= International Friendship Bell, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Click here for "The Oak Ridge International Friendship Bell," one of 18 papers in "The atomic bomb and American society: New perspectives," University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, edited by Rosemary B. Mariner & G. Kurt Piehler, UT Center for the Study of War and Society (February 1, 2009), pp. 344-380. Click here for text of this book as scanned by Google. Click here for pictorial version of this paper.

Click here for "The Sanctification of Hiroshima," submitted for publication in Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, special issue on "Memorializing Space," University of San Francisco (Fall 2010). About the tradition of the non-use of nuclear weapons, Alvin Weinberg [1915-2006], the Peace Bell in Hiroshima (Japan), and the International Friendship Bell in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA)..


1915-2006 - Alvin M. Weinberg - Manhattan Project physicist. Director of ORNL. Proposed "Sanctification of Hiroshima" in 1985. Click here for Wikipedia bio.

c1920 -2004 - Sotetsu Iwasawa - Bell maker in Kyoto (Japan). Exported bells to Portland, Oregon, Gardena, California, & Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Son Ikko Iwasawa continues his work.

1931-Alive - Shigeko Yoshino Uppuluri - Biologist & artist. Born in Kyoto. In Shanghai (China) 1936-45. Married to Ram Uppuluri. Created Intl Friendship Bell in Oak Ridge.

1933-1995 - Venkanta Ramamohana (Ram) Uppuluri - From Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India). PhD from Indiana University. Mathematician at ORNL. Click here for his 1987 paper.

1933-2004 - Herman Postma - Physicist. Spoke Dutch. Director of Oak Ridge National Lab 1974-1988. Completed International Friendship Bell 1993-1996. Solway bridge named for him.

c1940-Alive? - Keiko Murikami. - Wife of a Japanese nuclear scientist. Made bell mock up for bell festival. Returned to Japan.

1943-1992 - Ethel Quinn McDonald - Oak Ridge proposal writer. Volunteered in Japanese orphanages while her husband was in the US Air Force. Chair of bell committee.

c1955-Alive - Jon Coddington - Architect. Professor at UT. Designed the bell pavilion & ORUUC sanctuary. Moved to Ball State University, then to Drexel University.

c1970-Alive - Susanna Harris - Artist. Designed bell panels representing Tennessee & Japan. Moved to Australia, then returned to Oak Ridge.

Ram Uppuluri, Jr - Lawyer. Mixed Indian & Japanese origin. Organized bell festival at Oak Ridge Mall. Now lives in Washington, DC.

Indirect Influence:

1902-1995 - Eugene Wigner - Theoretical physicist & mathematician. Mentor of Alvin Weinberg in Chicago & Oak Ridge. Nobel Prize in physics 1963.

1911-1989 - William G. Pollard - Nuclear physicist & Episcopal priest. FOUNDED Oak Ridge Inst of Nuclear Studies (now ORAU). Wrote many works on Christianity & science. Influenced Alvin Weinberg (qv).

fnu Koike - Scientist at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in Tokaimura. Showed Ram & Shigeko Uppuluri large bell at Gannyi-ji Temple in 1987. They published photo in Oak Ridger newspaper.

1929-Alive - Marilyn Lloyd - Congresswoman (Democrat) 1975-1995. Fulfilled term of husband Mort Lloyd. Created Committee of 50 after Knoxville World's Fair. Defeated by Zack Wamp (Republican). Lives in Chattanooga.

c1955-Alive - Jack Barkenbus - Worked for Alvin Weinberg at Institute for Energy Analysis (IEA) which was part of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). Edited papers from bell symposium on May 27, 1996. Now at Vanderbilt University in Nashville.

Randall Norris - Author of "Calling Dr. Mengele" which was given a "reading" but no performance in oak Ridge. Moved to Ohio.

1911-2004 - Ronald Reagan - President of the United States. When he opened Knoxville World's Fair on May 1, 1982, he said, "The Clinch River reactor, which will use new breeder technology, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory... symbolize our commitment to developing safe nuclear energy and technology to secure our energy future."

Lamar Alexander - Governor of Tennessee. Published "Friends: Japanese & Tennesseans" in 1986. Later became US Senator.

James “Buzz” Elkins - Vice president of First American Bank in Oak Ridge. Member of bell planning committee.

Elaine Trauger [Mrs. Donald Trauger] - Oak Ridge Councilwoman. Member of bell planning committee.

Eugene Joyce - Oak Ridge attorney. Member of bell planning committee.

Casting on July 14, 1993:

Attended by Mayor Edmund (Ed) Nephew, Marese Nephew, Dr. Ram Uppuluri, Shigeko Uppuluri, Ram Uppuluri Jr., a friend of Shigeko (Yuko Fukuda), and a group from the University of Tennessee (Wendell Barnes, Patricia Davis-Wiley, Marie Griffin, Dennie Ruth Kelly, Sook-Hyun Kim, Ann Lester, Martha Osborne, Prof. Pat Postma, Prof. Carl J. Remenyki, Dr. C. Glennon Rowell, and Prof. J. Paul Watkins). Dr. Herman Postma (ORNL director 1974-1988)


1934-2000 - Charles Counts - Artist. Made "Hymn to Life" at ORAU & collage of the bell. Husband of Hedi Bak [1924-2010]. Lived in Nigeria.

c1935-Alive - J. Paul Watkins - Prof of Art Education at UT. Exec Sec of Knoxville's sister city relationship with Muroran, Hokkaido Island (Japan.). Attended bell casting in Kyoto on July 14, 1993.

1940-Alive - Doan Phung - Born near Hanoi. Nuclear engineer. Philanthropist. Received 2nd International Friendship Bell award in 1999. Lives in Las Vegas, Nevada (USA).

c1950-Alive - Yuko Fukuda - Friend of Shikego Uppuluri. Attended bell casting on July 14, 1993. Played Japanese music on the koto at bell & at funeral of Ram Uppuluri.

Jack Hunter Goodwin. Retired Union Carbide operations head. Lived 10 years in Taiwan.

Yasusato Asakawa, president of the Naka-Machi sister city association.

Keiji Naito - Professor of chemistry, Nagoya University. President, Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ).

Rev Dwyn M. Mounger - Minister, First Presbyterian Church. Left Oak Ridge for a series of interim ministries. Now lives in Knoxville.

Rev R. Boyd Carter - Minister, United Church (Chapel on the Hill).

Jean Cole - Artist. Wife of physicist Tom Cole.

Elaine Trauger - Wife of physicist Donald Trauger.

Wanda Craven - Travel agent. Member of bell policy committee. Received 3rd bell award in 2000.

Elise Campbell - Petitioned city council, then rang bell freely on May 31, 2001.

David Bradshaw - Cast swign vote to save the bell on Sept. 5, 1995. Later Mayor of Oak Ridge & president of ORHPA. Helped Elise Campbell (qv).

Jim Ramsey - District attorney. Carried miniature bell to ___ in Caen (France.)

Kenneth F. Luckmann - Doctor. Recived 1st bell award in 1998.

Ray Adams - Instrumentation specialist at ORNL. Studies bells. Click here for "Ray's BELL Page.." Apolda Bell Concert.

David Nash Williams - Unitarian minister. Conducted service at the bell for Hiroshima Day 2000.

c1930-Alive - Joe Evan Tittle - Orthopedist. Invited anniversary proposals on January 26, 1990. Retired in 1993 & lives in Knoxville. Collected Asian art while stationed in Phillippines w/US Air Force.

Ed Nephew - Worked at ORNL. Mayor of Oak Ridge. Married to Marese Nephew. Represented Oak Ridge at bell casting on July 14, 1993.

Charles Coutent. Biologist at ORNL. Chair of the Committee of 50.

Pat Postma - Professor at UT. Wife of Herman Postma. Led campaign to reconstruct Oak Ridge HS.

Marese Nephew - From Germany. Wife of mayor Ed Nephew. Caused Japanese ladies to disobey bell ringing restriction.

David L. Coffey - Member of bell policy committee.

Participants in Dedication on May 3-4, 1996:

First ringing of the bell by (1) Shiho Hayashi & Jason Rowan (Japanese & American children), (2) Kathy Moore & Yasusato Asakawa (mayors of Oak Ridge & Naka-machi), (3) widow Shigeko Uppuluri & widower Hugh (Bish) Bishop, (4) Dr. Alvin Weinberg & Dr. Herman Postma, (5) architect Jon Coddington & bellmaker Sotetsu Iwazawa, (6) Tom Hill & Rev. R. Boyd Carter (past & current presidents of ORCF), (7) Dr. Joe Tittle & Dr. John Haffey, (8) Dr. Bill Burch & Dr. Tomio Kawata (both nuclear scientists).

1911-2000 - Sigvard Eklund - Director General, International Atomic Energy Agency, 1961-1981. Keynote speaker at bell dedication on May 3, 1996.

1911-2008 - Frederick Seitz - Physicist & pioneer of solid state physics. President of Rockefeller University. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996. Contributor to bell financing.

1921-Alive - Thomas Schelling - Professor of foreign affairs, national security, nuclear strategy & arms control, University of Maryland. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996. Nobel prize in 2005.

1923-Alive - Freeman Dyson - Theoretical physicist & mathematician. Professor at Princeton University. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996.

1925-Alive - Howard H. Baker, Jr., - Senator. Chief of staff for President Roinald Reagan. Keynote speakedr at bell banquet May 3, 1996. US Ambassdor to Japan.

1926-Alive - Sidney Drell - Theoretical physicist & arms control expert. Senior fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996.

1926-Alive - Admiral Stansfield Turner - Director of the CIA 1977-1981. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996.

1935-Alive - David Fischer - Professor of history. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996.

1935-Alive - Bruce Russett - Professor of Political Science & Professor in International & Area Studies, Yale University. Presenter at bell symposium on May 4, 1996.

Tomio Kawata - Nuclear scientist, Nuclear Waste Mgt Organization of Japan (NUMO). Ceremonially rang the bell on July 14, 1993. Wrote article on the bell after returning to Japan.


1920-1994 - Ruth Goodstein Carey - Writer & photographer. Brought at age one to Knoxville. Oak Ridge resident since 1943. Click here for additional info.

1924-2005 - Dick Smyser - From Pennsylvania. Founding editor of the Oak Ridger newspaper.

1937-Alive - Edward W. Lollis - Foreign Service Ofcr. Author of "Oak Ridge Intl Friendship Bell" (UT Press), ORICL course on Oak Ridge monuments & bell web page. Lives in Knoxville.

c1945-Alive - Miriam Levering - Prof of Asian Religions at UT Knoxville. Now working in Tokyo (Japan). Daughter of Law-of-the-Sea activists Sam & Miriam Levering.

c1945-Alive - D. Ray Smith - Employed by Y-12 Public & Govt Affairs since 1970. Author of "Historically Speaking" column in Oak Ridger newspaper, including a series on the bell.

19??-Alive - Kenichi (Ken) Namiki - Math teacher at Tennessee Meiji Gakuin High School in Sweetwater. Made the bell's first web page. Returned to Japan in March 2004.

c1975-Alive - Marcello di Cinto - Traver writer (click here for his blog.). Lampooned visit to bell by Hiroshima Boys Choir on March 30, 2006, as "Little Boy's Family Reunion."

c1995-Alive - Nathan Leiby - Student at Oak Rige High School. Eagle Scout project: Landscaped bell & delivered bell brochure on March 2, 2005. Became Eagle March 15, 2006.

c1995-Alive - Anjali Bisaria - Student at Webb School, Knoxville. Indian origin. Girl Scout project: Created large plaque & erected it at the bell. Now at Princeton University.


c1935-Alive - Takashi Teramoto - Hibakusha (A-bomb survivor) from Hiroshima. Visited bell on Jan. 13, 2008.

1948-Alive - Peter van den Dungen - Born in Best. Peace historian. Founded Intl Network of Museums for Peace 1992. See bibliography. Visited bell Sept. 24, 2007.

1956-Alive - Ralph Hutchison - Presbyterian minister. Anti-nuclear activist. Coordinator of Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance (OREPA).

c1960-Alive - Steve Leeper - Chair of Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation. From Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Visited bell Jan. 13, 2008.

Rita Lazar - Family member of 9-11 victim. Representative of September Eleventh Families for Peaceful Tomorrows. Visited bell on March 5, 2003.

Hiroshima Boys Choir - Visited the bell & Oak Ridge High School on March 30, 2006. Lampooned by Canadian Marcello di Cinto as "Little Boy's Family Reunion."


Helen Kuhns - First to object.

Clarence Frederick Runtsch - Sculptor. Proposed statue of John Hendrix for Oak Ridge's 50th anniversary.

Radford M. Carroll -

John Preston -

Minton J. Kelley - Scientist at ONRL. From Texas A&M.

Tommye Fleming Kelley - Marine Corps navigation instructor in WW-II. Member of bell policy committee.

J.D. Johnson - Dentist. Army captain at Remagan Bridge in WW-II. Member of bell policy committee. Memorial for him at Oak Ridge campus of Rhone State Community College.

Thema Brown - Employee of Dr. J.D. Johnson. Member of bell policy committee.

Robert Brooks - US commando on Japanese islands during WW-II. Career employee at K-25. Sued City of Oak Ridge.

Kathy Moore - Sister of Wanda Craven. Mayor of Oak Ridge. Leader of the "clean sweep" election in 19__. Accepted the bell on July 14, 1996.

Midiators, Judges & Lawyers:

Diantha Pare - Teacher & community leader. President, Oak Ridge League of Women Voters. Chaired ad hoc bell policy committee for City of Oak Ridge. Moved to Oberlin, Ohio, in 2009.

William J. Wilcox, Jr. - Chemist, Y-12 & K-25. City & Episcopal historian. Drafted the bell's Statement of Purpose. Designed Secret City Commemorative Walk for Rotary Club. ORICL. ORHPA.

Adrian Hill - Black high school student. Appointed member of bell policy committee by David Bradshaw (qv). Later attended Vanderbilt University. Now church custodian at First UMC, Park Ridge, IL, while studying at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary to receive Masters of Theological Studies in May 2012.

J. Mikel Dixon, Knoxville, Tennessee, for Appellant (Robert Brooks).

John C. Duffy, WATSON, HOLLOW & REEVES, Knoxville, Tennessee, for Appellee (City of Oak Ridge).

John C. Duffy, WATSON, HOLLOW & REEVES, Knoxville, Tennessee, for Appellee.

MOORE, J., delivered the opinion of the court

COLE, J., joined in the opinion of the court.

NORRIS, J., said bell is not religious.