1857-1943 - Anita Augspurg - Lawyer, actor & feminist. Germany's 1st female jurist. Partner of Lida Gustava Heymann (qv). At Intl Women's Conf for Peace & Freedom (1915). Conf
1858-1941 - Ludwig Quidde - Pacifist. Opposed German militarism from Emperor Wilhelm II to Hitler. P 1927 with Ferdnand Buisson
1863-1944 - Victor Basch - Professor & Zionist. President of Ligue des droits de l'homme 1926-1944.
1868-1943 - Lida Gustava Heymann - Prominent in bourgeois women's movement. Partner of Anita Augspurg (qv). Attended Intl Women's Conf for Peace & Freedom in 1915. Conf
1868-1947 - Anna B. Eckstein - Teacher & pacifist. Sponsored by Edwin Ginn (qv). Attended many peace conferences. Born & died in Germany. P Conf
1872-1950 - Leon Blum - Socialist theoretician. Three times prime minister of France.
1874-1936 - Karl Kraus - Writer, journalist, playwright & poet. Foremost satirist. Wrote witty criticism of the press, German culture & politics.
1875-1943 - Bernhard Lichtenberg - Priest & theologian. Died in transit to Dachau. Awarded the title righteous among the Nations. Beatified June 23, 1996.
1876-1945 - Rupert Mayer, SJ - Jesuit priest. A leading figure of the Catholic Widerstand in Munich. Beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1987.
1878-1942 - Janusz Korczak - Doctor & educator. Acccompanied Jewish orphans to Treblinka where he was murdered.
1878-1965 - Martin Buber - Philosopher. Best known for the I-Thou & I-It distinctions. Moved to Israel.
1879-1954 - Leon Jouhaux - Trade union leader. Helped set up International Labour Organization (ILO).
1879-1955 - Albert Einstein - Physicist. Opposed WW-I. Did peace work in 1930s. Issued Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955. P 1921
1881-1942 - Titus Brandsma - Catholic priest & philosophy professor. "Apostle of Peace." Vehemently opposed Nazi ideology. Killed at Dachau.
1881-1942 - Stefan Zweig - Novelist, playwright, journalist & biographer. One of the most famous writers in the world. Left Austria 1934. Arrived Brazil 1940. Suicide. P
1882-1950 - John Rabe - Businessman. Tried to stop Japanese atrocities during the Nanking Massacre in 1937-38. "The Good Nazi."
1882-1965 - Alice Herz - Peace activist. Fled Germany in 1933. Immolated herself in Detroit to protest Vietnam War. Mother of Helga Herz (qv).
1885-1969 - Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze - Co-founded Fellowship of Reconciliation with Henry Hodgkin in 1914.
1886-1965 - Paul Tillich - Theologian & existentialist philosopher. Wrote "Courage to Be" in 1952 & "Systematic Theology" in 1951–63.
1887-1944 - Max Josef Metzger - Priest. Established the German Catholics’ Peace Assn. in 1919. Executed by Nazis.
1888-1942 - Emil Flusser - Pediatrician. His 1932 "War as Illness" (w/forward by Albert Einstein) said war is a physic epidemic.
1889-1938 - Carl von Osietzky. Journalist. Exposed Germany's Treaty of Versailles violations. Opposed Hitler. P 1935
1890-1935 - Kurt Tucholsky - Important journalist of Weimar Republic. Satirist. Warned against National Socialism. His books burned by Nazis. P
1891-1942 - Edith Stein - German-Jewish philosopher, nun, martyr & saint of the RC Church. Holocaust victim.
1891-1949 - Damaskinos Papandreou - Archbishop of Athens. Only senior churchman in Nazi occupied Europe to condemn Holocaust.
1892-1984 - Martin Niemöller - Anti-Nazi theologian & Lutheran pastor. Wrote "First they came for the.." in 1946.
1894-1943 - Maria Restituta Kafka - Nun & nurse. Beheaded by Nazis..
1894-1967 - Ernst Friedrich - Anarchist. Wrote "War Against War!" in 1924. Operated Anti-War Museum in Berlin 1925-1933. Reopened in 1982. P
1894-1972 - Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi - Geopolitician & philosopher. Founder of Paneuropean Union. Model for Victor Laszlo in film "Casablanca."
1894-1977 - Pierre-Marie Theas - Resisted Nazi occupation. First Bishop President of Pax Christi in 1945.
1896-1978 - Truus Wijsmuller-Meijer - War hero & resistance fighter. Probably 2nd greatest savior of Jews (after Raoul Wallenberg).
1897-1944 - Jane Haining - Missionary. Cared for Jewish children in Budapest. Killed at Auschwitz. One of only 10 Holocaust victims from Scotland.
1898-1940 - Hermann Stohr - Pacifist & anti-Nazi resistance fighter. P
1898-1964 - Leo Szilard - Atomic scientist. Drafted Einstein letter warning President Truman about German A-bomb in 1939. See Eugene Rabinowitch 1960
1898-1970 - Erich Maria Remarque - Wrote anti-war "All Quiet on the Western Front" in 1929 & Three Comrades in 1936.
1899-1939 - Johann Nobis - Conscientious objector. Executed in Plötzensee Prison (Berlin, Germany) with five other Jehovah's Witnesses. CO
1900-1940 - Rudolf Redlinghofer - Jehovah's Witness draft resister. Executed in Plotzensee Prison. Rehabilited in 1998.
1900-1959 - Raphael Lemkin - Lawyer. Proposed defending peace through criminal law. Coined the word genocide in 1944.
1900-1980 - Erich Fromm - Humanistic philosopher & democratic socialist. Wrote "The Fear of Freedom" in 1941. 1966
1900-1986 - Chiune (Sempo) Sugihara - Japanese vice consul in Vilnius (Lithuania) during WW-II. Saved several 1,000 Jews.
Cyril of Bulgaria - Successfully resisted deportation of 1,500 Jews on March 10, 1943. Later named Patriarch of Bulgaria.
1901-1973 - Eugene Rabinowitch - Biophysicist. Urged 6/45 that US not use atomic bomb (Franck Report). Founded Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. See Leo Szilard.
1903-1942 - Jochen Kelpper - Novelist, poet & journalist. Married Jewish widow with 2 daughters. Committed suicide.
1903-1988 - Hiram Bingham IV - US Vice Consul in Marseille (France). Helped >2,500 Jews flee as Nazi forces advanced.
1904-1942 - Lidia Zamenhof - Youngest daughter of Ludwig (qv). Promoted Esperanto, Homaranismo & Bahá'í Faith.
Taught in USA. Murdered at Treblinka.
1904-1993 - William Shirer - Journalist, war correspondent & historian. Wrote "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" in October 1960.
1904-2012 - Atonio Dobrowolski - Teacher. Taught defiance of Nazi occupation. Oldest known survivor of Auschwitz death camp.
1905-1967 - Charles Coward - Soldier captured during WW-II. Rescued Jews. Smuggled himself into Auschwitz. Testified at Nuremberg trial.
1905-1997 - Viktor E. Frankl - Neurologist & psychiatrist. Holocaust survivor. Founded logotherapy. See "Statue of Responsibility."
1906-1945 - Dietrich Bonhoeffer - Theologian & pacifist. Lived twice in NY City & once in London. Nazi resister & Holocaust victim. P
1906-1957 - Rudolf Kastner - Zionist leader. Negotiated "Kasztner train" with the Nazis. Tried in Israel. Assassinated in Tel Aviv.
1906-1975 - Hannah Arendt - Political theorist. Fled to France in 1933. Fled to USA in 1941 on visa issued by Hiram Bingham IV (qv). Wrote "The Origins of Totalitarianism" in 1951.
1907-1943 - Franz Jägerstätter - Nazis executed. RC Church beatified in 2007. Monuments in Austria, Germany & USA (Philadephia).
1907-1944 - Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg - Army officer. Central figure of Resistance movement within the Wehrmacht.
1907-1945 - Alfred Delp, SJ - Jesuit priest. Executed at Plötzensee Prison for his resistance to the Nazi régime in Germany.
1907-1972 - Abraham Joshua Heschel - Rabbi & widely read Jewish conservative theologian. Marched with MLK in Selma in 1965.
1907-2004 - Abraham Spiegel - Survived 4 concentration camps. Supported Tel Aviv Univ, Yad Vashem, Bar-Ilan Univ & Museum of Jewish Diaspora.
1908-1974 - Oskar Schindler - Industrialist credited with saving over 1,100 Jews. Buried in Israel. Subject of the film "Schindler's List."
1908-1993 - Tadeusz Pankiewicz - Rescued Jews in Krakow. One of 6,125 Polish "Righteous Among the Nations."
1908-2000 - Julia Pirotte - Photojournalist known for work with French Resistance. Covered 1948 World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace in Wroclaw. Click here.
1908-2005 - Joseph Rotblat - Manhattan Project scientist. SecGen of Pugwash Confs 1957-1973. See video. 1992 P 1995
1908-2005 - Simon Wiesenthal - "Nazi hunter" in Linz & Vienna. Click here for peace monuments related to the Holocaust.
Adam von Trott zu Solz - Lawyer & diplomat. Played central role July 20 Plot against Hitler . Plaque in Postdam.
1909-1990 - Lotta Hitschmanova - Journalist. Wanted by Nazis. Founded Unitarian Service Committee of Canada.
1909-1997 - Virginia d'Albert-Lake - Born in Dayton, Ohio. Hero of the French Resistance. Freed from Ravensbrück concentration camp.
1909-2002 - Marion Gräfin Dönhoff - Journalist & intellectual. Member of anti-Nazi resistance.
1909-2025 - Nicholoas Winton - Rescued 669 children (Czech Kindertransport). Called "the British Schindler." Recd highest Czech honour in 2014. See "Nicky's Family."
August Dickmann - First conscientious objector executed by the Nazis in Germany during World War II. CO
1910-2008 - Irena Sendler - Smuggled 2,500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto.
1912-1947 - Raoul Wallenberg - Architect & diplomat. Rescued Jews from the Holocaust in Budapest in 1944. Many monuments.
1912-1991 - Jean Goss - Evangelical advocate of nonviolence.
1913-1992 - Willy Brandt - Chancellor 1969–1974. Espoused Ostpolitik to improve relations with East Germany, Poland etc. 1971
1913-1992 - Menachem Begin - Led Zionist underground. PM 1977-83. Signed peace treaty w/Egypt. 1978 w/Anwar al-Sadat
1913-1998 - William Denson - US Army lawyer. Proscecuted all Nazi war criminals in US Zone of Occupied Germany.
1913-2010 - Helga Herz - Peace activist. Fled Germany in 1933. Received German reparations in 2000. See Helga Herz Peace Archives at Wayne State Univ.
1914-2006 - Louis B. Sohn - Law Professor. Wrote "World PeaceThrough World Law" in 1958 with Greenville Clark.
Albert Otto Hirschman - Economist. Wrote "Exit, Voice, and Loyalty" & "The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy."
1915-2013 - Maria Dehn Peters - Resident of Bryn Gweled Homesteads. Daughter of mathemetician Max E. Dehn (buried at Black Mtn College, NC). Widow of Ted Peters (Friendsville, TN).
1916-1945 - George Maduro - Born in Curaçao. Student & army officer. Nazi resister. Madurodam Miniature City in The Hague is named for him.
1917-1994 - Heinz Heger - Pen name of Josef Kohout. Nazi concentration camp survivor. Author of "Die Männer mit dem rosa Winkel/The Men With the Pink Triangle" (1972).
Hans Scholl - Student. Opposed Hilter in non-violent White Rose resistance group. Executed with his sister Sophie.
1918-2007 - Kurt Waldheim - Wehrmacht intelligence officer during WW-II (causing controversy in 1985). Diplomat. 4th UN Secretary General 1972-1981.
Mordechai Abniewicz - Instrumental in the first act of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Subject of monuments in Israel & Poland.
1919-1943 - Kristaq Tutulani - Student & Communist. Captured in anti-Nazi resistance with sister Margarite. Shot & hanged at age 24.
1921-1943 - Sophie Scholl - Student. Opposed Hilter in non-violent White Rose resistance group. Executed with her brother Hans.
1923-2012 - Jozef Goldblat - Diplomat. Preeminent authority on law of arms control & disarmament. On staff of Stockholm Intl Peace Research Inst (SIPRI).
1923-Alive - Henry Kissinger - US Secretary of State. Signed Paris Peace Accords in 1973. 1973 with Le Duc Tho
1923-Alive - Henry Morgentaler - Physician. Prominent pro-choice advocate who has fought numerous legal battles for that cause. 1975 w/Betty Friedan
1923-Alive - Shimon Peres. Israel PM 3x. Supported Oslo Accords. 1994 with Yasser Arafat & Yitzhak Rabin
1924-1943 - Margarite Tutulani - Student. Captured in anti-Nazi resistance with brother Kristaq (journalist & PKSH member). Shot & hanged at age 19.
1924-2010 - Hedi Bak - Artist. Lived in Chicago & Oak Ridge, TN. Self-published WW-II autobiography "Mazel ("Luck"). Widow of artist Charles Counts.
1924-Alive? - Mary Berg - American citizen, Holocaust survivor & author. Witnessed Warsaw Ghetto & published book about it in 1944. Later refused interviews & disapeared.
1924-Alive - Gerda Weissmann Klein - Author, humanitarian, historian & inspirational speaker. Holocaust survivor. Academy Award. Pres Medal of Freedom 2011.
1925-1942 - Helmuth Hübener - Mormon. One of the youngest opponents of the Third Reich to be sentenced to death by the Volksgerichtshof. Executed at age 17 in Plötzensee Prison.
1927-Alive - Simone Veil - Politician. Survivor of Auschwitz. Honorary Pres of Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Shoah.
1928-1944 - Petr Ginz - Wrote an Esperanto-Czech dictionary. Gassed at Auschwitz age 16. His moon drawing carried aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.
1928-Alive - Elie Weisel - "Messenger to mankind." Professor & holocaust survivor. 1986 1995
1929-1945 - Anne Frank - Holocaust victim. Died of typhus at age 16 in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Famous for diary published in 1947.
1930-Alive - George Soros - Native speaker of Esperanto. Billionaire investor & philanthropist. Created Open Society Institute in 1993.
1931-Alive - Martin Harwit - Astronomer. Headed National Air & Space Museum but forced to resign in 1995 over proposed display of Hiroshima bomber Enola Gay.
1932-Alive - Branko Lustig - Auschwitz survivor. Film producer, eg Schlindler's List. Honored for Holocaust education. Celebrated bar mitzvah at Auschwitz in 2011.
c1937-Alive - Riane Eisler - Scholar, writer & social activist. President of Center for Partnership Studies.
1937-Alive - Marian Marzynski - Documentary filmaker. Survived Warsaw Ghetto. Presented "Never Forget to Lie" on public television in 2013.
1939-2004 - Toma Sik - "Peace activist, anarchist, libertarian socialist, vegan, world citizen & pioneer of the Israeli-Palestinian search for peace." CO
1946-Alive - Steven Spielberg - Film director, screenwriter & producer. Used profits from Schindler's List to set up Shoah Foundation that interviewed c.52,000 Holocaust witnesses.