Years Meeting [sic] cooperated to raise funds. Money eventually came from Canada, France, China and other countries around the world... Houses were built every year from 1950 to 1952. In addition. a community center was constructed in 1951." Upper image shows Schmoe and Mayor Shinzo Hamai [1905-1968] looking at a stone lantern in the garden. "The lantern inscribed "That There May Be Peace" in both English and Japanese, symbolizing the philosophy of Schmoe."

1991:


Early 1990's - Nyingma Tibetan Buddhist Temple & Stupa Peace Park, Kunzang Palyul Choling (KPC) of Maryland, 18400 River Road, Poolesville, Montgomery County, Maryland (USA), near Washington, DC. 65-acre peace park. See similar stupa & peace park in Sedona, Arizona (USA).

1991 - World Peace Sanctuary, World Peace Prayer Society, 26 Benton Road, Wassaic, Dutchess County, New York (USA). "Occupies 154 acres. The office building [upper image] was renovated from a cow barn to an office which now serves as the international headquarters of the World Peace Prayer Society, the Peace Pole Project & Peace Pals International [for children]. The annual 'A Call To Peace' gathering is presented in the Sacred Grove [lower image]. [The gathering] celebrates the International Day of Peace [with] highlighting ceremonies & rituals to bless the Native American Nations, the 50 US States & its territories & the countries of the world in a colorful procession of flag Ceremonies." Entry #626 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1991 - Peace Path, World Peace Sanctuary, World Peace Prayer Society, 26 Benton Road, Wassaic, New York (USA). "Lined with Peace Poles on both sides, representing each of the 192 UN member nations in the world." Entry #626 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


1991 -Peace Park, Ann Arbor & Inverness Streets, Dexter, Michigan (USA). Near Ann Arbor. Established by "People for Peace." "A .2-acre mini park on the east side of the Village, has picnic tables and benches for residents to enjoy. The mission of Peace Park is to encourage residents to relax and reflect on the cultural and social diversity of the Village." Click here for satellite image. On Geocache Trail which started on April 1, 2012.

1992:


1992 - Memorial Arch, Peace Park, Eau Claire Promenade, Prince's Island Park, 2 Avenue & 8 Street SW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). "In 1992 the park was dedicated as part of a Canada 125 project to commemorate Canada's peacekeepers (one of 250 peace parks that opened throughout Canada that year). Memorial Arch acts as a memorial to the soldiers who died in World War 1, 2 and the Korean War. Originally, the Arch was part of the Strathcona Building built during WW1. The Arch was salvaged when the building was demolished and spent several years in City storage before it was erected at the Bridgeland LRT station in 1985. It was dismantled block by block and reconstructed in Peace Park in 1992." Twelve elm trees arranged in a circle, an ancient Bosco Sacro design that represents peace, were also planted in the park.


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1992 - Platz der Vereinten Nationen / United Nations Square, Landsberger Allee & Lichtenberger Strasse, Friedrichshain, Berlin (Germany). East of Alexanderplatz. Named Landsberger Platz 1864-1950 and Leninplatz 1950-1992. The square contained 19 meter Lenindenkmal / Lenin Monument (upper image) designed by Nikolai Tomski (president of the Academy of Arts, USSR) from 1970 until 1991 when the district of Friedrichshain voted 40 to 13 to demolish it. On 13 November the 3.5-ton head was removed, as depicted in the film Good Bye, Lenin! 129 parts were buried in the sand pit at Seddinberg at Berlin- Müggelheim. A fountain (lower image) designed by Adalbert Maria Klees replaced the monument in 1994.


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November 11, 1992 - Caseley Park, off of Buckingham on Bradford, Riverview, New Brunswick (Canada). " Dedicated to peace as part of the Peace Parks Across Canada project during Canada's 125th birthday celebrations. Riverview joined some 400 other communities in planting Peace Groves of 12 trees, symbolizing the ten provinces and (at the time) two territories. Near the park entrance stand the 12 trees which comprise the Peace Grove." "There is a monument in the centre of a circle of trees in remembrance of our 14 sisters who were killed in Montreal on December 6, 1989. It is placed there to honour and grieve all abused women. Also in Caseley Park there is a monument placed in dedication of the memory of the Canadian Merchant Navy."



Date? - Japanese peace monument, "World Peace Praying Park," New Bilibid Prisons Reservation (NBP), Muntinlupa City, near Manila (Philippines). Twin towers with simple medalion featuring a dove of peace (zoom image to see detail). Adjacent to Japanese bell, peace pole, historic Japanese Cemetery & shrine for Japanese dead. Sign above bell says "Ring the bell, praying for world peace" in Japanese. At Muntinlupa Prison in which Japanese prisoners were incarcerated after World War II. Information courtesy of Michio Hamaji, Tokyo, 13-17Mar2016. Images from website of Bureau of Corrections & Michio Hamaji. /// FYI: "A poem by two Japanese prisoners of war was made into a song [entitled "Muntinlupa"] by popular Japanese artist Hamako Watanabe [1910-1999] in the 1950’s. The poem was dedicated by prisoners Gintaro Shirota & Masayuso Ito to their executed comrades in the hills of Muntinlupa. The song, was said to have been the reason President Elpidio Quirino [1890-1956] pardoned the remaining Japanese prisoners (at time of the signing he was in the US seeking medical attention). He was quoted saying 'We share the destiny to be good neighboring countries' after signing the release papers."

1993:

1993 - Saiki Peace Memorial Park, Tsuruyamachi Saiki-city, Oita (Japan). "The old naval facilities on this site, which was a former naval port, were dismantled & the area transformed into a park. The large open air is covered by grass and the main spaces are defined as geometric forms by the white paths cutting through it. These simple pathways are dressed with such things as river boulders as well as bout forms [sic], and abstract interpretations of natural flow patterns in Saiki. To these, we constructed mounds, pools & monuments to form a harmonious whole through which the movement of people would become organically involved. That park was solo project by Eiki Danzuka who is director of EARTHSCAPE."


July 1, 1993 - Rotary Peace Park, Highway 16A, Vegreville, Alberta (Canada). "Commemorates 125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation. A circular "Peace Grove" of 12 trees were planted to represent our provinces & territories." Near the Ukrainian pysanka (giant Easter egg).
July 1, 1993 - Rotary Peace Park, Downtown on Yukon River, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (Canada). "Initiated by the Canada Day Committee for Yukon in 1993, the City of Whitehorse has graciously continued the annual tradition of planting a tree in the Canada Day Tree Grove, Rotary Peace Park, to provide enjoyment for future generations of Canadians."

1994:


May 1994 - Pacific Rim Park #1, Vladivostok (Russia). Also called "Friendship Gate." First of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA).


1994-2005 - Prairie Peace Park, Seward, Nebraska (USA) -- 7 miles west of Lincoln on Interstate Highway 80 (exit 388). Peace museum primarily for children, created and owned by Don Tilley. Closed in 2005, but some of its outdoor displays remain. Included open globe (with doves of peace) and 16 sculptures of Sadako Sasaki. "Amber Waves of Grain" (clay replica of the U.S. nuclear arsenal as it stood at the peak of the Cold War: some 31,500 strategic and tactical nuclear warheads, over 1600 land and sea based missiles, 324 strategic bombers and 37 nuclear submarines) moved to the Peace Farm (qv) in Panhandle, Texas. "In 2005, Global Country World Peace purchased the 27-acre (110,000 m2) Prairie Peace Park in Pleasant Dale, Nebraska. GCWP had planned to build a 12,000-square-foot (1,100 m2) 'peace palace' on the site. An article in August 2010 in the Journal Star reports that the property is for sale for $95,000." Entry #582 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1994 - Place de la Paix / Peace Square, 1182 Boulevard St.-Laurent (known as the Main), Montreal, Quebec (Canada). "An urban park composed of an inner square of stones crosscrossed with grass, surrounded by trees, flowers & benches. Robert Desjardins, landscape architect, designer." Entry #1362 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Photo by EWL August 2012.

1994 - Parc de la Paix de Charlesbourg / Charlesbourg Peace Park, Charlesbourg, near Québec City, Québec (Canada). "Dedicated to increasing awareness of the importance of promoting sustainable, lasting world peace. The Baha'is maintain the site." /// Image shows "trois jeunes résidentes de l'arrondissement de Charlesbourg [qui] ont participé récemment à une cérémonie à la chandelle dans le cadre de la journée nationale des gardiens de la paix. Le but de cette cérémonie est de rendre hommage à tous ceux qui ont servi ou qui servent actuellement dans des opérations de maintien de la paix partout dans le monde." Entry #1346 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1995:

1995 - Parc de la Paix de Drummondville / Drummondville Peace Park, Drummondville, Quebec (Canada). Designed by John MacLeod, Pascal Bauer & Alessandro Cassa. "Le Club d'astronomie de Drummondville a décidé de devenir partenaire du Parc de la Paix en y réalisant un cadran solaire. Le site du parc est idéal pour une telle réalisation, le ciel au-dessus du cadran formant un vaste dôme bleu où rien ne vient obstruer la course du soleil." Entry #1347 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


1995 - Manyanani Peace Park, Khayelitsha, Cape Town (South Africa). "The name of Khayelitsha is Xhosa for 'New Home.' It is reputed to be the largest & fastest growing township in South Africa." /// "Name in Xhosa means 'to bring people together.' The development of the peace park on degraded land in the township was a bid to remove the conflict between two communities who subsequently became friends. The source of the conflict? One group was paying for services, whilst the other was not. Now both pay for their services. Founded on the anniversary of the first democratic elections of South Africa. It is the first of its kind in Cape Town, and possibly in South Africa. The park is 1.8 hectares of land on which there are indigenous lawns, trees & groundcovers, an open air amphitheatre, pathways, benches, a half-size soccer field, an open-air basketball court, a small community centre and a playground." /// "Soon after the Peace Park was built, children in the community painted murals on the wall marking the boundary between Manyanani & the rest of Khayelitsha [right image]."


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1995 - Statue of Sadako Sasaki, United Nations Peace Plaza, Lexington Avenue & Walnut Street, Independence, Missouri (USA). Near auditorum (right image) where President Truman declared the creation of the United Nations in 1945. Maintained by Community of Christ (Reorganized Mormon Church). Click here for air view.

1995 - Vietnamese-American Peace Park, 30 miles north of Hanoi (Viet-Nam). A project of the Madison Quakers. Image shows Dove Mound, inspired by the Native American mound at the Highground Veterans Memorial Park, Neillsville,Wisconsin (USA).

August 26, 1995 - Peace Park, Highland Middle School, Highland, New York (USA). Peace pole by Jim Fawcett (shown in image) made with wood from Africa and added to the park on April 25, 2007.

1996:


1996 - Jane Addams Memorial Park, 600 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Near Navy Pier. Honors Jane Addams [1860-1935], founder of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) and first US woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize (1931). Park includes black granite statue "Helping Hands" by Louis Bourgeois. Entry #272 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


October 19, 1996 - Kingston Peace Park, 64 North Front Street (at Crown Street), Stockade Historic District, Kingston, Stockade Historic District, Ulster County, New York (USA). Apparently constructed on a small vacant lot (site of home of Jacobus S. Bruyn [1749-1823]) near historic center of town (which was fortified during the American Revolution). Connection to "peace" is unclear (except for a small, wooden plaque - right image - erected by supporters of Sri Chinmoy [1931-2007] to one side of the principle plaque designating this to be a "Peace Blossom Park"). /// Mural by Matthew Pleva on overlooking wall is entitled "The Hobgoblin of Old Dutch." /// Visited by EWL on April 20, 2017. /// FYI, Kingston became the first capital of New York state in 1777 but was almost immediately burned by British troops.

1997:

February 1, 1997 - Peace Parks Foundation (PPF), Stellenbosch (South Africa). "The Global Solution." "Founded by Dr Anton Rupert [1916-2006] to facilitate the establishment of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs). These are defined as relatively large areas which straddle frontiers between two or more countries & cover large-scale natural systems encompassing protected areas. They also incorporate biosphere reserves & a wide range of community-based natural resource management programmes. The term 'peace park' was coined by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) to describe a transfrontier conservation area which: * encompasses more then one nation, * unifies fragmented ecological habitats [and] * promotes environmental and political stability. The overall objective of PPF is to facilitate the development of regional and international partnerships to promote job creation and biodiversity conservation involving Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania." /// " Willem van Riet, formerly of Van Riet & Louw Landscape Architects, is the current CEO of the PPPF. Contrary to the landscape industry’s belief that he may have retired, he is in fact actively working on the continued existence of the Foundation and the furtherance of its goals. Van Riet took over from Dr John Hanks who retired in 2000. He (van Riet) had already carried out the first plans for the Great Limpopo Park in 1996 and explains: 'Van Riet and Louw were always involved in the landscape planning of parks and my joining PPF was a natural progression of this. I took with me my GIS experience developed at the University of Pretoria some six years earlier and together with the staff who joined me, we approached the Foundation from a technical planning point of view. We conceptualised and produced a landscape use plan to improve the life of rural communities, one of the prerequisites for the development of TFCAs.'"

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1997 - Cordell Hull Birthplace & Museum State Park, 1300 Cordell Hull Memorial Drive, Byrdstown, Tennessee (USA). Preserves Hull's birthplace and various personal effects Hull donated to the citizens of Pickett County, including his 1945 Nobel Peace Prize. Cordell Hull [1871-1955] was Secretary of State 1933-1944. President Roosevelt called hime the "Father of the United Nations." Click here for monuments to all Nobel Peace Prize laureates.

1997 - Parque por la Paz Villa Grimaldi, Avenida Jose Arrieta, Penalolen, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Villa Grimaldi was a complex of buildings used for the interrogation and torture of political prisoners by DINA, the Chilean secret police, during the government of Augusto Pinochet [1915-2006].

1998:

May 29, 1998 - International Peace Plaza, Rotary Park, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Includes peace pole. Park was relocated in 2007 and rededicated on October 9.


1998 - Fuji Sanctuary, Byakko Shinko Kai, Asagiri Plateau (Japan). Byakko was founded in Tokyo by Masahisa Goi [1916-1980]. Its headquarters at Hijirigaoka / Holly Hill, Tokyo, were moved in 1998 to the Fuji Sanctuary, and all of the Tokyo structures were removed.

1998 - My Lai Peace Park, My Lai (Viet-Nam). A project of the Madison Quakers. At site of the My Lai Massacre on March 16, 1968.


1998 - Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer / Berlin Wall Memorial, Dokumentationszentrum, Bernauer Straße 111/119 13355 Berlin (Germany). "The central memorial site of German division... Will eventually extend along 1.4 kilometers of the former border strip. Contains the last piece of Berlin Wall with the preserved grounds behind it & is thus able to convey an impression of how the border fortifications developed until the end of the 1980's." /// "An immaculate section of the Wall statnds between two huge sheets of metal, seemingly frozen forever in time. The information center opposite charts the history of the 'Antifascist Protection Wall' erected in 1961 by the DDR to prevent the mass exodus of its inhabitants." /// Includes: 1) Visitor Center, 2) Documentation Center, 3) Chapel of Reconciliation [qv], 4) Monument, 5) Window of Remembrance, 6) Exhibition "'Border Stations & Ghost Stations in Divided Berlin" in the Nordbahnhof rail station.


Summer 1998 - Pacific Rim Park #2, Shelter Island, San Diego, California (USA). Also called "Pearl of the Pacitic." Second of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA).

1999:


Early 1990's - Nyingma Tibetan Buddhist Temple & Stupa Peace Park, Kunzang Palyul Choling (KPC) of Maryland, 18400 River Road, Poolesville, Maryland (USA). 65-acre peace park. Entry #401 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). See similar stupa & peace park in Sedona, Arizona (USA).
Before 1999 - Amitabha Stupa and Peace Park, Kunzang Palyul Choling (KPC) of Sedona, 2650 Pueblo Drive, Sedona, Arizona (USA). See similar stupa & peace park in Poolesville, Maryland (USA). See duplicate entry for 2004.

November 11, 1998 - Páirc Síochána d'Oileán na h'Éireann / Island of Ireland Peace Park, Mesen / Messines, near Ypres, Flanders (Belgium). A a war memorial to the soldiers of the island of Ireland who died, were wounded or are missing from World War I.Includes the Irish Peace Tower, a symbolic Irish round tower.

Date? - Peace Plaza, First Street (by the Mayo Cliinic), Rochester, Minnesota (USA). Renovated with ribbon cutting on June 19, 2008.

Date? - Peace Park, Layang-Layangan Village, Labuan Federal Territory (LFT), Borneo Island, Malayasia. Adjacent to Surrender Point where the commander of the Japanese Army surrendered to the Australians on September 9, 1945, leading to the end of WW-II in Borneo."This beautiful landscaped park was built as a memorial and renunciation of the horrers [sic] of war. A huge man-made mound is the focal point and there is a plaque signifying the renunciation of war." Formerly known as Victoria, LFT is "best known as an offshore financial centre as well as a popular tourist destination for the neighboring Bruneians & scuba diving aficionados."

2000:

May 12, 2000 - Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (South Africa & Botswana). "An amalgamation of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park in South Africa (proclaimed in 1931) & the Gemsbok National Park in Botswana. Comprises an area of over 3,6 million hectares – one of very few conservation areas of this magnitude left in the world."

2000 - National Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II, Washington, DC (USA). Pays homage to the thousands of Japanese men and women who were imprisioned in American relocation camps in 1942-1945. At the center of the memorial is a sculpture of a bronze crane by Nina A. Akamu. Rising above the confines of the memorial wall, the crane is meant to symbolize "rising beyond limitations."

Date? - Peace Park, Tanilba Bay Foreshore (where the end of President Wilson Walk meets Peace Parade), Port Stephens, New South Wales (Australia). "This park is set in a quiet bushland setting surrounded by native flora and fauna."
Date? - Peace Park, Trevenar Street, Ashbury, New South Wales (Australia). "Ashbury is mostly residential & has no commercial centre, although there are a handful of shops on King Street. Its major landmark is Peace Park, the highest point in the Canterbury local government area."

2001:


July 23, 2001 - Pacific Rim Park #3, Yantai (China). Also called "Phoenix." Inscribed "One moon draws us together through stone gates" in four languages. Third of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA).

2002:


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2002 - Idaho Anne Frank Human Rights Memorial, Boise, Idaho (USA). Along the Boise Greenbelt near the Black History Museum, Boise Art Gallery, Idaho History Museum, MK Nature Center & Log Cabin Literary Center."This world-class educational park, which has been profiled in several national publications including the National Geographic book 'Etched in Stone: Enduring Words from Our Nation's Monuments,' is the only Anne Frank memorial in the USA & one of the only places in the world where the full Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is on public display. The Memorial includes a life-sized bronze statue of Anne Frank & over 60 quotes from the world's humanitarian leaders. /// Kurt Karst, an Idaho Falls architect, designed the Memorial to integrate the beauty of natural elements-like water, stone & native plants-with the message of hope in humanity." "Gregory Stone of Northampton, Massachusetts, designed a bronze statue to honor Anne Frank."

May 19, 2002 - International People's Park (IPP), Dili (East Timor). "Park & its monument in central Dili [were] inaugurated by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in the presence of many dignitaries." /// "In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory, & East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002."

2002 - Keeling-Puri Peace Plaza, Perryville Bike Path, Riverside & McFarland, Rockford, Illinois (USA). "15 foot by 34 foot sculpture “Harmony Atlas” atop a 7 foot by 25 foot granite sculpture base...adorned with 10 peace quotes..." Includes peace poles in 61 different languages.


August 6 or 16, 2002 - World Peace Park, Lüshun (former Port Arthur), ShunKou District, Dalian (China). Deliberately dedicated on Hiroshima Day? "The park locates in the seaside. The park features bronze statues of Presidents & leaders of 96 nations. On each of their glass plaques is carved a peace poem. Also on display are some works of art dealing with peace as well as a 'War & Peace' stamp collection." (This quote is from "Official Tour Wed Site of Dalian Lv ShunKou District.") See Wang, Yu & Jon Burley (June 11-13, 2008), ""Two Peace Parks: Dalian World Peace Park & the International Peace Garden," 1st WSEAS International Conference on Landscape Architecture (LA '08), Algarve (Portugal), pp. 29-37.

December 9, 2002 - Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (South Africa, Mozambique & Zimbabwe). Unites Kruger National Park in SA, Limpopo NP in Mozambique & Gonarezhou NP in Zimbabwe. "The three heads of state signed a treaty [memorandum of understanding?] establishing Great Limpopo on 9 December 2002. In 2006, the Giriyondo Access Facility between the Kruger & Limpopo national parks was opened. Almost 5 000 animals have been translocated from Kruger to Limpopo National Park. This, combined with 50 km of fence being dropped, has encouraged more animals, including more than 1 000 elephants, to cross the border of their own accord. The harmonisation & integration of various policies to improve the cooperative management of the transfrontier park are under way. Processes such as standardising a fee and rate structure, introducing a border-crossing protocol & a tourism strategy that will optimise the transfrontier park’s tourism development opportunities, in particular cross-border products, are also far advanced." /// This is one of several projects of the Peace Parks Foundation (PPF) of Stellenbosch (South Africa).

December 2002 - Green Island Human Rights Memorial Park, Tai-Tung County (Taiwan). Site of two prisons which held political prisoners. Educational center opened in 2008.

2003:

May 17, 2003 - Theodore M. Berry International Friendship Park, Downtown Eastern Ohio Riverfront, Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). "A group of design professionals, artists, educators and sister city representatives - which was formed to promote a 'peace park' - asked the Cincinnati Park Board to name the property International Friendship Park, to commemorate international understanding & friendship." Theodore M. Berry [1905-2000] was Cincinnati's first African American mayor (December 1972 to November 1975).


2003 - European Green Belt (multiple countries). "After a first conference on the European Green Belt in 2003, it was decided to establish a working group with the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as overall coordinator for its implementation." /// "Aims to create the backbone of an ecological network that runs from the Barents to the Black & Adriatic Seas, [following] the route of the former Iron Curtain & [connecting] National Parks, Nature Parks, Biosphere Reserves & transboundary protected areas as well as non-protected valuable habitats along or across the (former) borders."


2003 - plac Przyjazni / Friendship Square, Slubice (Poland). "Central square in Slubice. Thoroughly modernized in 2003, with the participation of the EU Phare program... In the heart of Friendship Square is a fountain, around which are arranged alleys with benches. Square directly adjacent streets: the Polish Army and Seelowska . However, in the north-east it connects to the Square of Freedom, which in turn passes the Square of John Paul II , and this further contact with the Children's Heroes, which together constitute a unique system of four closely related to urban spaces." Photos by EWL.

2004:

2004 - Amitabha Stupa & Peace Park, Sedona, Arizona (USA). "About halfway between Phoenix & the Grand Canyon, is a must-visit place for spiritual seekers the world over. Since 2004, such visitors have been flocking to Sedona’s Amitabha Stupa. (Some call it Sedona’s newest vortex.) Sitting majestically among the pinion & juniper pines, and surrounded by a landscape of stunning crimson spires, it is a jewel to behold. On any given day, dozens of visitors trek up the short winding trails to the 36 foot Amitabha Stupa & the smaller Tara Stupa for prayer, meditation, healing & the experience of peace in a sacred place." /// "Regrettably the future of the Peace Park as a Sedona destination is uncertain. A loan totaling $698,000 must be paid off by June 15, 2012, in order to secure the sacred land the Stupa & Peace Park rests upon."

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Date? - Appleton Peace Park, Appleton, Newfoundland (Canada). "On Sept. 11, 2001, when the United States abruptly closed its airspace, Gander became a safe harbor for 38 international aircraft, 6,700 passengers and crew, 17 dogs & cats, and a pair of great apes. A town of 10,000, with only 550 hotel rooms, Gander took in 4,800 people, outlying towns took thousands more. From their closets & kitchens, the Newfoundlanders provided blankets & towels, sandwiches & stews for the shelters. They invited passengers home to wash up or sleep... About 100 passengers from 14 countries were cared for in Appleton & in nearby Glenwood... The peace park was kick started with more than $5,000 donated by stranded passengers. A seven-metre long beam from the Twin Towers" in New York City was added in September 2013.


All Souls' Day 2004 - Tuskulenai Peace Park, Vilinus (Lithuania). "The focal point of the Memorial Complex of Tuskulenai Peace Park is the Chapel-columbarium. The building with its exceptional architecture was intended to memorialize & honor the memory of the victims of Soviet terror. This chapel is a place of eternal rest for the remains of 717 people, killed in 1944-47 in NKGB-MGB internal prison, which were found & exhumed during archeological research in the territory of Tuskulenai Manor in 1994-96 & 2003... The Chapel-columbarium is in the form of a burial mound. The underground part of [the barrow-shaped building] is a dome-shaped chapel surrounded by a gallery of crypts with coffins bearing the remains of the victims exhumed from the territory of Tuskulenai Peace Park. The remains were brought to the crypt on the All Souls’ Day in 2004."


2004 - Rotary Peace Park, Parksville, British Columbia (Canada).

Summer 2004 - Pacific Rim Park #4, Tijuana (Mexico). Also called Entre Corazon y Mar / Between Heart & Sea. Fourth of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA).

2005:


May 28, 2005 - Peace Pole, Rockport Park Peace Park, Janesville, Wisconsin (USA). From Wikipedia: "Perhaps the world's tallest Peace Pole, at 52 feet, is located in Janesville at the site of a KKK rally. The initial inspiration for planting Peace Poles often is as a response to a local issue like a KKK rally." This park also "includes a two-story Native American teepee with reproduced Peace paintings inside by Janesville's own Gary Gandy."


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2005 - Parc Hibakusha, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Plaine de Nimy Chaussée de Bruxelles, Mons (Belgium). Text of sign: "In memory of the victims of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and nuclear tests." Park created by botanist Pierre Piérart [19___-2010], member of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear Weapons (IPPNW). Park contains a stone for each nuclear weapons test. Information courtesy of Peter van den Dungen.
2005. - Rotary International Peace Park, RIM Park, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada).


July 12, 2005 - Peace Pilgrim Park, London Street, Egg Harbor City, New Jersey (USA). Across from the Roundhouse Museum in the hometown of "Peace Pilgrim" Mildred Lisette Norman [1908-1981]. Maintained by the Friends of Peace Pilgrim in her memory. Quotation on sign: "Overcome evil with good, falsehood with truth and hatred with love." Left image shows Peace Pilgrim's sister Helene Young with the statue of Peace Pilgrim. See other statue in Costa Rica. Click herefor more information.


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September 25, 2005 - Granite Peace Pole, Peace Pole Park, Beech Acres Park, Anderson Township, Hamilton County, Ohio (USA). About 12 miles east of Cincinnati. "A multi-ton granite peace pole that cost $65,000 with landscaping. By artist Joel Selmeier." From Wikipedia: "Another of the largest Peace Poles in the world, as measured in tons, is the granite Peace Pole in Beech Acres Park near Cincinnati, Ohio. The original inspiration for it was hate literature left in the driveways of Jewish residents." /// "Uncharacteristically does not have the message engraved on the pole itself. Instead the translations are on the six granite monoliths around it. On each of the monoliths the phrase "May peace prevail on earth" is engraved in a different language on each side for a total of twelve translations."

2006:

May 3, 2006 - Ballajura War Memorial and Peace Park, Ballajura Community College, City of Swan, Western Australia (Australia). Includes "large floating granite revolving water sphere [and] rammed earth memorial panels...constructed from coloured sand collected from the length and breadth of Western Australia."

May 31, 2006 - Portland Peace Memorial Park, just south of Steele Bridge, Portland, Oregon (USA). Dedicated on Memorial Day. "Orchestrated by the Oregon chapter of Veterans for Peace. ...thought to be the largest memorial to the idea of peace in America [sic!]." Or called Portland Memorial Peace Park?

June 22, 2006 - Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area (TFCA) (South Africa & Zimbabwe). "The Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape was proclaimed a World Heritage Site in July 2003. Peace Parks Foundation (PPF), De Beers, the National Parks Trust & WWF-SA assisted SANParks by facilitating negotiations with landowners & buying up farmland to consolidate the core area of South Africa's contribution to the proposed TFCA. The 30,000 ha Mapungubwe National Park was officially opened on 24 September 2004. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) towards the TFCA's establishment was signed on 22 June 2006 & an international coordinator was appointed. Since then, a strategic plan for the TFCA's development has been drafted to determine a vision and mission, long-term goals, objectives and actions. On 19 June 2009, Limpopo/Shashe was renamed the Greater Mapungubwe TFCA. On the same day, PPF handed over an electric fence worth R250,000 to the Maramani community of Zimbabwe to help deter stray elephants from destroying crops in the Shashe irrigation scheme."


2006 - Esperantopark / Esperanto Park, Vienna (Austria). "In the course of 2006 by Jakob Fina redesigned all planting greenery of Karlsplatz of Esperantopark & Girardipark were created... In Esperanto Park is the monument to the inventor of the planned language Esperanto, Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof [1859-1917]. It was donated by the Esperanto Museum & created by Josef Müller-Weidler 1958. On a high pedestal there is a bronze bust of [Ludwig] Zamenhof. The monument formerly stood on the stock exchange. Through the establishment of the monument & the naming of the park Esperantistenbewegung was honored in Vienna, which has held a congress, and in 1970 & 1992 World Congresses in this city in 1910. [Google translation]"


2006? - "Peace Park," Goldman Promenade, Armon HaNetziv, Jerusalem (Israel). "Two Bay Area visionaries have teamed up to turn a Jerusalem battlefield into a peace park. San Francisco environmentalist & philanthropist Richard N. Goldman [1920-2010], the man behind the Goldman Environmental Prize known as the 'Green Nobel,' & celebrated landscape architect Lawrence Halprin [1916-2009], designer of the FDR Memorial in Washington & the new Sigmund Stern Grove [in San Francisco], will receive a special award in June 2006 their part in creating a 1 1/2-mile promenade linking East & West Jerusalem. The promenade was built across Government Hill Ridge, a mountainside in southern Jerusalem that was no-man's land between Jordan & Israel from 1948 to 1967. According to the New Testament, this was the Hill of Evil Counsel, where 2,000 years ago Judas Iscariot betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver on the eve of the crucifixion. More recently, it was where the Six Day War erupted in Jerusalem in 1967."

2007:

April 25, 2007 - Peace Park, Highland Middle School, Highland, New York (USA). Peace park dedicated on August 26, 1995. Peace pole by Jim Fawcett (shown in image) made with wood from Africa and added to the park on April 25, 2007.


Ali, Saleem H., ed. by (2007), "Peace parks: Conservation and conflict resolution," MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 432. "Explores whether environmental conservation can contribute to peace-building in conflict zones..., examining the ways in which environmental cooperation in multijurisdictional conservation areas may help resolve political and territorial conflicts. Its analyses & case studies of transboundary peace parks focus on how the sharing of physical space & management responsibilities can build & sustain peace among countries."

2007 - Peace Park, 228 National Memorial Park, Taipei (Taiwan). Center is an underground "bamboo room," a sunken courtyard filled with bamboo plants that measures 350 feet by 130 feet and is 33 feet high. The park is named for an incident on Feb. 28, 1947, when Taiwan was transferred from Japanese rule to the Republic of China.


September 21, 2007 - Wellington Rotary Peace Park, Wellington, Florida (USA).


October 30, 2007 - World Peace Bell Park, Hwacheon County, Gangwon Province (South Korea). "Project started in 2005 with an idea of Mr. Jeong Gap-cheol, the elected executive of Hwacheon County. The Peace Bell, which will hang in the park, is to be cast next year from spent bullets and shells from many of the world's armed conflicts."
May 26, 2009 - World Peace Bell, World Peace Bell Park, Hwacheong-un, Gangwon Province (South Korea). "A bell praying for world peace is to resonate in this, the world's last divided country [sic]. Made from empty cartridge cases from battlefields all over the world. The park spans 7,450 square meters [sic] in a region where remnants of historical conflict remain. In the 1980's, the Chun Doo-hwan regime needed a countermeasure against possible deliberate flooding by North Korea via the Mt. Geumgang Dam, and even collected funds from citizens to build the Peace Dam. But as the northern threat slackened, construction was called off and then on again. It was finally completed in 2005." Not associated with the World Peace Bell Association (WPBA) of Tokyo (Japan).

2008:


2008 -Bamiyan Peace Park, Bamiyan (Afghanistan). "Afghan Youth Peace Volunteers (AYPV), ranging in age from 8 to 20, [had] the same expectation as adults that all civic projects depend on foreign aid. [But] the owner of a local hotel donated soil, two construction companies loaned graders, & the AYPV came with shovels to remove rocks & help with leveling. An international NGO offered funding for the sign as well as construction of toilets. In a clear declaration of their self-confidence, the youth voted to refuse the donation. Eventually, they had an opportunity to sell a book to raise funds and, through its sales paid for a 5-foot-high, 4-foot-wide, pentagonal brick monument, a marble plaque inset with the words in Dari script: "Bamiyan Peace Park Established 1388" (according to the Muslim lunar calendar). The script at the top of the monument reads: "Why not love? Why not make peace?" Vandals defaced the lettering, intentionally splattering red paint across it to resemble drops of blood. The boys came together, recreated the lettering & on the reverse side added the words: "Even a little of our love is stronger than a war of the worlds.'"

October 7, 2008 - Mayo Memorial Peace Park & Garden of Remembrance, Castlebar, County Mayo (Ireland). "Honours the memory of all those from Mayo, who served and died in all wars worldwide and conflicts of the past century, with the Allied and Commonwealth Forces, a forgotten generation who were written out of local history until recent times." Opened by the President of Ireland, Mary Mc Alesee.


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October 31, 2008 - Martin Luther King Plaza, University of Maine, Orono, Maine (USA). Next to the Student Union. "University of Maine football standouts Jovan Belcher & Brandon McLaughlin were members of a planning committee for the new plaza & helped pick out quotes that symbolized the life and times of Martin Luther King. Ten quotes are displayed throughout the gathering area that can be read by visitors." "A small plaza [which serves as] a rallying place & a place for walking & thinking." Info courtesy of Kristina Neilson.

Fall 2008 - Tolerance Monument, Tolerance Park, Jerusalem (Israel). 15-meter monument "funded by Polish businessman Aleksander Gudzowaty as a symbol to promote peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict." Between Jewish Armon Hanatziv and Arab Jabal Mukaber and just outside the United Nations headquarters in Jerusalem's "Government House."

2009:


Wang, Yu & Jon Burley (January 2009), "Peace Parks a Global Perspective," WSEAS Transactions on Environment & Development, issue 1, volume 5, pp. 65-75. Yu Wang is associated with the Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing (China). "Jon Bryan Burley, Michigan State University, is one of the most accomplished landscape architect researchers in the country, with more than 250 scholarly papers."

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May 2009 - Pacific Rim Park #5, Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island (Philippines). Fifth of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA).


2009 - Manchester Peace Park, Podujevo, (Kosovo). Nine hectares (22 acres). "A focal point in Podujeva's postwar healing process." /// "The Eden Project has been working in a long-term partnership with Manchester Aid to Kosovo (MAK) to develop an urban peace park in the town of Podujevo, which experienced cleansing in the civil war. Formally opened in 2009, the public space offers a sign of hope for the future as well as a way to remember & recover from the community’s trauma."

2010:

2010 - Canberra Nara Peace Park, Canberra, Australian National Territory (Australia). "Located within Lennox Gardens on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin. Features a small Japanese themed garden, large wooden gate & gazebo & a number of iconic cherry blossom trees. It also features two large stone lanterns - a large Kasuga lantern weighing five tonnes & a large Yukimi lantern weighing three tonnes,. The park was officially renamed to Canberra Nara Peace Park in 2010 and the occasion was marked by the commissioning of a major new art work by the Japanese sculptor Shinki Kato. Shinki Kato's eight-meter-high pagoda, made of pre-rusted steel plates, references Nara's famous five-storey pagoda, erected in 725 by the Empress Komyoh. The gardens were a gift from the people of Nara to the people of Canberra & celebrate the sister city link between Canberra, Australia’s modern capital, and Nara, Japan’s ancient capital. Design & construction was carried out by local designers & contractors who consulted closely with the city of Nara and the Embassy of Japan. The park is the site of the popular annual Canberra Nara Candle Festival, which is based on the Tokae festival held each summer in Nara."


August 7, 2010 - Pacific Rim Park #6, Jeju (South Korea). Sixth of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA)."Sits at the edge of the sea, with its back against the memory of war, which reaches back to the past. On the east side of the park, the spiral contains a sculpture of the grandmother stone who is connected to the sea. On the west side of the park is a earth mound with a stone courtyard facing the Pacific. In the center is a large white pearl placed as a gift to the future of our Pacific. We hope our work will help in Jeju’s quest for peace."


Young, Antonia (2010), "Peace parks." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2010) "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages). Prof. Young is the principle proponent of a Balkans Peace Park (BPP) in Albania, Kosovo/a & Montenegro. In this encyclopedia article, she considers many different types of peace parks but names only six actual parks (Waterton-Glacier, Morokulien, Kgalagadi, Amistad, Asa Biosphere Reserve & SI-A-PAZ). Nothing found about the Asa Reserve between Columbia & Ecuador.

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September 25, 2010 - "Path of peace," Mile Marker 99, Key Largo, Florida (USA). "[First of] a string of 22 outdoor sites throughout the Florida Keys where people can relax, gather their thoughts & re-energize their souls. 'They will be spaces for people to go who are in distress, or just so they can get away from computers, televisions and cell phones,' said Denise Downing, a member of the Keys to Peace leadership team. 'The sites will be a place to go & focus on gathering more inner peace.' The idea is to build peace parks from Key Largo to Key West, & Downing said Keys to Peace has had initial talks with the Key West Tropical Forest & Botanical Gardens. In fact, Downing said she envisions a 'peace trail' that links one peace park to another along the Keys. /// "Each park will feature a peace bell made from a recycled dive tank, an identification plaque ("Community Peace Park – We are ALL the Keys To Peace.") & seating. Keys To Peace will provide host sites with a bell primed & ready for custom artwork. Mounting of the bells & installation of additional enhancements (sculpture, wind chimes, peace poles, labyrinths, water features, etc.) will vary by location." April 9, 2011 - Southernmost Peace Park, West Martello Tower, Key West, Florida (USA).


Date? - World Peace Gong Park, Kertalangu, Denpasar, Bali (Indonesia). Park covers 70 hectares. Contains 5-meter Gong Perdamaian Dunia / World Peace Gong (WPG) -- largest of several WPG's in various countries. "...characterized by the presence of 'World Peace Monument' in the form of statues of world peace leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Bung Karno, Madame Theresa, Barack Obama & other world leaders for peace in the midst of a vast expanse of green grass & beautiful [sic]." Site of 202 nation summit of World Peace Committee (WPC), July 5-7, 2014. Images show Miss World contestants visiting the gong in September 2013.

2011:

October 2011 - No Gun-Ri International Peace Park, Museum & Education Center, No Gun-Ri, Yongdong County (South Korea). 29-acre park, adjacent to the massacre site. Top image shows "the Memorial Tower with its three- 2 two-dimensional depictions of the refugees of 1950 & two arches representing the No Gun Ri tunnel entrances." /// "In 2007, the South Korean government announced that it would build a $20 million No Gun Ri History Park in the village by 2009. The following is from a visit on October 7, 2009 (click here for the full account): "Chung Koo Do is the Director of the No Gun-Ri Institute for Peace Studies and is dedicated to ensuring that the memory of the No Gun-Ri massacre is not lost and that justice prevails. He told me that there were over 500 incidents of killing of civilians during the war but No Gun-ri was the only case investigated by a joint South Korean-US government team. After the No Gun-ri investigation the US said it would not look into any other case. [July 26-29] 2010 will be the 60th anniversary of No Gun-Ri. Chung told me his organization is planning to sponsor several important events to commemorate the massacre. He hopes that US soldiers who were involved in the Korean War will come for the events and he particularly hopes that Veterans for Peace in the US will send a delegation to Korea during this time. He asked me to help them make that possible and I told him I would do my best. Chung pointed out with great pride the large area surrounding the No Gun-ri massacre site that will become a peace park. The South Korean government is now building a peace museum, educational facilities, and memorials. The survivors, and their descendants, are determined to keep the memory of No Gun-ri in the forefront of international peace movement efforts." (Click here for an account of a meeting with survivors in the USA on November 10, 1999.) Affiliated with International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP). /// Venue of 8th International Museums for Peace Conference in September 2014.

1951 - Massacre en Corée / Massacre in Korea, Musée National Picasso / National Picasso Museum, Paris (France). Depicts a massacre of Korean civilians by US forces at No Gun Ri from 26-29 July 1950, which has remained controversial to this day. Click here for a description. Based on "The Third of May 1808" by Francisco Goya (lower image). "During this period, Picasso is believed to have been moving away from his earlier communist ideology. Alongside with Guernica, The Charnel House (1944-45), War and Peace (1952), and Rape of the Sabine Women (1962–63) this is one of Picasso's works that he composed to depicts the politics of his time. At 43 inches (1.1 m) by 82 inches (2.1 m), the work is smaller than his Guernica. However, it bears a conceptional resemblance to that painting as well as an expressive vehemence."

2012:

2012 - "The Silver Series [of coins] features the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area (TFCA) as part of its current theme, peace parks of southern Africa. The area is a national treasure given its enormous historical and archaeological significance as well as the abundant biodiversity that exists in this ecologically sensitive landscape. Situated at the confluence of the Limpopo & Shashe Rivers, the Greater Mapungubwe TFCA encompasses areas in three countries - Botswana, South Africa & Zimbabwe.The Greater Mapungubwe TFCA (originally named Limpopo/Shashe TFCA) was created in 2006 through the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding by the Environment & Tourism Ministers of these three countries. The establishment & development of peace parks allows for the joint management of natural resources across political boundaries. This unique partnership between governments & the private sector focuses on the co-existence between humans & nature & conserving biodiversity, thereby promoting peace, prosperity & stability for generations to come"

2013:


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April 27, 2013 - Nobel Peace Park, Alton Baker Park (at the base of the DeFazio Footbridge & near the Ferry Street Bridge), Eugene, Oregon (USA). "Will consist of a Peace Path and an information kiosk at the entrance to the path. A stone wall will border the winding path and plaques on pillars alongside the path will acknowledge each American winner of the Nobel Peace Prize." /// "The first [peace park] in the nation to focus on the inspirational deeds of the nation's internationally recognized peacemakers." -- John Attig, President, Nobel Peace Laureate Project, February 5, 2012. /// "The park will have plaques honoring the 24 Americans who have won the peace award since the Nobel Prize was first awarded in 1901. Linus Pauling [1901-1994], a native Oregonian, won the peace prize in 1962, while President Barack Obama was the most recent US winner in 2009."

June 15, 2013 - "Paraboloide," Parque Johan Galtung, L'Alfàs del Pi, Alicante (Spain). "Sculptural piece five meters in length & 4.55 ton. Erected in front of the Norwegian Cultural Center (now under construction)." /// "Today Alfaz Mayor Vicente Arques unveiled a monument by the famous Basque sculptor Agustin Ibarrola in memory of the victims of the Oslo & Utoya terrorist attacks [on July 22, 2011]. The monument is located in a park named in honor of a long time Alfaz resident, Prof. Johan Galtung, Norwegian by birth & known as ‘the father of peace studies.’" /// "L'Alfàs del Pi has the highest proportion of Norwegian speakers of any settlement anywhere in the world outside of Norway."


August 10, 2013 - Pacific Rim Park #7, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Seventh Pacific Rim Park. Also known as "Pacific Birth." Seventh of seven parks sponsored by the Pacific Rim Park Project of San Diego, California (USA)."Led by iconic artist James Hubbell [of San Diego, California] & more than 30 architecture students from around the Pacific. The new park was designed & built in only four weeks, from July 13 to Aug. 10, and connected participants from eight different countries: allowing them to see past cultural and political differences and work together toward compassion, understanding & acceptance as expressed through building a public space of beauty and intent."

Future:


Future - Newtown Peace Park, Newtown, Connecticut (USA). Virtual "peace park"? "Newtown, Conn. (PRWEB) January 17, 2013: 'Newtown Connecticut resident and musician Julie Lyonn Lieberman launches a fundraising campaign to create a Newtown Peace Park Memorial Educational Website & free digital book to honor & support the community of Sandy Hook Elementary school shooting victims slain on December 14, 2012, in Newtown.'"

Future - El Mano de la Paz / The Hand of Peace, Jardin Binacional / Bi-national Garden, Playas de Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico). Hand showing the peace sign. "By Chaa Youn Woo, [Korean-American] Artist. Significant sculpture that will add positive inspiration to a major port of entry to Latin America. Will be located in a high poverty area. Located at the northern most point of Latin America, approximately 20’ from the border of the United States (San Diego) and 60' from the Pacific Ocean. Latin America refers to those countries that speak romance languages like Spanish, French & Portuguese all derived from Latin. Countries in South America, Central America & the Caribbean make up Latin America. In 2008 the Latin American population was estimated at 570 million. The sculpture will become a generator for peaceful energy. A whimsical yet thought provoking peaceful environment will be created for tourists & locals who visit or live in the area, giving the public the opportunity to interact with the Art installation on a daily basis."

Future - Peace Memorial Park, 85 East 36th Street, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). "This 2.17 hectare (5.37 acre) former Peace Memorial School site is being re-developed as a passive neighbourhood park. Peace Memorial School [qv] was constructed in 1918 as a memorial to those who gave their lives during the First World War."

Future - United Nations Peace Park, Global NGO Complex & Map Museum, Global Campus, Kyung Hee University, Suwon (South Korea). "Expected to help improve relations between the Global Campus & international organizations, such as the UN, & domestic & international NGO's by offering spacious & convenient venues for international gatherings & research."

Future - Elko Community Peace Park, Elko, Nevada (USA). "The 8.5 acre park, featuring Nevada's natural habitat, is located on the north side of I-80 between College Parkway and Spruce Street, south of Mittry Avenue. Park partners include the City of Elko, the Friends of the Peace Park, and a growing list of volunteers and sponsors, both local and regional." /// "In 2010, the Peace Park began to have aesthetic & comfort additions as bridges across Eightmile Creek were built, restroom facilities were constructed & three portals & shade structures were installed. Aveson said they finally added the first cultural features this year with the completion of the medicine wheel. This year, volunteers also planted wild flowers throughout the area. There is now 3,000 feet of pathway & two bridges in the Peace Park. 'The wild flowers turned out well, and there are a lot of people using the park, even though we're still under construction,' Aveson said. On the short term to-do list is the installation of tables & benches, lighting, signage, additional landscaping, the peace wheel, a labyrinth & trail pavement. The labyrinth is a single, non-branching pathway that always leads to the center, which is made to create a peaceful walk."


Future - Gallipoli Peninsula Peace Park (Turkey). Norwegian architects Lasse Broegger & Anne-Stine Reine won the Gallipoli Peninsula Peace Park International Ideas & Design Competition in 1997-98. How much of the plan has been implemented?
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Future - US/Mexico International Park Project, (USA & Mexico). Under discussion since 1935. Supported by Rotary International. Would join Big Bend National Park in the US with Maderas del Carmen and Cañon de Santa Elena protected areas in Mexico.

Future - International Peace Park, (China/Pakistan). Park proposed for both sides of the border, including Khunjerab National Park in Pakistan which is one of the highest altitude parks in the world.

Future - Peace Park in the Demilitarized Zone, both sides of the DMZ (Korea). Click here for story about DaimlerChrysler pledge of $500,000 to help former President Bill Clinton and Ted Turner build the peace park.


Future - Balkans Peace Park Project (BPPP), three nation area (Albania, Kosovo/a & Montenegro). Includes Shala Valley. Chair of the project is Antonia Young, University of Bradford, Bradford (England). Support is provided by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) & the Austrian Development Corporation. Image shows first ascent of Maja Lagojvet in the park area on 31 August 2009; climbers display the flag of Poland.

Future - Great Limpopo & 13 Other Transfrontier Parks in Southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia & Zimbabwe). As envisioned by the Peace Parks Foundation (PPF) of Stellenbosch (South Africa).


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Future - Oush Grab Peace Park, Jerusalem-Eastern Gush Etzion Highway, Beit-Sahour (Shepherd’s Field), east of Bethlehem (Occupied Palestine). A development (fully funded by USAID in 2006) for a children’s hospital, youth center, public peace park, environmental center, recreation center, cultural center, and parking lot, but halted (indefinitely?) due to a counter proposal by "Women in Green" for a "Jewish Shdema" (settlement) on the same site (which is an abandoned IDF army camp).

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Future - Jordan River Peace Park, Peace Island, Naharayim (Israel & Jordan). "Project being spearheaded by the trilateral NGO Friends of the Earth Middle East, headquartered in Tel Aviv, Bethlehem, and Amman." "A six-day international design workshop in architecture on Tuesday opened at Naharayim. The participants are faculty & students from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut (USA), and the Bezalel Academy of Arts & Design, Jerusalem (Israel), together with Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli architects. Seeks to extend the development on the Israeli side of the site to the Jordanian side to create a a transborder protected area in which both Israelis & Jordanians will be able to cross the river from either side without the need for a visa. The site is 10 kilometers south of the southern tip of Lake Kinneret, at the confluence of the Yarmuk & Jordan rivers. The park area will include the former Rutenberg hydroelectric power station and the Three Bridges site.


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Future - International Peace Park, Abuja (Nigeria). Site dedicated on last day of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in 2003. Logo represents Academic Associates PeaceWorks (AAPW). "On Monday, November 20, 2006, at about 1:45 PM a group of five gunmen entered the AAPW office compound at 116/118 Woji Road, GRA Phase II, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, and killed two individuals."

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