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Peace Monuments

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Abrams, Irwin (April 1995), "Postage Stamps & Peace Education: The Nobel Peace Prize," paper presented to General Conference, International Peace Research Association, Malta, Oct. 31-Nov. 4, 1994, pp. 26. "Suggests how peace stamps can be used to further understanding of the movement for world peace. In this effort, the Nobel Peace Prize is the most prestegious award in the world for peacemaking..." Includes images of 80 peace stamps & covers collected by Irwin & his "collaborator," grandson Scott London. Click here for on-line text.

Abrams, Irwin (2001), The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History 1901-2001," Centennial Edition, Science History Publications, pp. 350. First published in 1989. Contains a foreword by Kenneth Boulding [1910-1993]. Irwin is professor of ____ at Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio (USA).

Adelman, Garry (Date?), "The Civil War 150: An Essential To-Do List," Civil War Trust. Adelman is Director of History and Education. His book is a guide that seeks to encourage people to expand their knowledge of the Civil War by visiting new Civil War sites & to do various Civil War related activities."

Alderman, Derek, "A street fit for a King: Naming places & commemortion in the American South." Also see "site established to spread information & commentary on the (re)naming of streets for slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. with the hope of informing public debate. If you use any information or statistics from this site, please cite the source as: Derek Alderman, Professor of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN, email:, Twitter: @MLKStreet."

Ali, Saleem H., ed. by (2007), "Peace parks: Conservation and conflict resolution," MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 432.

Anzai, Ikuro, (Date?), "Museums for Peace in Japan & Other Asian Countries." where published?, pp. 14. On-line text.

Anzai, Ikuro, et al (Ongoing), "Museum Guidebook," Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan), pp. 24. Click here for abbreviated on-line version ("Guidance in Building").

Anzai, Ikuro, Joyce Apsel & Syed Sikarder Mehdi, ed. by (October 2008), "Museums for peace: Past, present and future," Organizing Committee, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace, Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan), pp. 231.

Anzai, Ikuro (October 2008), "Definition of peace, peace museum and museum for peace with reference to peace-related museums in Asia," pp. 109-122. Published in "Anzai, Ikuro, et al, ed. by (October 2008), "Museums for peace: Past, present and future," Organizing Committee, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace, Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan).

Anzai, Ikuro (October 7, 2008), "Defining peace, peace museums, and museums for peace," Commemorative Speech, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace, International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Kyoto (Japan), October 7, pp. 29-38. Published in Ikeya, Risa, ed. by (February 2009), qv.
Appelbaum, Patricia (Date?), "Material Pacifism," Material History of American Religion Project, Divinity School, Vanderbilt University, Nashville. Quotes Zonia Baber & others. On-line text.

Apsel, Joyce A. (2005), "After Seventy Years: Anne Frank (1929-1945)," Anne Frank Center USA, SoHo, New York City (USA). On-line text.

Apsel, Joyce A. (2008), "Peace & human rights education: The UN as a museum for peace," pp. 37-48, in Anzai, Ikuro, et al, ed. by (2008), "Museums for peace: Past, present and future," Organizing Committee, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace, Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan). Describes the pedagogic value of peace monuments at UN headqurters in New York City. Apsel is Master Teacher in the General Studies Program at New York University, New York, NY (USA).

Apsel, Joyce A. (2016), "Introducing Peace Museums," Routledge, pp. 236. "Examines peace museums, a small & important (but often overlooked) series of museums whose numbers have multiplied world-wide in recent decades. They relate stories & display artifacts -- banners, diaries & posters about such themes as: art & peace, antiwar histories, protest, peacekeeping & social justice & promote cultures of peace. Introduces their different approaches from Japan, which has the largest number of sites, to Bradford, UK, and Guernica, Spain. Distinguishes between different types of museums that are linked to peace in name, theme or purpose. Discusses the debates which surround peace museums versus museums for peace. Considers the need for a 'critical peace museum studies' which analyses their varied emphasis & content." /// Apsel is Master Teacher in the General Studies Program at New York University, New York, NY (USA).
Baber, Zonia (March-June 1937), "Peace Symbols," Chicago Schools Journal, vol. 18, pp. 151-158. Zonia Baber [1862-1955] was a geographer, geologist, peace activist & member of the Peace Symbols Committee of the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). "Baber described some 20 'peace gardens' along the US-Canadian border. These were built after World War I in commemoration of the Rush-Bagot agreement a hundred years earlier.""
Baber, Zonia (Date?), "Distribution of Peace Monuments," world map (with notations). "Part of material gathered by Baber for Peace Symbols Committee of the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), 1937-1949." Contains about 39 dots representing peace monuments - probably same as described in Baber (1948). Put on-line by the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Right click image to enlarge.
Baber, Zonia (1948), "Peace Symbols," 96 pages, paperback, published by Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Room 635, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 5, Illinois, or 2006 Walnut Stree, Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania, price $1.00. Borrowed from Illinois State Library. Dedication: "Miss Baber dedicates this book to the cause of World Peace, and on her eighty-sixth birthday presents it as a gift to the WILPF." Describes 40 peace monuments. Includes "Supplementary Materials" on "Early Peace Treaties Made by the U.S. Government" & 2 "verses concerning racial equality."
Bajaj, Monisha, edited by (on-going), Encyclopedia of Peace Education (EPE), posted on the TC Web site of the Teacchers College, Columbia University, New York City, New York (USA). "Provides a comprehensive overview of the scholarly developments in the field to date as well as new insights from across the globe from the various actors involved in advancing peace education internationally... Submissions are open to all." Bajaj is a faculty member in the Department of International and Transcultural Studies, Columbia University.
Barr, David (March 2008), "Crossing Lines." A "limited edition manuscript" including 180 illustrations. Describes Barr's work on the Four Corners Project, SunSweep, and Arctic Arc, involving some of the world's most mysterious places and diverse cultures. Click here for SunSweep and here for Arctic Arc.
Barrett, Rev. Clive (2005), "Images and Symbols of Peace," 5th International Conference of Peace Museums, International Network of Peace Museums (INPM), at the Gernika Peace Museum, Foru plaza,1. E 48300 Gernika-Lumo (Spain). Barrett is Visiting Fellow, School of Applied Global Ethics, Leeds Metropolitan University (LMU), & Trustee of The Peace Museum in Bradford (England). Paper is no longer on-line.

Barrett, Rev. Clive (2008a), "Peace museums." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2009) "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages).

Barrett, Rev. Clive (2008b), "War & peace art." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2009) "International Encyclopedia of Peace," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages).

Barrett, Clive, & Joyce Apsel, edited by (2012), "Museums for Peace: Transforming Cultures," Lulu Press, paperback, pp. 270, price $24.13. 23 essays (by African, American, Asian & European conbributors) from the 7th international conference of the International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Barcelona Peace Resource Center, Spain, May 2011. "Conference was titled "The Role of Museums in the Transformation of a Culture of War & Violence to a Culture of Peace & Nonviolence." Themes include: Museums without Walls, Peace Education, Remembrance, Cultural Exchanges, Images, & Re-visioning Peace Museums. Also includes a series of photos, diagrams & drawings on peacemakers & global art of peace education activities along with designs for new exhibits & museums for peace."
Baur, Ruedi, & Vera Baur Kockot (2012), "Signs for Peace: An Impossible Visual Encyclopedia," Design2context, Lars Müller Publishers GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland. Vera Baur Kockot is a sociologist & culture and iconography theorist. Reudi Baur is a graphic designer who runs the Intégral Ruedi Baur et Associés studio in Paris, Zurich & Berlin. "For this study they’ve looked to answer the question, 'Are there signs, symbols, and images that present a positive image of peace as opposed to receiving their meanings in opposition to war?'"

Bennett, James Richard (1999), "Centers, Museums, and Public Memorials for Nonviolent Peacemaking in the US: A Visitors' Guide," PeaceWork Magazine, American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, May. Click here for on-line text. Bennett is Professor of English Emeritus, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas (USA).
Bennett, James Richard (2001), "Peace movement directory: North American organizations programs, museums and memorials," McFarland & Co., Jefferson (North Carolina), pp. 310. Covers peace monuments in the USA, Canada & Mexico & at the UN in New York City. Contains a "Canadian Introduction" by John MacLeod. Bennett is professor emeritus of English, University of Arkansas. MacLeod is Director, École d'architecture de paysage, Université de Montréal. Click here for more information.
Berbrier, Mitch (July 2012), "The Peace Path of the Cleveland Cultural Gardens: Making Place for Cultures of Peace," Peace & Change, Volume 37, Issue 3, Peace & Justice Studies Association, pp. 413-443. Berbrier is associate professor of sociology, University of Alabama Huntsville. Abstract: "...There has been inadequate attention to the role of place & materiality in sustaining peace cultures. In this regard, I introduce and examine the Cleveland Cultural Gardens (CCG), which have had a continuing presence in Rockefeller Park in Cleveland, Ohio, since 1926. Their website boasts that they are 'arguably one of the world’s first peace gardens.' It is one of several similar claims made over many decades. I critically assess this claim, concluding that the CCG have never lived up to their potential as a site for peace activism, & that they are a gravely underutilized resource in this regard. More attention to the role of places dedicated to nurturing peace cultures would be good for both the peace movement & for the CCG."
Berenbaum, Michael (1993, 2006), "The World Must Know: The history of the Holocaust as told in the US Holocaust Memorial Museum," Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 250, large format with many photos. The history of the Holocaust as compiled by the staff of the USHMM in Washington, DC.
Bigand, Karine (December 20, 2012), "Peace in History and Heritage: Some thoughts on a Museum of Peace in Northern Ireland," Revue électronique d'études sur le monde anglophone (E-rea). Describes the "Thanksgiving Square Beacon" (2007) and the "RISE sculpture (2020). Bigand is a Senior Lecturer in Irish Studies in the English Department at Aix-Marseille-Université.
Blockson, Charles L. (February 1994), "Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad." "A collection of letters, diaries & narratives of slaves who found freedom, including Henry 'Box' Brown, who nailed himself into a box & had it shipped to Phildelphia; William & Ellen Craft, who posed as master & slave & traveled openly out of the South; & a young woman who escaped with the help of Union soldiers by dressing as one of them. With accompanying historical notes & 16 pages of photographs." /// "Arranged like a travel guide. Provides historic reference to over 200 landmark homes, institutions, buildings & markers relating to the Underground Railroad." /// Blockson is founder & curator of the Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection of rare texts, slave narratives, art & a host of other artifacts significant in African-American history at Temple University. /// Image on cover is detail of Harriet Tubman [1822-1913] from the Underground Railroad Memorial in Battle Creek, Michigan.
Blumenfeld, Warren J. (May 23, 2012), "National Monument to Peace and Peacemakers, Huffington Post. Proposes that (1) Congress increase the number of statues & memorials to honor this country's female heroes & heroes of color, (2) Congress install a highly-visible US Monument to Peace & Peacemakers, and (3) local communities establish regional & local Monuments to Peace & Peacemakers. Blumenfeld is an independent writer.
Boulding, Elise M. (2000), "Cultures of Peace: The hidden side of of History, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York. Elise M. Boulding [1920-2010] was a Quaker sociologist & a major contributor to creating the academic discipline of Peace & Conflict Studies.
Brock, Lothar (1991), "Peace through parks: The environment on the peace research agenda," Journal of Peace Research, vol. 28. "Environmental cooperation may develop an Eigendynamik of its own & become an independent variable with influence of its own on world politics." Brock is at the Peace Research Institute, Frankfurt (Germany).
Buruma, Ian (1994), "The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan," Meridian, New York, pp. 330. Buruma is Henry R. Luce Professor of Democracy, Human Rights, and Journalism at Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (USA).
Butler, Richard, & Wantanee Suntikul, ed. by (August 20, 2012), "Tourism and War," Routledge, pp. 302. "This is the first volume to fully explore the complex relationship between war and tourism by considering its full range of dynamics; including political, psychological, economic and ideological factors at different levels, in different political and geographical locations." /// "Tourism and Political Change" by same two editors.
Carrier, Jim (2004), "A traveler's guide to the civil rights movement," Harcourt, Orlando etc., pp. 384. Click here for more information.

Chapman, Terry (April 24-25, 2010), "America's Don Quixote: The Henry Ford Peace Ship of December 1915," Peace History Conference, Imperial War Museum, London (England). Chapman is Senior Historian at the Imperial War Museum.

Chatterjee, Deen K., editor - (forthcoming), "Encyclopedia of Global Justice," Springer, New York: Springer, 2012. "A comprehensive coverage of all the relevant areas of scholarship related to issues of global justice. Edited & advised by leading scholars from around the world. Will set the tone & direction of this increasingly important area of scholarship for years to come." Chatterjee is professor of philosophy, Unitersity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (USA).

Chugoku Shimbun (2011), "Peace Museums of the World," Hiroshima Peace Media Center, Hiroshima (Japan). Essays about 61 museums - 16 in Japan, 8 in USA, 5 in Germany, 3 in Netherlands, 3 in UK, 2 in China, 2 in France, 2 in India & 2 in South Korea. Plus one each in Australia, Austria, Bangaladesh, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Norway, Poland, Rwanda, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland & Uzbekistan. "These peace museums were originally introduced in the morning edition of the Chugoku Shimbun [newspaper]. The English versions on this website include the full text of the original articles."
Coonerty, Ryan (Date?), "Etched in Stone: Enduring Words from Our Nation's Monuments," National Geographic Society (NGS), Washington, DC, pp. ___. Chronicles America's aspirations by surveying the words engraved on 52 monuments & public sites across the USA. Foreword by Douglas Brinkley & photos by Carol M. Highsmith." /// "Poignant, first-of-its-kind book. Includes Lincoln Memorial, Angel Island (where immigrant Chinese scrawled their words on prison walls), Jefferson Memorial, MLK gravesite, Gettysburg Battlefield, Korean War Memorial, Memphis Firehouse, Salem Witchcraft Victims Memorial, Clayton Jackson McGhie Museum in Duluth, IBM School House, Dexter Gate at Harvard University & New York Public Library. /// Coonerty is VP of Bookshop Santa Cruz & Lecturer of Law at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Highsmith is the author/photographer of nearly 30 photographic books & architecture."
Cornwell, Rupert (February 24, 2012), "The museum for black America: a force for unity - or division? Barak Obama marked its launch, but not everyone welcomes the new addition to the Smithsonian family," The Independent (UK). Cornwell is a correspondent for the Independent, "known for his commentary on international relations and US politics."
Couperie, Pierre (1968), "Paris through the ages: An illusrated historical atlas of urbanism & architecture," Barrie & Jenkins, London, no page numbers. Contains "The 'Representation' of Cities" by Andre Chastel. Originally published in French under the title "Paris au fil du temps." Pierre Couperie [1930-2010] is also the author of L'histoire de la bande dessinée / History of the Comic Strip.
Cox, Karen L. (August 15, 2017), "Why Confederate Monuments Must Fall," Opinion Page, New York Times, New York City. Photo credit: Sam’s Myth; Photo by Edu Bayer for The New York Times.
DeFerrari, John (December 19, 2012), "Washington's Unloved, Never-Finished, Crumbling [Naval] Peace Monument," Streets of Washington blog. "DeFerrari is a native Washingtonian with a lifelong passion for local history. He has a Master’s Degree in English Literature from Harvard University and works for the federal government. He is also a trustee of the D.C. Preservation League."
de Jong, Anneleen (2001), "La representation de l’humanite: Collection des oeuvres d’art de l’Office des Nations Unies a Geneve," United Nations Office, Generva (Switzerland), pp. 512 with many colour illustrations. "It weighs a ton." De Jong was cultural activities coordinator at the UN Office in Geneva but is now cultural educator at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).
Doss, Erika (2010), "Memorial Mania: Public Feeling in America," University of Chicago Press," pp.480. In the past few decades, thousands of new memorials to executed witches, victims of terrorism & dead astronauts, along with those that pay tribute to civil rights, organ donors & the end of Communism have dotted the American landscape. Equally ubiquitous, though until now less the subject of serious inquiry, are temporary memorials -- spontaneous offerings of flowers & candles that materialize at sites of tragic & traumatic death. Doss argues that these memorials underscore our obsession with issues of memory & history & the urgent desire to express those issues in visibly public contexts." Doss is professor of American studies at the University of Notre Dame & the author of "Benton, Pollock, and the Politics of Modernism: From Regionalism to Abstract Expressionism."
Duffy, Terence M. (2000), Museums for Peace & Harmony in Society, International Museums Day, International Councl of Museums (ICOM), Paris (France). Duffy is director of the Irish Peace Museum Project & teacher of Peace Studies at the University of Ulster, Londonderry (Northern Ireland). Click here for the on-line text.
Duffy, Terence M. (2003), "The making of a peace museum tradition: Case-studies from Japan & Cambodia," Fourth International Conference of Museums for Peace, International Network of Peace Museums, Diksmuide (Belgium). Click here for the on-line text.

Dupre, Judith (2007), "Monuments: America's history in art and memory." Random House, New York, pp. 252. Thirty-seven chapters covering some of the biggest US monuments, e.g. Liberty Bell, Lincoln Memorial, and Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Click here for "Notes on a Book Cover" by author Judity Dupre.
Durand, Roger, Christiane Dunant & Tony Guggisbert (August 2002) - Itinéraire de la paix dans les rues de Genève / Itinerary for Peace in the Streets of Geneva, Association "Genève: un lieu pour la paix," Geneva (Switzerland), pp. 144. Created to celebrate the centennial of the Nobel Prize in 2001. Image is a map of Geneva with 43 peace places in colors representing three different parcours / routes.
Egbo, Rina (December 10, 2009), "Memorializing the Victims of Terrorism," report prepared for the Department of Justice Canada, ©Government of Canada, both PDF and HTML versions. Egbo is Research Assistant, Research and Statistics Division.
Emmett, Patricia (date?), "Lessons from Robbin Island: Reconciliation and Conservation in South Africa," South African Institute of Architects (South Africa), 10 pages. Patricia (Tish) Emmett is an architect in Durban and president of the South African Institute of Architects.
Envision Peace Museum (June 4-5, 2010), "BRIEFING BOOK, Strategic Planning Conference," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA), 101 printed pages in 3-ring binder. Includes Flores (2008), qv. "To be an exciting new structure built in the heart of Philadelphia’s cultural and tourist district, adding a fresh new voice. 'Another world is possible.'"
Eyffinger, Arthur C.G.M. (1988), "The Peace Palace: Residence for Justice, Domicile of Learning," Carnegie Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands). "Comprehensive study from the early days of the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 & 1907, through the building years of the Peace Palace, to the actual functioning of the various institutions that are housed in the grounds. A book that may serve as a well-deserved homage to peace-makers and as reference work to modern man, recording the story of idealism and disillusionment, of expectations wrenched from failure – in short, of man’s struggle for progress. The book tells the story of an epoch, highlighting the ideals of artists as reflected in wall-pannellings, mosaics and the charms of the park. The author was deputy director of the Peace Palace Library from 1985-1988. Since spring 1988, he was librarian of the International Court of Justice."
Eyffinger, Arthur C.G.M. (1999), "The 1899 Hague Peace Conference: The Parliament of Man, the Federation of the World", Kluwer Law International. Cover is "Minerva and Hercules opening the doors to the genius of Victorious Peace" about 1651, Oranjezaal / Orange Hall, Huis ten Bosch / House in the Woods, The Hague (Netherlands). Allegorical group by Christiaen van Couwenbergh [1604-1667] on pair of doors. Also called "Peace entering to close the temple of Janus." Depicts a nude Goddess of Peace approaching male & female figures struggling to keep the doors open. /// In the opening speech of the First Hague Peace Conference on May 18, 1899, Dutch foreign minister Willem Hendrik De Beaufort [1845-1918] "requested special attention for one canvas [sic]. 'It is the picture which represents Peace entering this hall to close the Temple of Janus. I hope, gentlemen, that this beautiful allegory will prove to be a good omen for your labours and that, after having completed them you will be able to say that Peace, which art brought into this hall, has sallied forth to shower her blessings upon the whole human race.'"
Eyffinger, Arthur C.G.M. (2004), "The Trusteeship of an Ideal: The Carnegie Foundation, Vignettes of a Century," Carnegie Foundation, The Hague (Neetherlands), pp. 184. Published for the centennial of the foundation.
Eyffinger, Arthur C.G.M. (2013), "The Stars of Eternal Truth & Right: Bertha von Suttner's Campaigning for Peace, Social Justice & Womanhood," Wolf Legal Publishers, Oisterwijk (Netherlands), pp. 216. "The substance of this book captures the gist of her views and ideals by way of hundreds of citations gathered from her Memoirs, Diaries and Correspondence, and handpicked from the tracts, novels and papers that constitute the rich yield of her unstoppable scholarly, literary and journalistic endeavours. The sum total is a fascinating portrait of an intriguing woman and public figure, a steadfast advocate of Women`s Lib and the Cassandra of Peace on the eve of the Guns of August. Dr. Arthur Eyffinger (The Hague, 1947) is classicist and law historian."
Fidler, John, & Jeanne Marie Teutonico, ed. by (2000), "Monuments and the millennium." Topics "range from the philosophical and political issues associated with monument building to more practical aspects of conservation and repair."
Finkelstein, Norman G. (2000), "The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering." "Argues that the American Jewish establishment exploits the memory of the Nazi Holocaust for political & financial gain, as well as to further the interests of Israel. According to Finkelstein, this 'Holocaust industry' has corrupted Jewish culture & the authentic memory of the Holocaust. Both of Finkelstein's parents had been inmates of concentration camps."

Flessati, Valerie (2012), "Peace Trails through London," London (England). "Discover some of the people and visit [45] places associated with national and international peacemaking." Contains 3 sections: Peace Trail through Central London (pp. 2-10), Peace Trail through the City of London (pp. 11-15) & Peace sites beyond Central London (pp.16-21). 24-page brochure L2 plus 60p postage from "Peace Trail," 11 Venetia Road, London N4 1EJ. Cover illustration is 1870 Peace Memorial Fountain, West Smithfield (qv). Updates & expands 1998 leaflet (qv). NB: All monuments shown in this brochure are cross-referenced in green on the webpage for peace monuments in London.
Flores, Thomas Vincent (2008), "Broadening the purview of 'peace': The challenge & promise of peace-related museums and centers in the United States," pp. 123-139, in Anzai, Ikuro, et al, ed. by (2008), "Museums for peace: Past, present and future," Organizing Committee, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace, Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan). Flores is Visiting Assistant Professor, Peace-building and Conflict Transformation Practices, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (USA).
Flores, Thomas Vincent (March 24, 2009), "Trends and Challenges of Museums for Peace and the USIP Public Education Center," Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (USA), presented to United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Public Education Center (PEC) Working Group, Washington, DC (USA), 8 pages. Not on-line.
Fryberg, Steve (ongoing), compiled by, "Members of the Network" also called "Museums for Peace Members," website of the Interntional Network of Museums for Peace (INMP). click here for the INMP website, then click "Members" [sic]. Lists 199 museums as of October 2009. Fryberg is INMP website administrtor in Dayton, Ohio (USA). Click here for explanation.
Garfinkel, Renee (May 23, 2012), "Where Are the Monuments to Peace? (Honoring peacemakers alongside warriors would make Memorial Day complete.)," Pyschology Today. Dr. Garfinkel is "affiliated with with the Institute for Crisis, Disaster & Risk Management at the George Washington University."
Gilbert, Martin (April 15, 1999). "Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past," Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 468. "Interweaves present-day experiences, personal memories & historical accounts. More than 50 photographs taken over the course of this unique voyage are included, among them shots of Berlin, at the spot of the 1933 book burning; the railway line to Auschwitz; Oskar Schindler's factory in Crakow, Poland; and memorial stones from Treblinka. Together with 55 maps, these illustrations add an arresting visual dimension to this powerful story."

Gittings, John (2008), "Icons of War & Peace." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2009) "International Encyclopedia of Peace," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages), pp. 376-8. Gittings is affiliated with the School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London.
Gittings, John (2012), "The Glorious Art of Peace: From the Iliad to Iraq," Oxford University Press, pp. 320. "The first comprehensive history of the arts of peace, from ancient times to the 21st century." Gittings is a Guardian correspondent known for his work on China & the Cold War. Click here for peace images on Gittings' Facebook page. Click here for Gittings on YouTube.
Golden, Jane, Robin Rice & Monica Yant Kinney (January 2003), Philadelphia Murals & the Stories They Tell, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, pp. 160. With photographs by David Graham & Jack Ramsdale. Click here for an excerpt from chapter 1. Sequel also available.
Gomori, Janos (2013), "History Written in Blood: Peace Monuments," EastOK Europe. "Below you'll find 5 peace monuments from Eastern Europe. Perhaps not so surprisingly the history of most is not entirely peaceful."
Goode, James M. (January 21, 2009), Washington Sculpture: A Cultural History of Outdoor Sculpture in the Nation's Capital, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. "A fascinating tour of Washington, D.C.’s monuments, statues, headstones & memorials. Canvasses more than 500 sculptural pieces, often overlooked by residents and visitors, and presents critical discussions & detailed histories of each work."
Gough, Paul J. (ongoing), "VORTEX !," website, School of Creative Art Arts, University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol (England). Contains images, essays & information on the representation of war & peace in the 20th & 21st centuries." Gough is Executive Dean of the Faculty of Creative Arts.
Gough, Paul J. (2000), "From Heroes' Groves to Parks of Peace: Landscapes of remembrance, protest and peace," Landscape Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 213-228. "After 1945 there was a considerable shift in the landscapes of war: Memorial schemes more often took a pragmatic & utilitarian form, & desolated cities such as Hiroshima (and to a lesser extent Dresden & Coventry) became the cornerstone for anti-war movements in the late 1950's & 1960's. This period saw the emergence of a symbolic landscape of protest, which often co-existed uncomfortably as a place of tourism."

Gough, Paul J. (2002), "'Invicta pax' Monuments, Memorials and peace: An Analysis of the Canadian Peacekeeping Monument, Ottawa [Ontario (Canada)]." Formal name of this monument is "Reconciliation."
Greiff, Glory-June (June 30, 2005), "Remembrance, faith and fancy: Outdoor public sculpture in Indiana," Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, 300 pages. Click here for PowerPoint version of part of this book.
Gruber, Samuel D. (Ongoing), International Survey of Jewish Monuments (ISJM), New York (USA). An independent, non-profit, membership based, educational website dedicated to the documentation, study, care and conservation of historic Jewish sites throughout the world.
Gulick, Sidney L. (1929), Dolls of Friendship: The story of a goodwill project between the children of Japan & America, Friendship Ambassadors, Inc., Greenwich, Connecticut (USA). Rev. Dr. Gulick [1860-1945] was an educator, author, missionary & lecturer at Kyoto Imperial University. He obtained more than 12,000 American “blue-eyed dolls” for Japanese children. Fifty-eight prefectures replied by sending museum quality Japanese dolls to America, e.g. Miss Toyama (now in Kentucky).
Haskins, George (ongoing), Fieldguide to US Public Monuments & Memorials, Hartsdale, New York (USA). "Gathers data about the content, design, setting, themes & demography of...public works. Based on this data & through this website, it provides site images & data analysis as well as mapping capabilities. "
Haskins, George (date?), "Monuments & Memorials of America: Civic Remembrances, Public Appreciation," Hartsdale, New York (USA), pp. 205. Three parts: (1) The Journey - Towards an Assessment, (2) Our Search Engine - Technology Old & New, (3) Mapping It Out - A Taxonomy."

Hatlie, Mark R. (date?), "Deconstructing historical markers: How to question historical places, monuments, memorials, and museums", Tübingen (Germany). "Hatlie is an American who has been living in Old Europe for over 18 years." Click here for on-line text.

Hatlie, Mark R. (ongoing), "Sites of Memory: Historical Markers, Memorials, Monuments, and Cemeteries", website, Tübingen (Germany). Click here for home page.

Hatlie, Mark R. (ongoing), "Sites of Memory: Readings and Resources", website, Tübingen (Germany). Hot links to many websites about memory and monuments (including this one).
Hein, Laura, & Akiko Takenaka (July 20, 2007), Exhibiting World War II in Japan & the United States, The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Hein is a professor of Japanese history at Northwestern University. Takenaka teaches architectural history and theory in the Department of the History of Art at the University of Michigan. Click here for on-line text.
Hiroshima Peace Media Center (HPMC) (2008 & ongoing), Peace Museums of the World. Describes about a dozen peace museums & "museums for peace." "Launched on January 1, 2008, to transmit peace-related reporting via the internet in English & Japanese, HPMC is a new wing of the Chugoku Shimbun, founded in 1892 and now one of Japan’s largest newspapers."

Holtorf, Cornelius J. (2000-2007), "Monumental Past,: The life-histories of megalithic monuments in Mechlenburg-Vorpommern (Germany)," Electronic monograph, Centre for Instructional Technology Development, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada). Click here for on-line text.
Ikeya, Risa, ed. by (February 2009), "Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Museums for Peace," Organizing Committee, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace [October 6-10, 2008], Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan), pp. 282.
Jackson, Christopher R. (Fall 2005), "The Holocaust & Genocide (History 317)," San Francisco State University (SFSC), San Francisco, California (USA). Course outline. Includes list of monuments, museums & memorials. Jackson is assistant professor in the SFSU history department.
Jenkins, Tiffany (September 11, 2011), "Lest we should ever be allowed to forget: Museums used to be a celebration of human achievement. Now they merely peddle misery," The Independent (UK). Article says, "it is time to dethrone the monuments to barbarity [memorial museums] and showcase a little more civilisation." Jenkins is director of arts & society of the Institute of Ideas, London, & author of "Contesting Human Remains in Museum Collections: the crisis of cultural authority."
Jones, Jeffrey Owen, & Peter Meyer (2010), "The Pledge: A History of the Pledge of Allegiance," Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press. "The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August the socialist minister Francis Bellamy (1855-1931) & originally published in The Youth's Companion on September 8, 1892. Bellamy had hoped that the pledge would be used by citizens in any country."
Joor, Johan, & Heikelina Verrijn Stuart (August 28, 2013), "The Building of Peace. A Hundred Years of Work on Peace Through Law. The Peace Palace 1913 - 2013," Carnegie Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands). "It's [been] 100 years [since] the Peace Palace opened its doors as the accommodation for institutions working on world peace & international justice. The Centenarian has grown into an icon for world peace. The Carnegie Foundation, the owner & keeper of the Peace Palace, has taken the initiative to publish a book to mark its Centenary. Aimed at the general public, this book reflects on the role the Peace Palace has played in the history of war & peace in the 20th century. It also portrays the occupants of the Peace Palace in 2013: The International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Library, and the Hague Academy of International Law. The historical part of the book is written by Johan Joor PhD; the contemporary part by Heikelien Verrijn Stuart LLM. Also included is a photo documentary about ‘daily life’ at the Peace Palace. Available in English, French & Dutch editions. The selling price will be circa € 40 including VAT."
Josephson, Harold, ed. by (1985), "The biographical dictionary of modern peace leaders," Greenwood Press, pp. 1133. ""Covering the period 1800-1980, this is a remarkable compilation of 750 biographical essays on the world's most prominent peace advocates and activists... It is at once an invaluable reference tool & a splendid point of entry into the otherwise lost world of modern peace heroes." Josephson was professor of history, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. Associate editors: Sandi E. Cooper, Solomon Wank & Lawrence S. Whittner. Click here for more information.
Kal, Hong (September 1, 2008), "Commemoration & the Construction of Nationalism: War Memorial Museums in Korea & Japan," The Asia-Pacific Journal. Hong Kal is assistant professor of Art History at York University, Toronto. This is a revised & expanded version of a chapter that was published in "Rethinking Historical Injustice & Reconciliation in Northeast Asia," edited by Soon-Won Park, Gi-Wook Shin & Daqing Yang. New York: Routledge (2007). Posted on Japan Focus, September 6, 2008.
Kendle, Amanda (January 2008), "Dark Tourism: A Fine Line Between Curiousity & Exploitation. "Sometimes we travel to see a beautiful landscape, a precious artifact or a well-known painting. But other times our purpose is to experience something a little darker: to see a concentration camp where thousands of people were gassed to death, to visit a natural disaster zone that we’ve seen plastered across our TV screens, or to gawk at people living in poverty, sometimes with the intention of trying to help them. All of these things and more have been encapsulated recently by the umbrella term of dark tourism. And while some people are quick to say they’d never be involved in something with a name like dark tourism, the scope is broad and you might be a dark tourist without realizing it." See Lennon, John & Malcolm Foley (2000).
Kershman, Andrew (2007), "London's Monuments...have some facinating tales to tell from the decadence of George IV to the courage of General Wolfe," Metro Publications Ltd., London, 375 pages.

Kidron, Michael & Dan Smith (1983), "The War Atlas: Armed conflict - Armed peace," Simon & Schuster, 126 pages. "The 40 full-colour maps & cartograms give hard information on neglected topics: the export of civil war through international terrorism; the use of proscribed weapons; the growth of anti-war movements; the assimilation of China into the international military order; the frequency of nuclear 'near misses.'" /// "Michael Kidron [1930-2003] was a revolutionary thinker & cartographer. He was part of the leadership of the International Socialists (forerunners of the Socialist Workers Party) through the 1960's & 1970's. He is perhaps best remembered for his visually arresting "The State Of The World Atlas."
Kästle, Klaus (1998 & ongoing), One World - Nations Online (OWNO). "A more or less objective guide to the world, a statement for the peaceful, nonviolent coexistence of nations... Has been growing and, as far as I'm concerned, it will continue to do so for many years to come."
Knox, Michael C. & Annie M. Wagganer (January 1, 2009), "A Cultural Shift Toward Peace: The Need for a National Symbol," Peace & Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, vol. 15, issue 1, pp. 97-101. Click here for a preliminary version of the full text "Provides a succinct rationale for the [proposed] US Peace Memorial [in Washington, DC]."
Kolsbun, Ken (April 1, 2008), Peace: The biography of a symbol, National Geographic Society (NGS), Washington, DC (USA). Includes exclusive archival interviews with Gerald Holtom [1914-1985] who created the peace symbol for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in 1958. Click here for photos & more information. See Miles (2008).
Kratsman, Miki (date?), "Place (Makom)," Mafte'akh (Lexical Review of Political Thought), Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Translated by Tal Haran. Kratsman is with Department of Photography, Bezalel Academy of Arts & Design, Jerusalem. "Photography endows place with a certain freedom, liberating place from the commitment to a specific point in time & space..., one that opens for discussion questions of time & space, of place – which I have attempted to illustrate through work on places that have vanished & events that have been erased."
Kurtz, Lester R., edited by (2008), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict, 2nd edition, Elsevier, 3 volumes, pp. 2665. Kurtz was Professor of Sociology, University of Texas, Austin, & is now Professor of Sociology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. He wrote the article "Gandhi & His Legacies" in this encyclopedia. First edition was published in 1999.
Lederer, Clara (1954), "Their Paths are Peace: The Story of Cleveland's Cultural Gardens," Cleveland Cultural Garden Federation, Cleveland, Ohio. Text is on-line.
Lennon, John & Malcolm Foley (December 7, 2000), "Dark Tourism: The attraction of death & disaster," pp. 192. "This book sets out to explore 'dark tourism'; that is, the representation of inhuman acts, and how these are interpreted for visitors at a number of places throughout the world, for example the sites of concentration camps in both Western & Eastern Europe. Many people wish to experience the reality behind the media images, or are prompted to find out more by a personal association with places or events. The phenomenon raises ethical issues over the status and nature of objects, the extent of their interpretation, the appropriate political and managerial response and the nature of the experience as perceived by the visitor, their residents and local residents." See Kendle, Amanda (2008).
Leonard, Jane (1997), "Memorials to the casualties of conflict: Northern Ireland, 1969 to 1997," Northern Ireland Community Relations Council, Belfast, Ireland. Click here for the full text.
Levering, Miriam (Date?), "Are friendship Bonsho bells Buddhist symbols? The case of [the International Friendship Bell in] Oak Ridge [Tennessee]," Pacific World, Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies (IBS), Berkeley, California (USA). On-line text.
Levy, Barnard-Henri (2006), "American Vertigo: Traveling America in the Footsteps of Tocquevile." Contains quotes on memory from "Untimely Meditations" by Friedrich Nietzsche (1876): "The three principal types of memory: (1) Monumental memory serves to reassure a people by presenting it with the elaborated and, one hopes, inalterable image of its past grandeur. (2) Critial memory fortifies it by subjecting this image to the harsh but just tribunal of scientific history. And (3) Antiquarian Memory which is linked to what is 'small, limited, crumbling, and archaic,' the memory that stems from a 'blind mania for collecting' and from 'a restless compiling together of everything that ever existed,' is a useless memory that instead of reinforcing the individual 'cripples the active man” and, “whether it is a person or a people or a culture,' inexorably winds up in 'annihilation.'”

Loewen, James W. (1997-2001, "Lies across America: What our historic sites get wrong," Touchstone, pp. 480. "Teaches visitors to read between the lines of historical markers and to deconstruct the sculptures on monuments and memorials."
Lollis, Edward W. (July 17, 2005), "The Oak Ridge International Friendship Bell," Conference on the Atomic Bomb & American Society, Center for the Study of War and Society, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge (Tennessee). One of 18 papers in Mariner, Rosemary B., & G. Kurt Piehler, ed. by (2009), "The atomic bomb and American society: New perspectives," University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, pp 344-380. On-line text. Click here for pictoral version of this paper.
Lollis, Edward W. (November 8, 2005), "Peace Monuments Around the World," PowerPoint presentation to OMNI Center for Peace, Justice & Ecology at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas. No text or recording exists, but link shows very good summary by Cole Bockenfield published in The Arkansas Traveler (student newspaper of the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville). Bockenfield was an undergraduate in 2005 & has become Deputy Director for Policy at the Project on Middle East Democracy (POMED) in Washington, DC. On-line summary.
Lollis, Edward W. (2006 & ongoing), "Rotary Peace & Friendship Monuments," web page ( Created with the cooperation of Mr. Jack Selway, Pueblo, Colorado (USA). This web page is owned & maintained by the Rotary Global History Fellowship (RGHF). Click here for a parallel web page owned & maintained by the author.
Lollis, Edward W. (2008), "World Peace Bells," web page ( There are 23 World Peace Bells (WPB's) in 16 different countries. Created with the cooperation of Mr. Tomijiro Yoshida, President of the World Peace Bell Association (WPBA), Ikebukuro, Tokyo (Japan). This web page is owned & maintained by the author. On-line text.
Lollis, Edward W. (2008 & ongoing), "Peace monuments around the world," web site ( with about 200 individual web pages. Contains photos & interactive links to hundreds of peace monuments. Monuments are arranged thematically, geographically, chronologically & by physical form. The site has an internal search engine. The site is owned & maintained by the author. On-line text.

Lollis, Edward W. (October 6, 2008), "Peace monuments around the world," PowerPoint presentation to Sixth International Museums for Peace Conference, International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Kyoto (Japan). Published without images by Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University. On-line text with key images.

Lollis, Edward W. (2008), "Peace monuments." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2010) "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages). On-line text with illustrations.
Lollis, Edward W. (2010 Fall?), "The Sanctification of Hiroshima," submitted for publication in Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, special issue on "Memorializing Space," University of San Francisco. About the tradition of the non-use of nuclear weapons, Alvin Weinberg [1915-2006], the Peace Bell in Hiroshima (Japan), and the Interntional Friendship Bell in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). On-line text.
Lollis, Edward W. (January 3, 2012), "Palestine, Israel & Other Tragedies," Knoxville, Tennessee (USA). Presentation to group from University of Tennessee of 127 slides based on visit to Palestine & Israel, June 13-28, 2011. "What this talk is about: Share what I saw in June 2011. Recall history of 1945, 1948 & 1967. Show Israeli wall & settlements. Show how Palestinians resist. Point out monuments & symbols." /// Concentrated on these places: Yad Vashem, Deir Yassin, Al-ghabisiyya, Bethlehem & Refugee Camps, Jenin & The Freedom Theatre, At-Tuwani, Tent of Nations, Bil'in & Ma'ale Adumim. On-line text with complete slide show.
Lollis, Edward W. (May 14, 2012), "Anti-Nuke Sculpture Is Rare: A letter to the editor about the threatened 'Chain Reaction' sculpture at the Santa Monica Civic Center from a Tennessee man who studies peace monuments," Santa Monica Patch, Santa Monica, California (USA).
Lollis, Edward W. (June 2013), "Monumental Beauty: Peace Monuments and Museums Around the World," Peace Partners International, Inc., Knoxville, Tennessee (USA), pp. 75. Illustrated with 416 peace monuments & museums for peace. Available from & other booksellers around the world in hardback (at $44.00), softcover (at $22.00) & eBook editions (at $9.99).
Lollis, Edward W. (September 2, 2013), "A century of Peace Monuments and Museums," Symposium on "Celebrating Peace Philanthropy and Furthering Peace Education in the Footsteps of Andrew Carnegie," International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Peace Palace, The Hague (Netherlands).
Lollis, Edward W. (January 2014), "Peace as a Destination: Peace Tourism around the World," in Wohlmuther, Cordula & Werner Wintersteiner (editors), "International Handbook on 'Tourism and Peace,'" United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid (Spain) and Center for Peace Research and Peace Education, Alpen-Adria-Universität, Klagenfurt (Austria), Euros 28.80, pages 303-319. Click here for full text (in Word format). "Lollis defines peace tourism and lists 86 different peace themes. He argues that the 10 countries most likely to benefit from peace tourism (on a per capita basis) are Israel, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, the United Kingdom, Norway, the USA, Canada and Belgium - in that order. Furthermore, he provides a case study in the USA, a 583 km [corridor] between the Ohio and Detroit rivers..."
Lutzker, Michael A. (October 1989), "Expanding our vision: New perspectives on peace research," Peace & Change, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 444-460. Michael A. Lutzker taught history at City University of New York (CUNY) & died in 2011.
Marcuse, Harold (January 2000 & ongoing) "Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site, (KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau) 1933-1945-2005," Department of History, University of California, Santa Barbara, California (USA), webpage.
Marks, Ed, (1998), "Art ... at Home in the United Nations", UN Chronicle Online Education, Department of Public Information, United Nations, New York, Volume XXXV, Number 4. Click here for the illustrted on-line text.
McCallum, Bradley (1993), "Preserving Memory: A study of monuments and memorials," Cirriculum Unit 93.01.06, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, Yale University, New Haven. Click here for the on-line text of this cirriculum.
MacLeod, John (1998), “A Short History of Places for Peace in Canada: 1920-1995,” Congress 98 AAPC/CSLA, Montréal, Québec.
MacLeod, John (2001), “Canadian Introduction,” in Bennett, James Richard, ed., "Peace Movement Directory: North American Organizations, Programs, Museums and Memorials" (qv), Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001.
MacLeod, John (2002), "An Overview of Canadian Places for Peace," Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Gathering of the Alliance for the Preservation of Historic Landscapes. Winnipeg: Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Manitoba, 2002.
Marschall, Sabine (2010), "Landscape of Memory: Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South Africa." "Under the aegis of the post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa since 1994. The emergent new landscape of memory relies heavily on commemorative monuments, memorials and statues aimed at reconciliation, nation-building and the creation of a shared public history. But not everyone identifies with these new symbolic markers and their associated interpretation of the past. Drawing on a number of theoretical perspectives, this book critically investigates the flourishing monument phenomenon in South Africa, the political discourses that fuel it; its impact on identity formation, its potential benefits, and most importantly its ambivalences and contradictions."
Marschall, Sabine (Date?), Reordering the Past: Monuments and Architectural Heritage in Post-Apartheid South Africa. "This paper considers how the current drive to expand and reassess the symbolic landscape of memory contributes to the construction of a new national identity in post-apartheid South Africa." /// Marschall is Associate Professor of Culture & Heritage Tourism at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
McKean, John (September 30, 1989), "Places for Peace." "Makes the case for peace parks & peace gardens in town, cities & the countryside." John McKean is an architect & historian, He worked as journalist & critic before spending a dozen years as the Professor of Architecture at Brighton University (England). Recently concentrating on writing, painting, drawing and freelance lecturing."
Megargee, Geoffrey P., editor (May 22, 2009), "Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945," Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana (USA). Volume I (Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office). Foreword by Elie Wiesel. First of a "monumental 7-volume encyclopedia, the result of years of work by the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum [in Washington, DC], will describe the universe of camps and ghettos—some 20,000 in all—that the Nazis and their allies operated, from Norway to North Africa & from France to Russia. For the first time, a single reference work will provide detailed information on each individual site."

Meriwether, Jeffrey Lee & Laura Matton D'Amore, edited by (March 1, 2013), "We Are What We Remember: The American Past Through Commemoration," Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 419. "Commemorative practices are revised & rebuilt based on the spirit of the time in which they are re/created. Historians sometimes imagine that commemoration captures history, but actually commemoration creates new narratives about history that allow people to interact with the past in a way that they find meaningful. As our social values change (race, gender, religion, sexuality, class), our commemorations do, too. [This book] analyzes current trends in the study of historical memory that are particularly relevant to our own present - our biases, our politics, our contextual moment - and strive to name forgotten, overlooked & denied pasts in traditional histories. Race, gender, and sexuality, for example, raise questions about our most treasured myths: where were the slaves at Jamestowne? How do women or lesbians protect & preserve their own histories, when no one else wants to write them? Our current social climate allows us to question authority, and especially the authoritative definitions of nation, patriotism, and heroism, and belonging. How do we un-commemorate things that were mis-commemorated in the past? How do we repair the damage done by past commemorations?."

Miles, Barry (Spring 2008), "Peace: 50 Years of Protest," published by Anova Books in the UK & by Readers Digest Books in the USA. "Tells the story of the enduring power of what was originally designed as the official sign for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament [CND] in England." Miles has written numerous books, & his work has also regularly appeared in papers such as The Guardian. See Kolsbun (2008).
Mires, Charlene (2002), "Independence Hall in American Memory," University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. "The significance of Independence Hall cannot be fully appreciated without assessing the full range of political, cultural, and social history that has swirled about it for nearly three centuries. It has functioned as a civic and cultural center, a political arena and courtroom, and a magnet for public celebrations and demonstrations. Portraitist Charles Willson Peale merged the arts, sciences, and public interest when he transformed a portion of the hall into a center for natural science in 1802. In the 1850s, hearings for accused fugitive slaves who faced the loss of freedom were held, ironically, in this famous birthplace of American independence." Mires is a former editor for the Philadelphia Inquirer & now teaches history at Villanova University.
Mires, Charlene (March 4, 2013), "Capital of the World: The race to host the United Nations," NYU Press, New York, pp. 328. "Without invitation, civic boosters in every region of the United States leapt at the prospect of transforming their hometowns into the Capital of the World. The idea stirred in big cities—Chicago, San Francisco, St. Louis, New Orleans, Denver, and more. It fired imaginations in the Black Hills of South Dakota and in small towns from coast to coast. Meanwhile, within the United Nations the search for a headquarters site became a debacle that threatened to undermine the organization in its earliest days. At times it seemed the world’s diplomats could agree on only one thing: under no circumstances did they want the United Nations to be based in New York."

Momoitio Astorkia, Iratxe, edited by (2005), "Museums for Peace: A Contribution to Remembrance, Reconciliation, Art and Peace, 5th International Museums for peace Conference Papers," edited by Iratxe Momoitio Astorkia, Fifth International Conference of Museums for Peace, 1-7th May 2005, Fundacion Museo de la Paz de Gernika, Plaza de los Fueros, 1, Gernika-Lumo, Bizkaia (Spain), pp. 479 including texts of 70 papers (in English, Spanish & Basque), photos & list of participants. N.B.: Papers are no longer on-line.
Moufakkir, Omar, & Ian Kelly, ed. by (May 2010), "Tourism, Progress and Peace," Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International (CABI), Wallingford, Oxfordshire (England), pp. 256. Contains 16 papers, including "The Atlanta Peace Trails Experience" by Gail Lash, Andrea Kay Smith & C. Smith.
Muchitsch, Wolfgang, ed. by (2013), "Does War Belong in Museums: The Representation of Violence in Exhibitions," published in Germany: Bielefeld: transcript, pp. 223. Muchitisch is scientific manager of the Landesmusuem Joanneum GmbH in Graz (Austria).
Muzaini, Hamzah (2008), "Peace Education: Peace Museums," Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict, 2nd edition, Elsevier, pp. 1488-1498. Outline: Introduction, Precursors to the Peace Museum Tradition, Peace Museums in the Age of Nuclear Warfere & the Holocaust, Museums Dedicated to Historical Events, Museums Dedicated to Individual Peacemakers, Museums Dedicated to Institutional Peacemakers, Museums Dedicated to Human Rightg & Other Issues, Peace Museums in the 21st Century, Caveats & Conclusions, Further Reading. Article identifies Muzaini as at the University of Durham, Durham, UK.
Nash, Gary B. (2010), "The Liberty Bell," Icons of America Series, Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 242. "The impetus behind the bell’s creation, as well as its evolutions in meaning through successive generations." Nash is professor of history & director of the National Center for History in the Schools (NCHS) at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
Nasu, Masamoto (August 1991), "Children of the Paper Crane: The Story of Sadako Sasaki and Her Struggle with the A-Bomb Disease." Translated by Elizabeth W. Baldwin & Steven L. Leeper

Na Mu Myo Ho Ren Ge Kyo
Nipponzan Myohoji (c.2005), Peace pagodas, Tokyo (Japan), pp. 46. Title & text in Japanese only. Contains color photos of 70 peace pagodas (also known as stupas) in Japan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Austria, England & USA. Nipponzan Myohoji is a Buddhist order. Click here for an on-line display of the same pagodas.
Nordlinger, Jay (2012), "Peace, They Say: A History of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Most Famous & Controversial Prize in the World." "Peace is a slippery notion, as Nordlinger thoughtfully notes, and the five individuals nominated by the Norwegian parliament to chair the committee that grants this annual award must grapple with how to define peace and when to reward it..."
Parry, William (2010), "Against the Wall: The Art of Resistance in Palestine". About peace grafitti on the Palestinian side of the Israeli apartheid wall, including parody of Guernica by Ron English who wrote the forward. Click here to see selected images from the book.
Peace Pledge Union (ongoing), "Memorials for Peace and War," London (England). A work in progress. Divided into three parts: Memorials for Peace, War Cemeteries, & Memorials for War.
Peace Seekers Group (2008 & ongoing), "Peace Memorials," ("A scavenger hunt for unique and interesting locations in the world."). Group founded on October 8, 2008, by "Marine Biologist." Mission statement: "To seek out monuments that promote the ideals of national, international, or world peace."
Petrie, Jon (After 2000), "The Secular Word "HOLOCAUST:" Scholarly Sacralization, Twentieth Century Meanings," long web page. "A version of this article with the title 'The secular word HOLOCAUST: scholarly myths, history, and 20th century meanings' was published in Journal of Genocide Research 2:1 (2000), 31-63. Jon Petrie has participated in many H-Net discussions over the last ten years and those H-net published writings are easily accessed over the web -- and use the search function top left, e.g. insert 'Jon Petrie Soviet.' Petrie replies to most emails:"
Pickering, Paul A. & Alex Tyrrell (May 2004), "Contested Sites: Commemoration, Memorial and Popular Politics in Nineteenth-Century Britain," Studies in Labour History, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot (England) & Burlington, Vermont (USA), pp. 192. Pickering is Senior Fellow & Director of Graduate Studies in the Research School of Humanities, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia) .
Piehler, G. Kurt Piehler (1995), Remembering war the American way, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. Reprint edition 2004. Piehler is professor of history, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (USA).
Pohlen, Jerome (2008) "Progressive nation: A travel guide with 400+ left turns and inspiring landmarks," Chicago Review Press, Chicago, pp. 432. Click here for more information.
Prats, J. J. (on-going), "Peace Markers," Historical Marker Datebase (, Springfield, Virginia (USA). "An illustrated searchable online catalog of historical information viewed through the filter of roadside & other permanent outdoor markers, monuments & plaques."
Public Monuments and Sculpture Association (PMSA) (ongoing), National Recording Project (NRP). "A survey of public sculptures and monuments throughout Britain, it is 65% completed to 2002 and is still under way... Database holds over 9,000 entries...covers some, but not all, counties or administrative areas in England; all of Wales; Glasgow..."
Resnik, Judith, & Dennis Curtis (2011), "Representing Justice: Invention, Controversy, and Rights in City-States and Democratic Courtrooms," Yale Law Library Series in Legal History, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut (USA). "...a fascinating and ambitious study of the iconography of justice and what it reveals about attitudes towards a just society, impartiality and authority, from the Renaissance to the Mexican Muralists. In this engaging and eminently readable book, the authors show how emblems, icons and courthouses vividly embody the fundamentally democratic process of adjudication."—Ruth Weisberg, Roski School of Fine Arts, University of Southern California. /// "Resnik is the Arthur Liman Professor of Law at Yale Law School, where she teaches about federalism, procedure, courts, equality & citizenship. She also holds a term appointment as an Honorary Professor, Faculty of Laws, University College London."
Röllinger, Hugo (1997), 'Monumente pri Esperanto – ilustrita dokumentaro pri 1044 Zamenhof/Esperanto-objektoj en 54 landoj' ('Monumentally about Esperanto – an illustrated documentary of 1,044 Zamenhof-Esperanto objects in 54 countries'), Rotterdam. Röllinger is an Austrian Esperantist who died in 2001 after identifying 1,260 Zamenhof-Esperanto monuments (ZEO's). Currently, Robert Kaminski of Poland is the person charged with the registration of ZEO's by the World Esperanto Association. Ludwig Zamenhof was the creator of Esperanto.
Roerich Pact and Banner of Peace Committee (1947), "The Roerich Pact and the Banner of Peace," New York, City, New York (USA), 56 pages. Click here for on-line text. Click here for special webpage about Russian artist Nicholas Roerich [1874-1947].
Rosenbaum, Ron (March 25, 2008), "Welcome to the Hotel Hiroshima: Has the ground zero of the nuclear age become too 'normal'?," Slate Magazine. Impressions of peace monuments in Hiroshima. NB: Rossenbaum wrote Explaining Hitler: The search for the origins of evil" in 1998.
Saidel, Rochelle G. (October 1996), "Never Too Late to Remember: The Politics Behind New York City's Holocaust Museum," Holmes & Meier Publishers, pp. 290. Saidel believes "Yad Vashem bends the Holocaust to serve Israeli nationalist ideology, the Washington museum 'Americanizes' it, and the Los Angeles Museum is divided between 'universal tolerance lessons and slick high-tech dramatizations,' [whereas] the New York's museum will give a more balanced, i.e. accurate, history of the destruction of European Jewry."

Sandwich, Trevor, et al (2001), "Transboundary protected areas for peace and co-operation," World Commission on Protected Areas, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland (Switzerland), pp. 107. Click here for on-line text.
Savage, Kirk (1999), "Standing soldiers, kneeling slaves: Race, war, and monument in nineteenth-century America," Princeton University Press, Princeton. Click here for more information. Click here for Google scan of the much of the text. NB: Book cover illustrated with the statue of Abraham Lincon freeing a slave, the so-called Emancipation Memorial erected in Washington, DC (USA) in 1876.
Savage, Kirk (2002), "The Past in the Present: The Life of Memorials,” in Reading Rhetorically: A Reader for Writers, ed. by John C. Bean, et al. (New York: Longman), pp. 5. Previously appeared in Harvard Design Magazine (Fall 1999). Click here for on-line text.
Savage, Kirk (Date?), "History, Memory, and Monuments: An Overview of the Scholarly Literature on Commemoration,” online essay commissioned by the Organization of American Historians and the National Park Service, unnumbered pages. Click here for on-line
Savage, Kirk (2009), "Monument Wars: Washington, DC, the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape," University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 390. Savage is Associate Professor & Chair of the Department of Art & Architecture at the University of Pittsburgh. NB: Book cover illustrated with a close-up of names & reflection on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. See on-line text from Google Books.
Schneider, Ann M. (October 2012), "The Unsettling & Unsettled Monument Against Torture in Rio Janeiro, Brazil," Peace & Change, Volume 37, Issue 4, Peace & Justice Studies Association, pp. 489-515. "...history of the Tortura Nunca Mais (Torture Never Again) monument designed by Oscar Niemeyer following the transition from military to civilian government in Brazil in 1985. It was approved for installation & a foundation was put in place. Yet, the monument has yet to be erected. As a case study, this article shows the ways in which memorial projects must answer to multiple & often conflicting demands. Discussed primarily in terms of propriety & taste, the critiques effectively directed debates about the monument away from a denunciation of the military regime & toward other concerns." /// Schneider earned an MA in Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin & a PhD in History at the University of Chicago. Her desertation was "Amnestied in Brazil, 1895--1985."
Schumaker, David C. (Ongoing), Peter Wolf Toth Statue Quest, website. Hungarian-born Peter Wolf Toth erected a series of 58 wooden sculptures honoring the American Indian with at least one in each state.
Sevcenko, Liz (2004), "The Power of Place: How historic sites can engage citizens in human rights issues," New Tactics in Human Rights Project, Center for Victims of Torture (CVT), Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA), pp. 20. Sevcenko is Vice President for Interpretation, Lower East Side Tennament Museum, and Coordinator, International Coallition of Sites of Conscience, both in New York, New York (USA).
Slavik, Elin O'Hara (August 1, 2007), Bomb After Bomb: A Violent Cartography, Charta (Italy). Contains 48 color plates of Slavick's drawing series "Protesting Cartography: Places The United States Has Bombed." Forward by Howard Zinn. Slavik is a professor of art, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (USA).
Smith, Patrick (August 31, 2010), "Somebody's Else's Century: East & West in a post-Western world,", pp. 242. Discusses Nanjing Memorial & Cultural Revolution Museum in Stantou, among many other subjects. Smith lives in Hong Kong (China) & New York (USA).
Sodaro, Amy, “Exhibiting Atrocity: Facing the Past in the New Memorial Museums,” dissertation at The New School for Social Research (NSSR). Examines how societies use museums as mechanisms for coming to terms with past genocide and violence and preventing future human rights abuses. Sodaro's research is on memorialization of genocide and atrocity. Her publications include "Whose Holocaust: The Struggle for Romany Inclusion in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum" (International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, 2008), and "Sixteen Years Later: Remembering the Rwandan Genocide in the Kigali Memorial Center." She is co-editor of "Memory and the Future, Transnational Politics, Culture and Ethics" (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
Sorek, Tamir (2008), "Cautious Commemoration: Localism, Communalism, and Nationalism in Palestinian Memorial Monuments in Israel," Society for Comparative Study of Society & History, 50(2), pp. 337-368. "Illustrates how extrernal & internal cross-pressures have made Palestinian commemoration in Israel circuitous, vacillating & cautious. Although intellectual & political leaders have aspired to nurture Palestinian national identity by building monuments for national martyrs, frequently this national identity has been challenged & even blurred by local & religious allegiances." Tamir is Associate Professor of Sociology & Israel Studies at the University of Florida.
Southern Povery Law Center (April 21, 2016), "Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy," Montgomery, Alabama (USA). Names 1,503 "publicly supported spaces [monuments] dedicated to the Confederacy" (including 718 monuments & statues; 109 public schools named for Confederate icons; 80 counties & cities named for Confederates; 9 official Confederate holidays; & 10 US military bases named for Confederates). Omits "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries & other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature."
Swanson, David [May 30, 2017], "War Monuments Are Killing Us," Memorial Day remarks to Veterans for Peace at Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC (USA). Excerpt: "While many nations erect memorials to what they do not wish to repeat as well as to what they wish to emulate, the United States focuses overwhelmingly on wars & overwhelmingly on glorifying them... Well over 99.9% of our history is not memorialized in marble. And when we ask that it be, we’re generally laughed at..." /// David Swanson is an author, activist, journalist & radio host. He is director of and campaign coordinator for Swanson’s books include "War Is A Lie" & "When the World Outlawed War." He blogs at & He hosts Talk Nation Radio. He is a 2015, 2016 & 2017 Nobel Peace Prize Nominee. /// Rihgt image shows Veterans For Peace/Swords to Plowshares [Touring] Memorial Bell Tower.
Thomsen, Charles (Spring 1996), A Border Vision: The International Peace Garden," Manitoba History: The Journal of the Manitoba Historical Society, Number 31. Thomsen is in Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. The International Peace Garden has straddled the border between Manitoba & North Dakota since 1932.
Thomson, Margaret (2012), "New Zealand Country of Peace," Xlibris, Philippines. Includes 60 peace sites. Thomson is a Corresponding Member of the Society of Woman Geographers (SWG) & lives in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand.
Tilove, Jonathan (November 4, 2003), "Along Martin Luther King: Travels on Black America's Main Street," Random House, New York. With photographs by Michael Falco. Click here for the Wikipedia article about streets named after Martin Luther King, Jr.
Toner James F. (Date?), Peace and Pop Culture Syllabus (Pax 250), Peace Studies Program, Division of Lifelong Learning (DLL), University of Maine, Orono, Maine (USA). Course studies "examples from art, music, poetry, literature, museums, gardens, trails, film, television, magazine, cartoon, radio, Internet, video game, and comic book publishing industries." Click here for on-line text.
Uppuluri, Shigeko (July 27, 2012), "Oral History of Shigeko Uppuluri," 38-minute interview by Keith McDaniel, Center for Oak Ridge Oral History (COROH), Oak Ridge Public Library, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA).

van den Dungen, Peter (1981-82), "The International Museum of War and Peace at Lucerne [Switzerland]," Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Geschichte, Basel, vol. 31, pp. 185-202. Click here for more information. Click here for an on-line biography of Jan Bloch [1836-1902].
van den Dungen, Peter (1977), "A bibliography of the pacifist writings of Jean de Bloch," London.
van den Dungen, Peter (1980), "Foundations of peace reseasrch."
van den Dungen, Peter (1980), "The hidden history of a peace 'classic:' Emeric Cruce's Le Nouveau Cynee.
van den Dungen, Peter (Sepember 1981), "Ein interessant probleem - Jean de Bloch en de eerste Haagse Vredesconferentie," Transaktie, University of Gronigen, 81/3, pp. 291-335.
van den Dungen, Peter (1983), "The making of peace: Jean de Bloch & the First Hague Peace Conference," Occasional Paper #12, Center for the Study of Armament & Disarmament, California State University, Los Angeles.
van den Dungen, Peter (1981), "The International Museum of War and Peace at Lucerne," Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Geschichte, 31, pp. 185-202.
van den Dungen, Peter (1983), "The making of peace: Jean de Bloch and the First Hague Peace Conference."
van den Dungen, Peter (1986), "Peace Museums," in Pauling, Linus, Ervin Laszlo & Jong Youl Yoo, ed. by, World Encyclopedia of Peace, Volume 2 of 4 vols., Pergamon Press, pp. 234-243.
van den Dungen, Peter et al, ed. by (1995), "Peace Museums Worldwide," United Nations Publications on Peace, Geneva (Switzerland). "League of Nations Archives, Geneva, in Association with the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford., 57 pages + annex on UN publications. Describes 50 museums & museum projects in 14 countries. Contains texts by Pierre Pelou, Ursula-Maria Ruser & Peter van den Dungen.
van den Dungen, Peter et al, ed. by (1998), "Peace Museums Worldwide," United Nations Publications on Peace, Geneva (Switzerland). "League of Nations Archives, Geneva, in Association with the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford," 79 pages + annex on UN publications. Describes 62 museums & museum projects in 16 countries. Contains texts by Vladimir Petrovsky, Ursula-Maria Ruser, Peter van den Dungen & Anatoly Ionesov.
van den Dungen, Peter (1999), "Peace Education: Peace Museums," Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict (edited by Lester R. Kurtz), 1st edition, Academic Press, New York, pp. 691-703. Revised article in the 2nd edition (2008) was written by Hamzah Muzaini (qv).
van den Dungen, Peter (Fall 2002), "Peace Remembrance and Celebration," Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford." 1 page. Course outline covering peace culture and peace history, origins and developments of peace movements, and the construction of public peace memory (including peace museums, monuments, and memorials). Click here for on-line text.
van den Dungen, Peter (January 2005), "Irwin Abrams - Historian & Champion of the Nobel Peace Prize," Peace & Change, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 30-54., Peace History Society & Peace & Justice Studies Association. Click here for on-line text.
van den Dungen, Peter (2005), 'Monuments of a Uniting Europe', in Volker Rodekamp et al, eds., Wissenschaftliches Colloquium: Europaeische Nationaldenkmale im 21. Jarhundert - Nationale Erinnerung und Europaeische Identitaet / Academic Colloquy: European National Monuments in the 21st Century - National Memory and European Identity, Stadtgeschichtliches Museum [City History Museum], Leipzig (Germany), pp 129-139.

van den Dungen, Peter (May 2005), Keynote Speech, 5th International Conference of Peace Museums, International Network of Peace Museums (INPM), Gernika Peace Museum, Gernika-Lumo (Spain). Click here for audio recording.

van den Dungen, Peter (March 2006), "Preventing catastrophe: The world's first peace museum -- In praise of Ikuro Anzai & Jan Bloch," festschrift, The Ritsumeikan Journal of International Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 23-36. Click here for on-line text. Click here for a statement by Ikuro Anzai. Click here for an on-line biography of Jan Bloch [1836-1902].
van den Dungen, Peter (2007?), Dr. Peter van den Dungen, University of Bradford, Bradford, Yorkshire (England), pp. 6. Nine sections: Studies. Honorary Visiting Lecturer. Research Interests. Historical Peace Research. Peace Movements. Peace Remembrance & Heritage. Peace Museums & Exhibitions. Nobel Peace Prize. Selected Publications.

van den Dungen, Peter (2008), "Publications on Peace Museums" (Bibliography), International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), pp. 8. Has five sections: (1) directories, (2) newsletters, (3) conference volumes, (4) books, book chapters, articles, & (5) academic theses & dissertations. Click here for the on-line text.

van den Dungen, Peter (2008), "Cities of Peace." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2010) "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages), vol. 1, pp. 296-298.

van den Dungen, Peter (2008), "[Peace] Prizes." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2010) "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages), vol. 3, pp. 571-574.

van den Dungen, Peter (October 6, 2008), "Museums for peace: Past, present, and future" (Keynote Speech), 6th International Conference of Museums for Peace, International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan). Published in Ikeya, Risa, ed. by (February 2009), qv.

van den Dungen, Peter (2009), "Idee und Geschichte der neuzeitlichen Friedensstadt / Idea and history of the modern city of peace," "Published only in German, this is only scholarly paper to date on Cities of Peace."

van den Dungen, Peter (2010), "Towards a Bertha von Suttner Peace Museum in Vienna (1914-2014)," "Im Prisma - Bertha von Suttner: Die Waffen nieder!," Johann Georg Lughofer (Hg.), Edition Art Science, St. Wolfgangpp, Vienna (Austria), pp. 211-236. Recommends opening a peace museum on the centennial of von Suttner's death in 2014 which "would inform the visitor of the widespread and global phenomenon that is the peace movement of today." Click here for von Suttner history & monuments.

van den Dungen, Peter (February 26, 2013), "Projecting Peace Through History & Museums," Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 58-65.
Vowell, Sarah (2005), "Assassination Vacation," Simon & Schuster, New York, pp. 258. Entertaining account of a "pilgrimage" to monuments associated with three assassinated presidents: Lincoln [1809-1865], Garfield [1831-1881], and McKinley [1843-1901].
Walsh, Dan (Since 1981), "A Broken Language, a Crippled Debate, and the Role of Art in Democracy," Palestinian Poster Project Archives (PPPA), Liberation Graphics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (USA). Based on examples of poster art from the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.
Wang, Yu & Jon Burley (June 11-13, 2008), ""Two Peace Parks: Dalian World Peace Park & the International Peace Garden," 1st WSEAS International Conference on Landscape Architecture (LA '08), Algarve (Portugal), pp. 29-37.
Wang, Yu & Jon Burley (January 2009), "Peace Parks a Global Perspective," WSEAS Transactions on Environment & Development, issue 1, volume 5, pp. 65-75. Yu Wang is associated with the Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing (China). "Jon Bryan Burley, Michigan State University, is one of the most accomplished landscape architect researchers in the country, with more than 250 scholarly papers."
Web Urbanist (on-going), "12 Compelling Monuments Dedicated to Peace: Reversing the typology of the war memorial," website. "From the most prolific countries in the world, unique, memorable & with a lot of history behind, these are the 12 picks that will help you decide if humans are as good at honoring peace, as they did with wars."
Weber, John Pitman (1998), "Toward a People's Art: The Contemporary Mural Movement," University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. "First published in 1977. Remains a classic study of the community-based mural movement that produced hundreds of large-scale wall paintings in the USA & Canada."
Weber, John Pitman (2003), "Politics and Practice of Community Public Art: Whose Murals Get Saved?," Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, California, pp. 16.
Wegener, Corine (March/April 2005), "Law & Ethics: Truth and Booty," Museum News, American Association of Museums (AAM). Wegener is Associate Curator, Department of Architecture, Design, Decorative Arts, Craft & Sculpture, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. She is also a retired major with 21 years in the US Army Reserve. She is coauthor of the US Army publication GTA 41-01-002, Civil Affairs Arts, Monuments & Archives Guide, a resource for soldiers on the protection of cultural property in a wartime environment.
Weiner, Isaac A. (July 2009), "Displacement and Re-placement: The International Friendship Bell [in Oak Ridge, TN] As a Translocative Technology of Memory", Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, Art and Belief, Volume 5, Number 2, pp. 179-203. "I interpret the bell as a highly ambivalent site of cultural memory, drawing on memory studies theory to analyze its multiple meanings." Weiner is Assistant Professor, Department of Religious Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia (USA).
Williams, Ginger, & E. Timothy Smith (2011), "Toward a Peaceful World," Peace & Change, vol. 36, pp. 151-155. Williams is at Winthrop College. Smith edits the Peace History Society newsletter.
Wilson, Charles Reagan (March 26, 2009), "Routes of Reconciliation: Visiting Sites of Cutural Trauma in the U.S. South, Northern Ireland, and South Africa,", Southern Spaces, 4 pages. Wilson is Chair of History & Professor of Southern Studies, University of Mississippi.
Winstone, Martin (2010), "The Holocaust Sites in Europe: An Historical Guide," I.B. Tauris, London & New York, pp. 438, with maps by Martin Gilbert. "First comprehensive guide to these sites... Contains all major Holocaust sites in Europe, from Belgium & Belarus to Serbia & Ukraine..., notorious concentration & death camps, such as Auschwitz & Ravensbruck, but also less well known examples, such as Sered' in Slovakia..., detailed descriptions of massacre sites, as well as the ghettos, 'Euthanasia' centres and Roma & Sinti sites which witnessed similar crimes..., [and] extensive reference to the many museums & memorials which commemorate the Holocaust." Winstone is a writer & teacher who undertakes educational work for the Holocaust Educational Trust. He lives in Oxford (England).

Winter, Jay (1995), "Sites of Memory Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European cultural history," Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.310. A specialist on World War I & its impact on the 20th century,Winter was University Lecturer in Modern History & a Fellow of Pembroke College at Cambridge & is now Charles J. Stille Professor of History at Yale.
Yamane, Kazuyo (2001), "Peace Museums in Japan: The Present Condition and Problems," Grassroots House Peace Museum, Kochi City, Japan. Click here for the on-line text.
Yamane, Kazuyo (October 2008), "[Directory of] Museums for peace worldwide," Organizing Committee, Sixth International Conference of Museums for Peace [October 6-10, 2008], Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan), pp. 89. Click here for "List of Museums for Peace in the World except Japan." Click here for "List of Museums for Peace in Japan." Click here for explanation.
Yamane, Kazuyo (2009), "Grassroots Museums for Peace in Japan: Unknown Efforts for Peace & Reconciliation," VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 341 pages. Available from "Expertly written by Kazuyo Yamane, one of the world's foremost experts on peace museums & distinguished professor of peace studies from Japan - the country with the most peace museums. In this book, several possible examples for a prototype for peace museums are presented, the most prominent being the Grassroots House, located in Kochi, Japan. Yamane also provides an interesting history of the INMP - the International Network of Museums for Peace - and the special role that this organization plays in coordinating the international exchange of art exhibits." /// Same text as ''Peace Museums in Japan: The Present Condition and Problems" (qv)?
Yamane, Kazuyo, ed. by (ongoing), MUSE Newsletter of the Japanese Citizens' Network of Museums for Peace (JNMP). Click here for MUSE from July 1999 to December 2000. Click here for MUSE from Janauary 2001 to date. Click here for results of a survey of Japanese peace museums in August 2001 by Kazuyo Yamane, editor of MUSE.
Yoe, Craig (2009), "The Great Anti-War Cartoons," Fantagraphics, pp. 120, black & white. "At once somber & witty, moving & stunning, devastating & thought-provoking, the selected cartoons expose the universal paradoxes of war--the kind that plague our society even in the present day." Yoe was Creative Director & later VP/General Manager of the Muppets & is now Adjunct Professor of Art at Syracuse University.
Yoshida, Takashi (June 5, 2007), Remembering War, Commemorating Colonialism: War and Peace Museums in Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea, U.S, Institute of Peace (USIP), Washington, DC (USA).
Yoshida, Takashi (December 2, 2007), "Revising the Past, Complicating the Future: The Yushukan War Museum in Modern Japanese History, The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Yoshida is assistant professor of history at Western Michigan University & author of "The Making of the 'Rape of Nanking:' History and Memory in Japan, China, & the United States." Click here for on-line text.

Young, Antonia (2008), "Peace parks." In Young, Nigel, ed. by, (2009) "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages).
Young, James Edward (1993), "The texture of memory: Holocaust memorials and meaning", Yale University Press, 398 pages. "Explores both the idea of the monument & its role in public memory, discussing how every nation remembers the Holocaust according to its own traditions, ideals & experiences and how these memorials reflect the ever-evolving meanings of the Holocaust."

Young, Nigel, ed. by (2010), "Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change," Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 4 volumes (2,176 pages). Click here for table of contents in Excel format. N.B.: This work replaces the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Peace.

Young, Nigel (April 29, 2010), "Peace: Renewal of an Enlightenment Project," Magdelan College, Oxford (England). Young's comments about the recently published "International Encyclopedia of Peace: Global conflict, transformation and nionviolent change" (qv), of which he is Editor-in-Chief. Click here for on-line text.
Zeitz, Joshua (August 20, 2017), "Why There Are No Nazi Statues in Germany: What the South can learn from postwar Europe," Politico, Washington, DC (USA). Joshua Michael Zeitz (born 1974) is an American historian & author of several books on American political & social history.
Zelizer, Craig (June 22, 2013), "Guide to Peace & Tourism" (blog), Peace & Collaborative Development Network (PCDN). Dr. Zelizer is the Associate Director of the MA in Conflict Resolution within the Department of Government at Georgetown University, Washington, DC (USA). Contains internet links to "organizations & initiatives that are working on the issues of peace & tourism."

Click here for photos of peace monuments (from Webshots).
Click here for "12 Compelling Monuments Dedicated to Peace" (from WebUrbanist).
Click here for "12 Monuments Dedicated to Amazing Women: From Joan of Arc to the Working Women of Amsterdam."
Click here for website of the Peace History Society (PHS).
Click here for world-wide map of peace places (from Dayton International Peace Museum).
Please email your comments & questions to geovisual @ Thank you.

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