Sources: Peace Artists, Peacemakers, International Peace
By Edward W. Lollis (email@example.com)
My self-appointed task is to document and elevate the role which peace monuments play, both in the spread of a culture of peace and in the appreciation of peace history. Monuments are time capsules from the past which reveal the uncensored feelings of their creators and silently transmit those feelings for as long as the monuments withstand the ravages of time and decay. The results of my efforts are displayed by theme, by location, and by year on dozens of web pages (the key to which can be found at http://peace.maripo.com).
Peace monuments are many times fewer than war monuments but are nevertheless found on all continents and in many different cultures. At first, I searched for all monuments in the world which have the word peace, paix, paz, pax, frieden, shanti, heiwa, etc. in their names. I soon realized that a great number of "peace monuments" are not actually named for "peace" but represent closely related values such as reconciliation and justice, and some memorialize peace events or individual "peacemakers" of various kinds.
My broadened search led to the creation of several on-line databases which I now think may serve a wider purpose. Five such databases are introduced here for consideration by members of the PJSA. I hope that you find these to be interesting and that they can help you introduce various aspects of peace history to students of peace and justice. Hopefully, readers of the "The Peace Chronicle" will report errors and omissions, thus improving these databases for everyone's use.
I. Artists, Benefactors, Creators & Designers of Peace Monuments. Peace monuments represent most if not all genres of art and have been created by many different artists and designers. This database currently contains the names of 209 artists, benefactors, creators, and designers, arranged alphabetically by name, and provides links to their most notable works. Some, like Pablo Picasso [1881-1973] who painted "Gernica" in 1937, are very famous. Others, like Charles T. Mulligan [1866-1916] whose allegorical sculptures of peace dot the Midwest, deserve to be better known. Access this database at http://peace.maripo.com/p_artists.htm.
II. Notable Peacemakers Throughout History. Obviously, any monument celebrating a well known peacemaker is a "peace monument," whether or not the word "peace" is contained in its official name or even in an attached plaque. I started this database with the names of all 98 individual recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and the names of all 72 persons for whom there is a biographical entry in the 2010 four-volume Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace (for which I contributed the article on peace monuments). The database kept growing from there, and it currently contains the names of 629 peacemakers in birth order. This arrangement demonstrates how "peace work" has changed over time, e.g. from the alleviation of battlefield suffering to women's suffrage to opposing wars in Vietnam and Iraq. And it identifies contemporaries in every generation. Did you know that Anne Frank, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Betty Reardon were all born in 1929? (Imagine their living to appear together on a panel of elder peacemakers.) Question: Can you name eleven peacemakers who died in 2010? Answer: Elise M. Boulding, Michael Foot, Doris "Granny D" Haddock, Dorothy I. Height, Gene Knuden Hoffman, Richard Holbrooke, Theodore Kheel, Lucile Longview, Bill Sutherland, George Willoughby, and Howard Zinn. Access this database at http://peace.maripo.com/p_peacemakers.htm.
III. International Peace Conferences. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, peacemakers organized international peace conferences, from which the world's peace societies and international organizations evolved, leading eventually to the League of Nations in 1919 and the United Nations in 1945. Some conferences have been immortalized by intentional peace monuments, but their monuments are usually unintentional, i.e. the buildings in which famous conferences took place. This database currently contains photos and other information for 114 international peace conferences. Arranged in chronological order, it reveals the rise of organizations like the International Peace Congress, The Universal Peace Union, the IAPA, IPB, FOR, WILPF, WCC and INMP and the emergence of "peace cities" like Geneva, The Hague, New York, and Washington, DC. By 1950, improved communications and international air travel helped create a proliferation of UN agencies and specialized conferences, and the database is necessarily selective. Access this database at http://peace.maripo.com/p_conferences.htm.
IV. Selected Human Tragedies. Monuments commemorate events, and violent events -- e.g. the Hiroshima bomb and 9/11 -- are sometimes commemorated by peace monuments (to honor the dead and/or to warn against a repetition of history). I started this database after visiting Japan to track the order of magnitude of various acts of violence, and it currently contains 184 human tragedies, rank ordered by the number of people believed to have been killed, and cross linked to the principal monument memorializing each event. The database contains some surprises (at least for me). For example, China's "Great Leap Forward" killed at least 30,000,000 -- one hundred times the Rape of Nanking -- whereas the extended feud between the Hatfields and McCoys killed "only" seven. Question: How do genocides in Cambodia, Darfur and Rwanda compare? Answer: Cambodia was twice as bloody as Rwanda, and Rwanda was twice as bloody as Darfur (according to Wikipedia estimates). Access this database at http://peace.maripo.com/p_victims.htm.
V. Museums for Peace. A museum is a special kind of monument, and there are about 60 "peace museums" in the world today, including 25 or so in Europe and more than 20 in Japan but only two in the United States (in Dayton, OH, and Independence, MO). In 2005, the International Network of such museums changed its name to embrace any museum which works "for peace," thus greatly increasing the number of qualifying "museums for peace," particularly in the United States. This database currently contains the names and web addresses of 444 museums for peace, arranged in 32 different categories, e.g. civil rights, indigenous peoples, immigration, pacifism, racism, slavery, the Nobel Peace Prize, and the Holocaust. An alternative database contains the names of 226 museums for peace in chronological order. This presentation shows the thematic and geographic evolution of museums for peace since 1902, and on-line videos linked to each of the 226 museums permit a very rapid audio-visual tour of all of the different kinds of "museums for peace" which exist in the world today. Access the full database at http://peace.maripo.com/p_museums_by_type.htm and the "videos only" version at http://peace.maripo.com/p_museums_videos.htm.
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