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Peace Monuments in Pennsylvania
& New Jersey (USA)

N.B. This web page has three parts: (1) Philadelphia & Vicinity, (2) Remainder of Pennsylvania and (3) New Jersey.

(1) Philadelphia & Vicinity, Pennsylvania

Right click image to enlarge.

1682 - Great Elm Tree, Sackamaxon, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Also called Treaty Elm. Unintentional monument. At place where proprietor William Penn [1644-1718] signed peace treaty with Delaware Indians. Blew down in a storm on March 5, 1810. Left image by Thomas Birch [1779-1851] was engraved in 1804. Right image by George Lehman [d.1870] was engraved by him in 1827 (note the new obelisk in the lower margin). An Elm Tree descendant was planted here on May 6, 2010. Also see 1827 (obelisk), 1893 (park), 1976 (marker), 1982 (statue) & 2010 (second tree). 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 16-17.

1703 - Fair Hill Burial Ground, 2900 Germantown Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Founded in 1703 on part of a grant of land of 16 acres given to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) by George Fox [1624-1691], who is known as the founder of the Society. He received the land from William Penn [1644-1718] as a gift. The present burial ground was laid out in 1843 and enlarged in 1853, providing almost five acres of green space in this urban neighbohood. Most persons buried at Fair Hill are Quakers, many of them participants in the early abolitionist and women's rights movements. Some of the more renowned include Lucretia Mott [1793-1880], James Mott, Thomas and Mary Ann McClintock, Sarah Pugh, Ann Preston and Edward Parrish. Some colleagues in the anti-slavery movement, not Friends, are also buried there, most notably Robert Purvis [1810-1998], an African-American known as the President of the underground railroad, and his family. The site was recently placed on the National Register for Historic Places."

Both paintings show proprietor William Penn [1644-1718] signing peace treaty with the Delaware Indians at Sackamaxon in 1682.
Penn's "Peaceable Kingdom" came to an end with the Conestoga Massacre by the "Paxton Boys" on December 14 & 27, 1763.

1771 (left image) - "William Penn's Treaty with the Indians when he founded the Province of Pennsylvania in North America," Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 118 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Painted by Benjamin West [1738-1820] at request of Thomas Penn [1702-1775].

c1840-44 (right image) - "Penn's Trety with the Indians," Philadelphia Museum of Art, west end of Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Painted by Edward.Hicks [1780-1849]. Also at National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC.

July 4, 1776 - Declaration of Independence, Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Image is John Trumbull's famous painting often identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration, but it actually shows the drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress.

1798 - Peace-Office for the USA proposed by Dr. Benjamin Rush, Philadelphia, Pennsylania (USA). Benjamin Rush [1745-1813] was a Philadelphia phsysician and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Left image shows Shippen Mansion, home of Rush at 34 South 4th Street in Philadelphia at the time of his death in 1813. Right image is portrait of Rush by Charles Wilson Peale [1741-1827] in 1783.

November 1827 - Obelisk, Penn Treaty Park, Delaware (Columbus) Avenue & Beach Street, Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Inscribed "Treaty ground of William Penn, and the Indian Nations, 1682, Unbroken faith. William Penn, Born 1644, Died 1713. Pennsylvania, Founded, 1681, by Deeds of Peace. Placed by the Penn Society, A.D. 1827, to mark the site of the Great Elm Tree." Right image is 1827 engraving by George Lehman [d.1870] -- with the new obelisk in bottom margin. The obelisk "remained tucked away in the NW corner of a lumber yard...until actions were taken to create Penn Treaty Park" (qv) in 1893. Also see 1682 (tree), 1893 (park), 1976 (marker), 1982 (statue) & 2010 (tree).

1866-c1896 - Universal Peace Union (UPU), headquarted in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Founded in 1866 by Joshua P. Blanshard, Adin Ballou, Henry C. Wright, Alfred H. Love, Lucretia Mott, and others, the UPU has been called "the most colorful and important peace organization to rise from the the Civil War." It maintained its headquarters in Independence Hall until about 1896. But UPU's opposition to the Spanish-American War unleashed a storm of passion against the organization, it was thrown out of Independence Hall, precious mementos were ruthlessly scattered, and UPU head Alfred H. Love [1830-1913] was burned in effigy.

May 10-November 10, 1876 - Centennial Exposition, Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "First official World's Fair in the USA."
1876 - "Charrue de la Paix" / "Plow of Peace," Salle de l'Alabama / Hall of the Alabama, Hotel de Ville / City Hall,, Geneva (Switzerland). Made for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). /// "Offerte à la Ville et au peuple de Genève après avoir figuré comme symbole de paix à l'exposition de Paris en 1878. Elle fut confectionnée avec les sabres que des officiers américains avaient cédés lors d'un congrès pour la paix tenu en 1872 [sic] à Philadelphie par l' "Universal Peace Union." 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 18-19.

October 28, 1893 - Penn Treaty Park, Delaware (Columbus) Avenue & Beach Street, Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Alleged site of famous peace treaty signed by William Penn [1644-1718] and the Delaware Indians in 1683. See associated virtual Mentioned by Tom Flores (2008). Also see 1682 (tree), 1827 (obelisk), 1976 (marker), 1982 (statue) & 2010 (tree).

1901 - Statue of William Penn, City Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). 1"1.3-m (37 ft), 27-ton bronze statue of Quaker and Philadelphia founder William Penn [1644-1718]. One of 250 sculptures created by Alexander Milne Calder [1846-1923] that adorn the building inside and out. The statue is the tallest atop any building in the world." City Hall is the world's tallest masonry building.

June 1904 - Statue of Benjamin Rush, Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, across from the entrance to the old Naval Observatory, Foggy Bottom, Washington, DC (USA). The larger-than-life, bronze statue. Honors Benjamin Rush M.D. [1745-1813], Philadelphia physician, medical educator and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Rush proposed a Peace-Office for the USA in 1798.

1930 - Pendle Hill, 338 Plush Mill Road, Wallingford, Pennsylvania (USA). "Quaker Center for Study and Contemplaltion"near Philadelphia. Named for Pendle Hill (England).
1652 - Pendle Hill, Borough of Pendle, Lancashire (England). Visited in 1652 by George Fox [1624-1691] leading to his foundation of the Quaker movement.

1930 - Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania (USA). Began with donation of papers from Jane Addams who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Has oniline Exhibits. 1931

1934 - All Wars Memorial to Colored Soldiers & Sailors, Benjamin Franklin Parkway at 20th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By Swiss-American sculptor J. Otto Schweizer [1863-1955]. Front depicts four colored soldiers. Back (as shown in image) depicts four alegorical females bearing a torch of justice, laurel branch of peace, etc. A side panel lists "all" six wars, viz. American Revolution, Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrecion & World War. "First placed in West Fairmount Park, this work was moved to a prominent position on the Parkway in 1994."

June 1, 1950 - "Aero Memorial World War I 1917-18," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. "Proposed during WW-I by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania. Commissioned by Fairmount Park Art Association."
August 1939 - "Armillary Sphere," Ariana Park, Palais des Nations / Palace of Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). 410 cm in diameter. Weighs some 5,800 kg. Also called Celestial Sphere. By Paul Manship [1885-1966]. Presented by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation in memory of the founder of the League of Nations.

1954 - "Social Consciousness," Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "At the West Entrance... By Jacob Epstein [1880-1959]. Suggest sympathy, tenderness & sorrow for human suffering. The three parts are (left to right) The Great Consoler (or Compassion), The Eternal Mother (or Destiny) & Succor (or Death). At the base of the statue the last two lines of Walt Whitman’s poem, America, is engraved: "Centre of equal daughters, equal sons, / All, all alike endear’d, grown, ungrown, young or old, / Strong, ample, fair, enduring, capable, rich, / Perennial with the Earth, with Freedom, Law and Love, / A grand, sane, towering, seated Mother, / Chair’d in the adamant of Time." /// This is "Monday's Monument" #83.

May 1974 - Lucretia C. Mott historical marker, Pennsylvania highway 611 north of Cheltenham Avenue, Elkins Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania (USA). Text: "Nearby stood 'Roadside," the home of the ardent Quakeress Lucretia C. Mott [1793-1880]. Her most notable work was in connection with antislavery women's rights, temperance and peace." Said to be the most important woman abolitionist in America.

1974 - Friends Center, 15th & Cherry Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Three buildings including the 1856 Race Street Meetinghouse, site of Quaker witness from the abolition of slavery, to women’s rights, to binding up the wounds of war. Houses 19 nonprofit organizations that bring approximately 300 workers and 75 children to the Center each day. "You can find literature provided by the Quaker Information Center, look at the lobby displays provided by groups such as the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), or take a moment to sit quietly in the worship room." AFSC received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947. 1947

1975 - Statue of Mary Dyer, Friends Center, 1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "The Massachusetts legislature enacted a law that every Quaker in its jurisdiction should be banished on pain of death. Mary Dyer [c1611-1660] was hanged in May 1660 for re-entering that colony, rather than abandon the principles of freedom of speech and conscience." Original statue is is Boston; another copy is in Richmond, Indiana (qv).

1976 - Bicentennial, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA).
1976 - LOVE Statue, JFK Park (nicknamed "LOVE Park"), 16th Street & Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadephia, Pennsylvania (USA).
1970 - LOVE Sculpture, Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA), Indianapolis, Indiana (USA). 3-ton sculpture made of Cor-ten steel, 12-feet high, 12-feet wide and six-feet deep. Completed in 1970 and acquired by IMA in 1975. Examples in many other cities. Indiana native Robert Indiana first conceived the idea of LOVE during the Vietnam War [1959-1975], and his work became a symbol of peace.
January 26, 1973 - LOVE Stamp (USA). "The 330 million US postal stamps issued in the 1970’s are one of the more popular examples of the great appeal of this iconic image."

1976 - Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies, Historical Society of Philadelphia, 18 South 7th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "One of the nation’s leading repositories of ethnic and immigrant studies materials. Holds many national treasures, such as the first draft of the US Constitution, an original printer’s proof of the Declaration of Independence, and the earliest surviving American photograph."

1976 - National Museum of American Jewish History (NMAJH), Independence Mall, 55 North Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). A 100,000 square-foot new state-of-the-art museum will open in 2010 (as seen in image).

1976 - African American Museum in Philadelphia (AAMP), 701 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Notable as the first museum funded and built by a municipality to help preserve, interpret and exhibit the heritage of African Americans. Opened during the 1976 Bicentennial celebrations. Located a few blocks NW of the Liberty Bell." Note carilion of bells on sidewalk in front of the museum.

September 18, 1976 - Historical Marker, Penn Treaty Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Marker Text "Traditional site of a treaty between William Penn and the Indians, this park is maintained by the City of Philadelphia in commemoration of the Proprietor's peaceful relations with the Indians." Also see 1682 (tree), 1827 (obelisk), 1893 (park), 1982 (statue) & 2010 (tree).
1982 - Statue of William Penn, Penn Treaty Park, Delaware (Columbus) Avenue & Beach Street, Fishtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Daughters of the American Colonists commissioned Frank C. Gaylord, the sculptor who would later do the Korean War Memorial in Washington, DC." Also see 1682 (tree), 1827 (obelisk), 1893 (park), 1976 (marker) & 2010 (tree).

July 4, 1978 - Liberty Bell Park (Gan Hapa'amon), Keren HaYesod & King David Streets, Jerusalem (Israel). "Herbert W. Armstrong wrote to the members & co-workers of the Worldwide Church of God, May 21, 1978: 'On July 4 there will be a big '4th of July Celebration' in Jerusalem, hosted jointly by the Mayor of Jerusalem, Teddy Kollek [1911-2007], and myself. The city of Philadelphia had an exact duplicate made of the Liberty Bell -- crack & all -- and gave it to the city of Jerusalem. In the spring of 1976 -- Passover time -- the Mayor came to me privately, and asked my help in building an important downtown park in Jerusalem, to be named the 'Liberty Bell Park.' Through the AICF [Ambassador International Cultural Foundation], I was able to agree to supply the children's playground area, at the very opening of the park. The park is now completed, and Mayor Kollek has asked me to be present on July 4 for the opening & dedication of the Liberty Bell Park." /// Herbert W. Armstrong [1892-1986] founded the Worldwide Church of God in the late 1930's, as well as Ambassador College in 1946, & was an early pioneer of radio & TV evangelism, originally from Eugene, Oregon. His teachings included the interpretation of biblical prophecy in light of British Israelism & required observance of parts of the covenant Law including seventh-day Sabbath, dietary prohibitions & the covenant law 'Holy Days.' He also founded the AICF, which promoted the arts, humanities & humanitarian projects. Armstrong & his advisers met with heads of governments in various nations, for which he described himself as an 'ambassador without portfolio for world peace.'"

1987 - Statue of Fritz Jägerstätter, Saint Malachy Church, North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Why, given the awe-inspiring calendar of saints, is St. Malachy so taken with a virtually unknown Austrian peasant from WW-II times? In God’s providence & with the generosity of Fr. Daniel Berrigan, we possess on a side altar a magnificent carved statue of [Franz] Jägerstätter. The artist, Bob McGovern [1933-2011], one of our fellow parishoners, carved the statue to honor Fr. Dan’s fifty years as a Jesuit in 1987. Fr. Berrigan has great devotion to Jägerstätter, but stripping down in his mid-eighties, donated the statue to St. Malachy as a place where the peace of Christ will be celebrated." Info courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek (Pax Christi International). /// Franz Jägerstätter [1907-1943] was an Austrian conscientious objector sentenced to death & executed by Nazi Germany during World War II. He was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church on October 26, 2007, in Linz (Austria).

Date? - Pearl S. Buck House, Pearl S. Buck International, 520 Dublin Road, Perkasie, Pennsylvania (USA). Pearl S. Buck [1892-1973] received the Pulitzer Prize in 1932 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1938. "Home to Pearl S. Buck and her international family for 38 years. Today, it is only one of ten National Historic Landmarks open to the public in the US that educates the public about a woman’s contribution to society through a house with an intact collection." 1938

October 26, 1996 - Civilian Public Service historical marker, Friends Center, 1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Commissioned by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission." Honors "some 12,000 men who were classified as conscientious objectors to war...during World War II."

June 1998 - Peace Wall, 29th & Wharton Streets (southwest corner), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Mural by Jane Golden & Peter Pagast of the Philadelphia Mural Arts Program. Inscribed "Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God" from Matthew 5:9. Note children in foreground of the image.

November 6, 1999 - Historical Marker honoring the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), Friends Center, 1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). The AFSC and the Friends Service Council (UK) shared a Nobel Peace Prize in 1947. Clarence Pickett [1884-1965] accepted the prize on behalf of the AFSC.

2000 - National Liberty Museum, 321 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Dedicated to helping educators meet academic standards, while providing curriculum for the most critical areas of cross content education, including anti-bullying and non-violence, respect for diversity, pride in oneself, civic responsibility, independent thinking and more." Displays include all Nobel Peace Prize Winners, religious persecution, political repression, slavery, reconciliation, street violence, violence in the media, Native Americans, the immigrant experience, peace heroes, Anne Frank's secret annex, Nelson Mandela's jail cell, and Felix Zandman's hideout in the ghetto of Grodno, Poland, during WW-II. "Glass art is a key component of the Museum because it represents both the beauty and fragility of freedom. Has one of the largest and most important collections of contemporary glass sculptures in the world. Centerpiece is a 21-foot 'Flame of Liberty' by the world’s most renowned glass artist Dale Chihuly." Displays peace sculpture by Lin Evola ("Peace Angels"), Lucio Bubacco, Cynthia Constentino ("Family with Guns"), Ulla Darni ("The Peace Portal"), Irene Frolic ("Peace is on My Mind"), Gartan ("John Lennon"), Steve Greenberg ("Guns in America"), Tolla Inbar ("Climb of the Couragous"), John Knowles ("Strength through Faith") Finn Lynggaard, Jonathan Mandell, Liz Marx, John McIntyre ("Peacestruck"), Christopher Ries ("Golden Egg"), Auguste Rodin [1840-1917] ("Burghers of Calais"), Renato Santarossa, Sandy Skoglund ("Jellybean Children"), Steve Tobin, Milon Townsend ("The Gift of Life"), Etta Winigrad ("Dictator"), Peter Yenawine, and other artists. Click here for museum guide.

June 18, 2001 - Freedom Sculpture, 16th & Vine Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Bronze 20 feet long x 8 feet high, 7,000 pounds. "I wanted to create a sculpture almost anyone, regardless of their background, could look at and instantly recognize that it is about the idea of struggling to break free. This sculpture is about the struggle for achievement of freedom through the creative process." - Comment by sculptor Zenos Frudakis.

June 15, 2006 - Marion Nakashima Peace Garden, Chandler Hall, Newtown, Pennsylvania (USA). Near Nakashima Foundation for Peace in New Hope, Pennsylvania. Marion is the widow of George Nakashima [1905-1990] whose peace tables are in New York City, Moscow, India, and South Africa (qv). They were interned 1942-1943 in a camp for Japanese-Americans before moving to New Hope, Pennsylvania,

2008 - "Independence Starts Here," Hahnemann University Hospital, Broad & Race Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By muralist Donald Gensler. "About 12,000 square feet. Seven stories tall. Within the design people with disabilities stand as monuments symbolizing different actors within a diverse and extraordinary community. These people are all from Philadelphia and of different races, genders, and backgrounds."

March 6, 2010 - American Elm Tree, Penn Treaty Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "Today, virtually all of the surrounding industry has disappeared, and the park now sits in the heart of Philadelphia's redeveloping riverfront with views of Penn's Landing, the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, and the city's high rise buildings. You can watch ocean freighters and local tugs in the shipping channel close to the park's shoreline." Also see 1682 (first tree), 1827 (obelisk), 1893 (park), 1976 (marker) & 1982 (statue).

2013 - Envision Peace Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). "To be an exciting new structure built in the heart of Philadelphia’s cultural and tourist district, adding a fresh new voice. Taking a place there among structures that celebrate some of society’s highest achievements, will be a powerful and enduring symbol that, as so many are saying, 'Another world is possible.'"

(2) Remainder of Pennsylvania (i.e. Without Philadelphia)

Circa 1833 - Peaceable Kingdon by Quaker artist Edward Hicks, Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts (USA). Click here for more information on the "kingdoms of Edward Hicks." Probably painted in Pennsylvania. One of a series of similar paintings made over a span of several years.

Before 1849 - Edward Hicks House, Penn Street, Newtown, Pennsylvania (USA). "Edwards Hicks [1780-1849] was a Quaker sign painter, best known today for his 'ornamental' paintings, especially the motif known as 'The Peaceable Kingdom,' which illuminates Isaiah 11: 'The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion and fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.'” He painted between 60 & 100 paintings on this theme,often combining it with Penn’s Treaty with the Indians... The treaty William Penn entered into was remarked upon by Voltaire, who called it '...the only treaty never sworn to and never broken.' Hicks' house "is commemorated with a historical marker & an information board describing his life & work as a painter, preacher & peacemaker." This is "Monday's Monument" #50.

June 5, 1872 - Gnadenhütten Monument & Museum, Gnadenhütten, Ohio (USA). 37 foot (11 m) monument, located next to a reconstructed cabin in what was the center of the original village. Inscribed "Here triumphed in death ninety Christian Indians, March 8, 1782." Memorializes victims of the Gnadenhütten Massacre, "the murder of 96 Indians, mostly Delawares, during the American Revolution. The Indians, converted peaceful Christians, were under suspicion because of their neutrality in the war. A [Pennyslvania] officer, David Williamson, and his militia, seeking revenge for Indian raids on frontier settlements, pretended friendship with the Indians, then disarmed them and returned to kill them in cold blood; two scalped boys escaped to relate the slayings."

1900 - Stephen Foster Memorial, Carneige Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Includes a controversial rendering of slave "Old Black Joe" playing the banjo at the feet of the well dressed white composer Stephen Collins Foster [1826-1864]. By Giuseppe Moretti [1857-1935]. who also sculpted Vulcan (1904) in Birmingham, Alabama, and the Peace Monument (1927) in Nashville, Tennessee (qv).
May 31, 1909 - Civil War Monument, Memorial Park, Danville, Pennsylvania, Montour County, Pennsylvania (USA). Obelisk 73 feet tall with figures of an infantryman, an artilleryman, a cavalryman, and the Goddess of Peace, plus 4 granite balls 3 feet in diameter. "In 1936, Danville was honored to be able to procure a small piece of metal from the USS Battleship Maine, which was destroyed in Havana Harbor in February 1898. This became another monument." Image from circa 1920. Compare 1913 monument in Decatur, Indiana (qv).

1910 - "Goddess of Victory and Peace," atop Pennsylvania State Memorial, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (USA). "The pavilion is the largest monument on the Gettysburg Battlefield... In 1909-10, Samuel Murray created 'The Goddess of Victory and Peace' (Athena) from melted-down cannons." /// Inscribed: "With firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right" by Abraham Lincoln.
1938-2008 - Nationality Classrooms, Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). A collection of 27 classrooms depicting (and donated by) ethnic groups that helped build the city of Pittsburgh: 1938 Early American, German, Russian, Scottish & Swedish. 1939 Chinese, Czechoslovak, Hungarian & Yugoslav. 1940 Lithuanian & Polish. 1941 Greek & Syrian-Lebanon. 1943 French & Romanian. 1948 Norwegian. 1949 Italian. 1952 English. 1957 Irish. 1987 Israel Heritage. 1988 Armenian. 1989 African Heritage. 1990 Ukrainian. 1996 Austrian. 1999 Japanese. 2000 Indian. 2008 Welsh. Proposed rooms: Danish, Finnish, Korean, Latin American & Caribbean. Philippine, Swiss, Thai & Turkish. Image shows Indian Room.

July 3, 1938 - Vandalized on January 8, 2009 - Peace Light Memorial, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (USA). Dedicated by President Franklin Deleno Roosevelt on 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg in presence of elderly veterans from both sides of the Civil War. Also known as Eternal Light Peace Memorial. 1 of 40 monuments in "Peace Symbols" by Zonia Baber (1948), pp. 54-55. Vandalized on January 8, 2009 (right image).
1941 - Maxo Vanka Murals, St. Nicholas Croatian Catholic Church, Millvale, Pennsylvania (USA). Near Pittsburgh. By Croatian-American artist Maksimilijan (Maxo) Vanka [1889-1963]. "More unusual for a church are the political & antiwar aspects of the murals that echo the crucifixion -- widows mourn over a soldier in a coffin containing a bleeding corpse, and crosses cover the hillside behind them. Another wall depicts corrupt justice: a figure in a gas mask holds scales on which the gold outweighs bread. Clearly World War I had a big effect on Maxo."

Date? - Museum of the Cumberland County Historical Society (CCHS), 21 North Pitt Street, Carlisle, Pennslyvania (USA). "Dedicated to collecting, preserving and interpreting the rich history of Cumberland County... Particularly noteworthy are...materials from the Carlisle Indian Industrial School [1879 - 1918]" at nearby Carlisle Barracks (now home of the US Army War College). NB: "There is no Indian School museum on the old school grounds," but click here for information about touring the grounds.

Mid-1980's - Peace Tower, SW corner of Pine Street & Little League Boulevard, near Pine Street United Methodist Church, 441 Pine Street, Williamsport, Pennsylvania (USA). "Erected by Dr. Robert S. Yasui, who died August 20, 2012, at the age of 88. The story of his life is nothing short of amazing, having faced the World War II hardships of being forced into a Japanese Internment Camp. Over the years, his family's story was told in a documentary & later a book, 'The Stubborn Twig' by Lauren Kessler, which focused on the Yasui family as they migrated from Japan & three generations of struggles his family faced as a result of their ancestry... In the mid-1980s, he commissioned a Peace Tower monument in honor of his parents. Those who walk by may notice the sound of chimes coming from within the tower. According to friends, Yasui hoped the tower would give citizens a place to rest, meditate & find solace in times of hardship. The plaque of the tower reads ' the humanity that makes us all one.'"
1987 - "Grant us peace" (Vietnam Veterans Monument), 375 North Shore Drive (Northshore Trail) Northshore, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania (USA). By George Danhires Ron Bennett. "That is the translation of the Vietnamese words inscribed on this monument... Reminds us of the emotional trauma our veteran’s suffered in this war. Those who returned home did so wounded – inside, outside, or both. This monument seems to call out to them with healing thoughts."
1989 - Eliza Evans Baker Peace Chapel, Baker-Henry Nature Preserve near Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania (USA). Designed by Maya Lin. Image shows setting sun. Eliza Evans Baker was a peace educator. Juniata College has the Baker Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies (PACS). Entry #869 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1990 - Peace Garden, Riverfront Park, Susquehana River, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (USA). Placed by Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR). Cutouts by Dutch-born Dr. Frederick Franck [1909-2006] relate to victims of Hiroshima. See Franck's Pacim in Terris sculpture garden in Warwick, New York (USA). Entry #866 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). PSR received Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. 1985
1996 - Historical Marker, Pittsburgh Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (USA). "The heritage of the Carnegie Hero Fund was commemorated in 1996 by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission through the issuance of a roadside marker, which was installed near the sites of both the mine and the cemetery in which many of the disaster's victims were buried [after the massive explosion on January 25, 1904, in a coal mine at Harwick, PA, near Pittsburgh, claimed 181 lives and inspired Carnegie to create the Fund]. More than 1,600 such markers have been issued by the state since the program's inception in 1946. The blue and gold signs dotting the state's highways commemorate subjects having meaningful impact and statewide or national significance."
September 9, 2001 - Peace Plaza, Tenafly, New Jersey (USA). "Dedicated to world peace just two days before 9/11. Also dedicated to the memory of former Borough Administrator Robert Miller & his wife Elizabeth, both killed in the TWA Flight 800 crash off Long Island in July 1996. Mayor Ann Moscovitz designed the blue granite mural that adorns the plaza & created the quote expressing hope for world peace. At the dedication, which was attended by borough residents, officials & two UN representatives, the ambassador of Hungary warned that America was not immune to terrorism, Moscovitz recalled. 'He said, "You don't realize how you are viewed by the world. The US is going to be the object of terror." Two days later, we were,' Moscovitz said. Four people from Tenafly were killed in the attack on the World Trade Center. A plaque was erected to commemorate their lives & the plaza became, in effect, a combined TWA Flight 800/September 11 Memorial. In the ensuing days, people came from the surrounding area to the plaza with candles. 'They wanted someone to go to, like a support group. So a lot of them came spontaneously to our plaza to share their grief,' Moscovitz said."

2001 - Temporary Monument, Shanksville, Pennsylvania (USA). For victims of Flight 93 which crashed in a field near Shanksville on September 11, 2001.
2001 - Bruderhof Peace Barn, Spring Valley Bruderhof, Farmington, Pennsylvania (USA). "Two days after 9/11/2001, the 5th through 8th grade students of the Spring Valley Bruderhof School wanted to do something for peace. They decided to convert an old barn into a museum for peace and a memorial for the victims of terrorism and war. In addition they have handcrafted memorial benches for each passenger and crew member of Flight 93, which are at the crash site in Shanksville, Pennsylvania." No longer exists?

1992-2008 - "Walking to the Sky." (#1) 1992 "Man Walking to the Sky," Kassel (Germany). (#2) "Woman Waking to the Sky," Strasbourg (France). (#3) 2004 "Humanity Walking to the Sky," moved from Rockefeller Center, New York City, & Nasher Collection, Dallas, Texas. 2006 Carnegie-Mellon University, Warner Hall, Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pensylvania (USA). (#4) 2008 Kiturami Homsys Company, Hwagok-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul/Yonhap (South Korea). Sculptures by American Jonathan Borofsky. The sculpture in Seoul features people of different ages and ethnicities, including three Asian people. The pole is angled at 75 degrees, because "the idea is to walk to the sky, not to the building across the street,'' Borofsky joked.
July 4, 2007 - Global Conflicts for Peace and Freedom monument, Lycoming County Veterans Memorial Park, Fourth Street & Wahoo Drive, Williamsport, Pennsylvania (USA). Carved from black granite mined from Pennsylvania and measures 14 feet long and stands 8 feet high.
May 2, 2014 - Kinmen Peace Bell, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania (USA). "Gift from the government of Taiwan. Scranton is the only institution of higher education in the world to receive such a gift. Symbolizes Chinese characteristics such as peace & freedom. Engraved with the word 'peace' in more than 100 languages... The original bell was dedicated in 2011 on Taiwan’s Kinmen Island (Quemoy) to mark the 53rd anniversary of the 823 Artillery Bombardment. Kinmen was the site of an intense 44-day battle in 1958, during which China’s People’s Liberation Army fired more than 450,000 artillery shells upon it, killing 2,600 people. The original bell is cast from copper and metal from artillery shells from this battle."

(3) New Jersey

1851 - Clara Barton Schoolhouse, Bordentown, New Jersey (USA). Unintentional monument. "In 1851, teacher and humanitarian Clara Barton [1821-1912] established New Jersey's first free public school. Barton is best known for her later achievement as founder of the American Red Cross."
1964-1965 - World Peace Screen, Teaneck-Hackensack Campus, Fairleigh Dickinson University (FDU), Teaneck, New Jersey (USA). A 50-foot sculpture created by Austrian-American artist (and FDU graduate - BS’58 (R)) Paul Von Ringelheim. Originally displayed at the 1964–65 New York World’s Fair. On the FDU campus since 1965.
November 1, 2002 - Peace Memorial Gymnasium, St. John the Theologian Greek Orthodox Cathedral, 353 East Clinton Avenue, Tenafly, New Jersey (USA). "Sporting new art and a new name, Peace Memorial Gymnasium is adorned with 63 recently unveiled gold plaques etched with well-known words of peace from Greek Orthodox & other leaders..., circular stained-glass windows, and a 60-by-16-foot mural, its centerpiece a large white dove outlined in 24 karat gold and painted in oil. The dove, carrying an olive branch, was painted by Guillermo Esparza of New York City.
September 11, 2003 - Peace Bell, Veterans Park, Ridgefield Park, New Jersey (USA). Community response to the terrorist attack in nearby New York City on September 11, 2001. Uses a 19th century church bell purchased from a dealer in Brooklyn, Michigan. Otherwise, remarkably similar to Japanese peace bells such as the 1954 bell at United Nations headquarters in New York City.
September 13, 2003 - Memorial Garden, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (USA). Garden memorializes 13 Princeton alumni who were killed on 9/11. Bell at the garden entrance is from "Remembrance" by Japanese-American artist Toshiko Takaezu [b.1922], a Japanese-American "ceramist, weaver & painter who retired from Princeton in 1992 after teaching for a quarter of a century in our Visual Arts program."

July 12, 2005 - Peace Pilgrim Park, London Street, Egg Harbor City, New Jersey (USA). Across from the Roundhouse Museum in the hometown of "Peace Pilgrim" Mildred Lisette Norman [1908-1981]. Maintained by the Friends of Peace Pilgrim in her memory. Quotation on sign: "Overcome evit with good, falsehood with truth and hatred with love." Left image shows Peace Pilgrim's sister Helene Young with the statue of Peace Pilgrim. See other statue in Costa Rica. Click herefor more information.

September 11, 2006 - Grief Tear Memorial, Bayonne, New Jersey (USA). "...opened to the anthems of Russia and the USA. On the bank of the Hudson River [facing the Statue of Liberty & Lower Manhattan], is a split 30-meter bronze plate with a giant tear made of titanium. The names of almost 3 thousand people killed on September, 11, 2001, are engraved on the monument. of Russian people, so sculptor Zurab Tsereteli who also and his colleagues took all the expenses on its erection up [sic]." Tsereteli also sculpted the statue of "Good Defeats Evil" (qv) at UN headquarters in 1990.
About 2007 - Peace Mural "Crossing Bridges," Communications High School, Wall, New Jersey (USA). "Our mural depicts the world as we see it, and the world as we feel it should be. It’s a project that we as humanity are continuously working to paint. As the future scientists, educators, architects, artists & politicians, we the youth add a little more to that canvas every day." Assisted by "Where Peace Lives," founded by New Jersey natives Jeff & Donna Clapp & Jeff Rudy.
October 23, 2010 - Comfort Women Monument, Palisades Park, County of Bergen, New Jersey (USA). Inscription: "In memory of the more than 200,000 women and girls who were abducted by the armed forces of the Government of Imperial Japan 1930's - 1945 known as 'Comfort Women.' They endured human rights violations that no peoples should leave unrecognized. Let us never forget the horrors of crimes against humanity."

May 12, 2011 - Peace Mural, Integrity House (Broad Street façade), Newark, New Jersey (USA). "The largest community-based public artwork in the history of the City of Newark. Unveiled by the Barat Foundation & the Newark Interfaith Coalition for Hope & Peace at the Newark Peace Education Summit to welcome Nobel Laureates His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, Dr. Shirin Ebadi & Jody Williams... The 50ft x 35ft Peace Mural was completed over the course of 45 days by more than 500 Newark youth & numerous volunteers working with the mural's designer, Dan Fenelon, mural facilitator Sue Daly & a team of artists in residence."

September 10, 2015 - Visitors Center, Flight 93 National Memorial, Shanksville, Pennsylvania (USA). At site of impact of one of four aircraft hijacked by Al-Qaeda terrorists on September 11, 2001. "The visitor center includes a seating chart showing where the passengers & hijackers had begun the flight & also features audio of last phone calls to loved ones made by two passengers & a flight attendant before they tried to retake the plane. Another exhibit presents the view from the rear cabin of a Boeing 757, an attempt to show what the cabin looked like from the passengers' perspective. Officials trying to restore the crash site, which also contains a former mine, have planted memorial groves. They hope to build a 93-foot tower containing 40 wind chimes in 2017."

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