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Peace Walls & Murals Around the World

See below for special section on World Walls for Peace. | Click here for peace mosaics. | Click here for "The 50 Most Stunning Wall Murals From Around The World."

Right click image to enlarge.

1896 - "Peace" & "War," Second Floor, Northwest Gallery, Thomas Jefferson Building, Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA). Murals by Gari Melchers [1860-1932].

May 30, 1922 - Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC (USA). Has engraved texts of the Gettysburg Address & the Second Inaugural Address. The latter concludes, "...to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."

May 30, 1922 - Murals "Emancipation of a Race" & "Unification," Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC (USA). By Jules Guérin [1866-1946]. Above the texts of the two addresses.

November 11, 1926 - "In Memorium 1914-1918," Memory Hall, Liberty Memorial, Kansas City, Missouri (USA). Right photo taken in 1935. "Memory Hall looks [today] much as it did when the Liberty Memorial opened in 1926. The interior, initially intended to be a meeting room for 'patriotic societies,' is ornately adorned with impressive murals, wooden paneling & a gold-star decorated ceiling. D. Putnam Brinley [1879-1963] painted a series of maps depicting all the spheres of action of the American Army & Navy in foreign countries. On the east wall, above the maps, is the 1926 mural by Jules Guérin [1866-1946] that portrays a seated figure of Victory."

November 11, 1926 - "Great Frieze of War & Peace," Liberty Memorial, 100 West 26th Street, Kansas City, Missouri (USA). "Carved into the limestone of the north wall (in shadow of left image). 148 feet/45 meters wide & 18 feet/5.5 meters high. One of largest in the world. Sculpted by Edmond Amateis [1897-1981]. Depicts progress from war to peace." Click here for its five inscriptions. Faces KC's palatial 1914 Union Station, now rarely used for trains (right image).

1920-32 - Arc de Triomphe, Cinquantenaire Park, Brussels (Belgium). "On both sides of the arch are 'galleries of the columns' with mosaics representing and glorifying the 'peace-loving nation of Belgium'. These mosaics were made between 1920 and 1932."

1931 - "Allegory of California. / Alegoria de California," on main staircase between 10th & 11th floors, Exchange's Luncheon Club/City Club, Pacific Stock Exchange Tower, San Francisco, California (USA). Fresco by Diego Rivera [1886-1857]. Depicts mineral wealth, agriculture, science, aviation & commerce in the embrace of a female figure. Ceiling depicts male & female nudes, huge sun & at least 4 airplanes. See other Rivera murals in Detroit & New York City.
1932 - "America Tropical," Italian Hall, Olvera Street, Los Angeles, California (USA). Mural by Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros [1896-1974]. "According to the text on a plaque on Main Street, Siqueiros was invited to paint a mural on the second floor exterior wall of the building. The mural (featuring an Indian bound to a double cross, surmounted by an imperialist eagle, and surrounded by pre-Columbian symbols and revolutionary figures) was considered hightly controversial." "The mural was partially whitewashed shortly after its completion, and then fully painted over within its first year on public view, beginning a legacy of censorship that still haunts Los Angeles. In the 1970's, 40 years after it was painted over, the image began to reemerge from the whitewash."

1933 - "Detroit Industry," Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan (USA). A famous series of twenty-seven fresco panels by Diego Rivera [1886-1857]. Gift of Edsel B. Ford. Images show North & South Walls.
May 22, 1933 - "Man at the Crossroads," Rockefeller Center, New York City, New York (USA). Mural by Diego Rivera [1886-1857]. Had many parts including: society women drinking alcohol, pictures of cells (sexually transmitted diseases), Leon Trotsky, and Vladimir Lenin (depicting communism). Lenin infuriated Rockefeller, and the mural was removed. Rivera repainted it at a smaller scale at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City where it can be found today, renamed "Man, Controller of the Universe."
June 1940 - Peace Monument, Founex (Switzerland). "Les anciens combattants suisses de la Grande Guerre se félicitent d'être encore en paix en Juin 1940."

1941 - "The Defense of Human Freedoms," War Department Building (now State Department Building), 21st Street at Virginia Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Mural by Kindred McLeary [1901-1949]. "Depicts the five freedoms flanked at either end of the mural by their defenders, the American military." Also known as "America the Mighty." Image cannot be found on-line. Covered from 1954 to 1977 because its theme was considered inappropriate to the State Department.
1944 - "The New Democracy," Palace of Fine Arts, Mexico City (Mexico). "Depicts a woman who is trying to shatter the bonds of oppression and exploitation. She carries a torch of freedom to symbolize the new order. David Alfaro Siqueiros [1896-1974] includes strong visions of the future, similar to Diego Rivera [1886-1957]. Classical influence is shown in his approach to idealize human body form. Sometimes he exaggerates with expressive emotion. With his death came an end to a great movement in modern art."

1952 - Peace & Freedom Tapestry, East Wall, Security Council Room, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Entry #754 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). By Per Krohg [1889-1965] of Norway.
1953 - "Mankind's Struggle for a Lasting Peace", Third Floor, Conference Building, United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Mural 64 feet long x 9.5 feet tall by Jose Vela Zanetti [1914-1999], a Spanish exile living in the Dominican Republic, in which a giant, four-armed figure implants the UN emblem. Entry #758 in the "Peace Movement Directory by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1954 - "Triumph of Peace," United Nations, New York City, New York (USA). Tapestry by Belgian painter Peter Colfs [1906-1983]. Entry #759 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

1955 - “The Singing Mural,” Ballroom, University Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (USA). By American muralist Marion Greenwood [1909-1970] who worked in Mexico. Depicts the music, dance, and folklore of Tennessee from the Mississippi on the left to the Appalachians on the right. Minority students complained that the Black cotton picker is a smiling slave. Mural vandalized on May 18, 1970. Has been covered since May 1972. Uncovered briefly March 15-17, 2006, when these photos were taken by the Knoxville News Sentinel.
1957 - "Guerra e Paz / War & Peace," Security Council, UN Headquarters, New York, New York (USA). Two panels by Candido Portinai [1903-1962] measuring 35x47 feet presented by Brazil. Portinari was banned from entering the US to open the panels, accused of being communist.
January 2, 1958 - Polio Wall of Fame, Founder's Hall, Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Warm Springs, Georgia (USA). Also called the "Polio Hall of Fame." Assembles busts of 14 men and one woman who were instrumental in polio research and treatment, plus Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his close aide Basil O'Connor. (The first four are from Germany, Sweden, and Austria.) Designed by sculptor Edmond Romulus Amateis [1897-1981] who also sculpted the "Great Frieze of War and Peace" in Kansas City, MO (qv).

December 1960-November 1975 - "Raíces de la Paz" / "The Roots of Peace," Organization of American States (OAS), 17th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "In the tunnel connecting the OAS Building with its Administration Building two blocks away is a 162-meter [sic] / 200-foot mural depicting various themes of peace & development in the Americas. World's widest mural? Painted by Uruguayan artist Carlos Paez Vilaró [b.1923] who also painted a mural for the UN building in New York City." Restored in 2002 by Roberto Arce. Both photos by EWL.
1967 - "The Wall of Respect," 43rd & Langley, Chicago, Illinois (USA). "The mural that began the community mural movement." "Sylvia Abernathy, Elliot Hunter, Wadsworth Jarrell, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Carolyn Lawrence, Norman Parish & William Walker were among the artists with the Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC) who painted a section to commemorate African American heroes: musicians, athletes, and political leaders." Destroyed in 1971.

1968 - "Peace" or "Metafisica," Halsted Urban Progress Center, Halsted Street & Cullerton, Pilsen neighborhood, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by Mario Castillo. "Possibly the first outdoor Chicano mural in the USA." "The first anti Viet Nam war mural. When Castillo painted this, he was not aware of Bill Walker's 'Wall of Respect' which was painted in 1967." No longer exists. Nor does Castillo's 1969 mural "The Wall of Brotherhood."

1970 - "Peace & Salvation: Wall of Understanding," Locust & Orleans, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by African American artist William (Bill) Walker. "At the base of the wall are figures representing the community: the Black Panther Party, Martin Luther King, Jr., John Stevens, Reverend Jesse Jackson, Malcolm X, and members of various youth groups in Chicago. These figures symbolize the need for unity among all Black people. As these figures march together, they become a symbol of hope." No longer exists.
1971 - "All of Mankind,", Northside Stranger’s Home Church, 617 West Evergreen Avenue, Cabrini Green, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by African American artist William (Bill) Walker. "Features 4 figures -- black, white, Asian & Latino -- with their hands together in a show of unity and racial harmony. Below the church’s cross, the words 'Why were they crucified?' and the names of historical figures like Ghandi, Malcolm X, Anne Frank, Martin Luther King Jr. and Jesus Christ." Church & mural were threatened with destruction in 2007-2008.

December 15, 1971 - "La Marcha de la Humanidad / The March of Humanity," Polyforrum Cultural Siqueiros, Mexico City (Mexico). By David Alfaro Siqueiros [1896-1974]. "Covers the entire walls on the building's top-floor elliptical forum and is the world's largest mural. The painting depicts humanity's evolution from the past to the present as well as a vision of the future."
1973 - "For a New World,", Holy Covenant United Methodist Church, 925 West Diversey Parkway, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by John Pitman Weber. "Once called 'the most hopeful mural in the city of Chicago.' Doesn’t shy away from showing the world’s evils. An early CMG work, three sections represent the areas of the worship service: Confession depicts political brutality, killing & repression; The Word shows the promise of a new world where all people -- men & women, young & old, gay & straight, all racial groups -- will live in peace & harmony; Offering urges us to dedicate our lives to justice through our daily work. Restored in 1996."
1973 - "Break the Grip of the Absentee Landlord," 5219 West Mdison Street, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by Mark Rogovin. His only masterpiece (according to John Pitman Weber.) "An example of late Siquerioesque graphic style. Only a blank wall remains." Google translation from Spanish: "Perhaps the most sophisticated use of space by way of David Alfaro Siqueiros [1896-1974] designed by one of the pioneers and leaders of the Chicago street mural movement. Rogovin was an assistant in the Taller Siqueiros in Cuernavaca [Mexico]. Political action, or the political message turned into tangible facts seem thrown into space, rather than using a flat surface on which plausibly represents the activity by Renaissance perspective foreshortening unifocal."
1975 - "Isaiah Wall," Ralph Bunche Park, East 43rd Street & First Avenue, New York City, New York (USA). Quotes Isaiah 2:4: "They shall beat their swords into plowshares." Shadow in image is cast by adjacent "Peace Form One." Entry #718 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1975 - "Man's Inhumnity to Man," 47th Street, Bronzeville, Chicago, Illinois. Anti-drug mural by William Walker & Mitchell Caton. "On a street that was once a focus of shoppig & nightlife. Restoration opposed by the current alderwoman..supposedly because years earlier it scarred her daughter." Restored Summer 2003.
1976 - "A Time to Unite," Drexel Avenue & 41st Street, North Kenwood-Oakland, Chicago, Illinois (USA), Mural by Mitchell Caton, Calvin Jones & Justine DeVan on an abandoned elevated train abutment. Inscription: "A TIME TO UNITE. A time to be born and a time to die. A time to love and a time to hate. A time for war and a time for peace." (Ecclesiastes 3:1-8). .
1976 - "Together Protect the Community (TILT)," Fullerton & Washtenaw Avenue, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by John Pitman Weber. "Depicts a monumental, racially mixed group of people protectively embracing their homes against a background of decorative patterns similar to old-fashioned wallpaper. While smaller figures 'build' their community through work and play, others fend off drugs, vandalism, gangs, absentee landlords, real estate speculators, unemployment, and freeways--all of which threaten the quality of life. These tilted images on the north half are meant to be seen only by the local audience; eastbound traffic on Fullerton sees only the positive, harmonious images." Restored in 2003.
1977 - "Childhood is Without Prejudice," 56th Street & Stony Island, Chicago, Illinois (USA). Mural by William Walker. "Also know as 'Children of Goodwill.' Walker created this mural as a tribute to nearby Harte School. His daughter had attended school there, and Walker wanted to express his appreciation for the school’s promotion of racial harmony. The tripartite mural, Walker’s personal favorite, includes a series of interlocking faces representing the potential unity of all races."

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1977 - "Toward a People's Art: The Contemporary Mural Movement," book by John Pitman Weber, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. "Reprinted in 1998. Remains a classic study of the community-based mural movement that produced hundreds of large-scale wall paintings in the USA and Canada."
1978 - The Great Wall of Los Angeles, Tujunga Flood Control Channel, Los Angeles, California (USA). "One of LA’s cultural landmarks and one of the country’s most respected and largest monuments to inter-racial harmony (2,754 feet wide). Represents the history of ethnic peoples of California from prehistoric times to the 1950’s. Conceived by Judith F. Baca, artistic director and founder of the Social & Public Art Resource Center (SPARC). Begun in 1974 and completed over five summers, employed over 400 youth and their families from diverse social and economic backgrounds working with artists, oral historians, ethnologists, scholars, and hundreds of community members." Click here for "The Art of the Mural" by Judy Baca.
1979 - Elliot Donnelley Center Community Art Garden, Bronzeville, Chicgo, Illinois (USA). "Mitchell Caton & Calvin Jones’s classic mural 'Another Time’s Voice Remembers My Passion’s Humanity' (1979, left in image) was restored by Bernard Williams in 1993. Its jazzy montage of figures and textile patterning with the pairing of a wall-high African mask and the face of a contemporary woman links the African past with the present community. 'The Great Migration' (1995, right in image), led by Marcus Akinlana, is a 2,700-square-foot historical narrative documenting the migration of African Americans from the South to Chicago after World War II."

1983 - World Wall for Peace (WWPF), Berkeley, California (USA). - Founded by Carolyna Marks [1942-2011], artist, teacher & peace activist. See obituaries here & here. Sponsored WWFP's in 6 states, Russia, Israel, Japan & South Africa. See special section below.
1985 - Western Peace Wall, Victoria School, Broadway Avenue & 12th Street, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). "Symbolizes the need to dismantle barriers to world peace." By Saskatoon sculptor Leslie Potter.

1985 - "Three Minutes to Midnight," Seminole Avenue, Little Five Points, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Also called the "Seminole Peace Mural." First US mural painted by David Fichter of Cambridge, Massachusetts. "Painted as part of a cultural festival for nuclear disarmament called 'Three Minutes to Midnight' which organized several events around the city in October 1984." First image is close up of Martin Luther King, Jr. [1929-1968]. Second image shows Leó Szilárd [1898-1964] & 70 other atomic scientists petitioning for a demonstration of the atomic bomb before using it on human beings, US officials playing deaf and dumb, and three weeping "Hiroshima maidens". Click here for article & slide show about Fitcher's visit to the endangered mural on December 5, 2008.

1980's - "Peace Wall," near the Charles Bridge, Prague (Czech Republic). "Prague certainly got its fill of Lenin as it fell behind the iron curtain but it also showed a fondness for Lennon...John Lennon. This wall was used by dissidents to express Lennonism (vs Leninism) in graffiti. The graffiti started in the 1980's after the death of the former Beatle. Lennon was a pacifist hero for the Czechs who were living with a totalitarian government. Police would continually paint the wall, and dissidents would then sneak over at night & repaint the graffiti."

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October 1985 - Hackney Peace Carnival Mural, Dalston, London (England). "Based on the 1981 Hackney Peace Carnival." "Intended to provide [an uplifting mood] when it was planned in 1983. These were the heady, intensely political days of the early 1980's: Thatcher was stamping her mark as prime minister, the world was often a frightening place due to the 'Cold War,' and there had been riots in Brixton, Toxteth, Handsworth and even Dalston in 1981. But the mural was not just a response to the riots; its references are wider than that. It reflects the numerous interests, political forces and pressure groups of those times... Uncle Sam is also in evidence, walking along on stilts in the background, along with other symbols such as a dove and the figure of hooded death. A coal miner is there as part of the band, a British Rail worker is there, Ghandi is there, and Mandela is there. And the familiar slogans are there too: 'Unite for Peace;' 'Jobs not Bombs;' 'No More Hiroshimas'..."

1987 - Portrait of Bert Röling, "De Boom van Kennis / The Tree of Knowledge" (muurschildering / mural), Auditorium, Academy Building, University of Groningen, College Square, Groningen (Netherlands). Bert Röling [1906-1985] was a Dutch jurist who helped found the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) in 1964. Huge mural painted by his son Mathijs Röling & by Wout Muller. Lower right corner includes Röling in white hair (similar to his official portrait in the university's senate room) & what appear to be three students.
1988 - Peace Plaza, Between City Hall & City Library, Salem, Oregon (USA). Click here for annual tree photos. Entry #848 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Mural on Freedom Walk, Auburn Avenue, Sweet Auburn Historic District, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). When created & by whom? NB: Freedom Walk is an "urban interpretive trail to downtown area along Auburn Avenue" created by National Park Service (NPS), but when? Not described on any website. "The name Sweet Auburn was coined by John Wesley Dobbs [1882-1961], referring to the 'richest Negro street in the world.'" Click here for photo essay by Galen R. Frysinger.
July 1988 - Freedom Quilt Mural, Southeast Regional Office, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 92 Piedmont Avenue, NE, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). Mural by David Fichter. Features Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and 14 other famous peacemakers. Created as part of Rainbow Coalition events during the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Click here for further information. Entry #240 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1989 - Quaker Tapestry, Friends Meeting House, Kendal, Cumbria, England (UK). A chronicle of Quaker life over 350 years. 77 hand-crafted embroidery panels, beautifully illustrated by 4,000 men, women and children from 15 countries.
Date? - Rotary Mural, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico). Depicts the fight against polio. Includes dove of peace & handshake of friendship. See Knoxville, Tennessee (USA), for statue of the Rotarian who chaired the interntional anti-polio committee.
1990 - Monumento a la Paz Mundial / Monument for World Peace, Parque de el Lauredal, Gijon (Spain).
November 9, 1990 - "Breakthrough," Latshaw Plaza, adjacent to Winston Churchill Memorial, Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri (USA). By British-born artist (and Churchill granddaughter) Edwina Sandys. "Where Churchill first coined the historic phrase the 'Iron Curtain.' It has been called the most significant monument to be constructed on American soil since the Vietnam War Memorial. Created from eight massive sections of the Berlin Wall. Features male & female forms cut out from the wall’s concrete surface, symbolizing a passage through the wall to freedom."
1991 - Mural Dedicated to Peace, Hyperion Avenue & Sunset, East Los Angeles, California (USA). Painted by local youth for the Sunset Junction Neighborhood Alliance.
1992 - The World Wall: A Vision of the Future Without Fear. "Organized by Judy Baca." "Santa Barbara Installation. 10x30ft Paintings on Canvas. Exhibition sites include the Smithsonian (Washington, DC), Joensuu (Finland) & Gorky Park (Moscow, Russia). Explores the material & spiritual transformation of a society toward peace. As the World Wall travels, a new panel is added by an artist from each country. The most recent include a panel completed by an Israeli-Palestinian team at California State University Monterey Bay in April 1998 and a panel by the Mexican team in 2002."

After 1992 - "Firebird--Past and Present," First Floor Lounge, Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Kyoto (Japan). "Two figures from the anime series Hi no Tori / Firebird (or Phoenix) by Osamu Tezuka [1928-1989], Japan's most famous cartoonist. The Firebird series was Tezuka's means of expressing the horror of war and his strong desire for peace. Thus, we feel his Phoenix is a fitting symbol for the Museum's strong yearning to learn from the terrible lessons of war."
Date? - "Doves," New York City, New York (USA). Mural by Puerto Rican grafitti artist Antonio Garcia (better known as Chico). Depicts the pope and ___?
1993 - Mural of Peace, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA). By Puerto Rican artist Reynaldo Hernandez who "works as a muralist throughout the state, creating murals which reflect the culture or community that requests his work."
1993 - Our History Moves From Slavery Toward Freedom," Valley Cities Jewish Community Center, Sherman Oaks, California (USA). Mural by John Pitman Weber (from Chicago, Illinois). Depicted the the Jewish exodus and "was considered to be one of the finest murals in the Los Angeles area... In summer 2008, the building was sold, and the new owner could not be persuaded to keep the mural."
1994 - Peace Mural, Denver International Airport, Denver, Colorado (USA). "Depicts all of the children of the world taking the weapons from each country on earth and giving them to a central figure...who has this iron fist and anvil in his hand that is totally out of proportion to the child's body, beating the swords into plowshares."
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1994 - The Maestra Peace Mural, Women's Building / Casa de las mujeres, Lapidge & 18th Streets (between Valencia & Mission Streets), Mission District, San Francisco, California (USA). "Designed and painted by Juana Alicia, Miranda Bergman, Edythe Boone, Susan Kelk Cervantes, Meera Desai, Yvonne Littleton and Irene Perez. A multicultural homage to iconic women and women’s history, and its scale is incredible." "Has many messages: The healing power of women's wisdom over time, the contributions of women throughout history, and the making of history by women from all corners of the earth. A few of the famous women included are Audre Lorde, Georgia O'Keefe, and Rigoberta Menchu. In addition, female icons such as Quan Yin, Yemeyah, and Coyoxauqui lend a timeless and spiritual element to the design. Additional elements used in the overall design are fabric patterns from throughout the world."

October 2, 1994 - Pacifist Memorial, Peace Abbey, Sherborn, Massachsetts (USA). Six radiating brick walls surrounding a statue of Mahatma Gandhi by Ludo Goudjabidze. The walls contain the names of and quotations from famous pacifists. Dedicated on 125th anniversary of Gandhi's birth. Entry #471 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
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May 5, 1995 - Cesar Chavez mural, San Francisco State University, Malcolm X Plaza, San Francisco, California (USA). Lead artist Carlos (Cookie) Gonzalez. Dedicated about seven months after the SFSU Student Union was renamed after Chavez. The United Farm Workers (UFW) logo of an eagle was taken [by Cesar Chavez [1927-1993] & his brother Robert] from the Mexican flag. (The UFW was the first successful farm workers union in US history with a membership of 100,000 at its peak.) Logo colors represent hope (white), struggle of workers (black) & sacrifice (red). In his left hand Chavez holds a dove, which symbolizes his belief in non-violent resistance. Also present in the mural are the “Grapes of Wrath,” which resemble skulls to signify the harmful effects of pesticides on farm workers. The grapes also represent the first consumer boycott of the UFW, the 1965 Delano strike.
1995 - "Heroes of Freedom, Justice and Peace," 175 Concord Street, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). Mural by Craig Davis. Depicts eight peacemakers. Maintained by El Burrito Mercado.

Date? - Womens Peace Mural, Pentonville Road, N1, London (England). "The design shows aspects of women, peace and Greenham Common in a format reminiscent of medieval paintings. The backward looking Sankofa Bird reminds people not to be afraid to rectify past mistakes."
Date? - "Wind of Peace" mural, Greenwich, London (England). Artist, location & purpose unknown.
1997 - Peace Wall & Moon Gate, Lion & Lamb Peace Arts Center, Bluffton University, Riley Court (Lower Level), Spring Street, Bluffton, Ohio (USA). By Jon Barlow Hudson. "Replicates the Berlin Wall, a prison wall, a stockade wall & a memorial wall as an interactive art experience representing how we close people out, hold them in or immortalize them with walls of various kinds." Entry #793 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
June 1998 - Peace Wall, 29th & Wharton Streets (southwest corner), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). Mural by Jane Golden & Peter Pagast. Inscribed "Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God" from Matthew 5:9. Note children in foreground of the image.
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1998 - "A shenere un besere velt / A more beautiful & better world," Workmen’s Circle building, 1525 South Robertson Boulevard, Los Angeles, California (USA). "Mural by Eliseo Silva (an immigrant from the Philippines) explores numerous themes including Jewish holidays, culture, education, traditional Jewish support for labor & social justice, universal healthcare, immigrant rights & the Yiddish language, as well as the historic struggles against fascism & totalitarianism. Depicts great Yiddish writers, such as Mendele, Sholem Aleichem & Peretz, cultural leaders such as Cesar Chavez, Martin Luther King & Sugi Hara, and the Jewish holidays are celebrated in bigger than life size. Speaks not only to the Jewish community, but to other immigrant communities in Los Angeles."
1999 - "Language of Hope," Running Wolf Fitness Center, Migizi Communications, Lake Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Mural created by Marilyn Lindstrom with help from 20 young artists and guest artists. Includes 12 elements essential to human life that the young people came up with -- hope, justice, trust, family, love, freedom, purpose, respect, community, peace, basic human needs, collective work, and responsibility.
March 30, 2000 - Le Mur pour la Paix / Wall for Peace, Champs de Mars, Paris (France). Between the Ecole militaire and the Eiffel Tower. By French artist Clara Halter who has other peace monuments in St. Petersburg (Russia) and Hiroshima (Japan).
2000 - Peace Wall, Miller County Middle School, Colquitt, Miller County, Georgia (USA). "Designed & painted by [Scottish] artist Chrissie Orr of New Mexico, with the help of middle & high school students, teachers & community members. Upon the completion of this mural, a pilot program was started to paint 'Peace Walls' on other schools in the state of Georgia." /// "Colquitt was named Georgia's First Mural City by the state legislature & hosted host the Global Mural Conference in 2010."

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Before & After 2002 - Ministry of Tourism Murals, at Israeli military checkpoint between Jerusalem (Israel) & Bethlehem (Occupied West Bank). Older mural (left image) predates the Israeli apartheid wall. It says "Jerusalem-Bethlechem - Love and Peace. Israel Ministry of Tourism." /// Newer mural (right two images) "decorates" the monsterous apartheid wall next to a watchtower. It says "PEACE BE WITH YOU. Israel Ministry of Tourism." Lipstick on a pig? What were they thinking?!!! N.B.: During their visits to Jerusalem, many foreign tourists are driven to Bethlehem for a few hours without ever knowing that they are in Palestinian territory under Israeli occupation (denied to Israeli Jews).
August 25, 2000 - Wings of Peace & Freedom Park, Dixon, Illinois (USA). ''Gifted by Nick Tanev, a native of Bulgaria who immigrated to the USA and prospered. Symbolizes the hope the East and the West would come together and live in peace and freedom." Includes replica of Berlin Wall (largest words: PEACE & FREIHEIT). On Ronald Reagan Trail. Dixon is the childhood home of President Ronald Reagan.
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2001 - Mural, Ibdaa Cultural Center, D’heisheh Refugee Camp, Bethlehem (Palestine). "A four-story mural produced in collaboration with the Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA). Mural hugs stairs & tells history of Palestine one era per floor, ending with hopes & dreams for the future." "Depicts the history of Palestine from before the formation of the state of Israel, to the present period and ends with a depiction of hopes and dreams for a better future... Susan Greene of Break the Silence Mural Project (BTS) traveled to the West Bank of Occupied Palestine to create the four-story mural in coordination with Palestinian youth and artists. The mural was designed and painted by Palestinian youth and artists, Americans & American Jews."
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Date? - Mural, Separation Wall, where? (Palestine). By Susan Greene of Break the Silence Mural Project (BTS).

November 11, 2001 - Wall of Nations Memorial, Ground Zero, New York City, New York (USA). Commemorates 83 countries (in blue on map) whose citizens were lost in the attack on the World Trade Center (WTC). Left image shows President George W. Bush & UN Secretary General Kofi Annan at the wall.
June 2002 - Piedmont Peace Wall, Austin and Newbury Streets, Worcester, Massachusetts (USA). "12 ft. x 5 ft. Created [by Hillary Sloate Mosaics of Washington, DC] with Piedmont neighborhood residents. Thank you Worcester Common Ground, Pleasant St. Network Center, RC Rheault Construction, & Tom Lewis. Worcester T & G. Restored summer 2008."
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June 2002 - "Insurgent Images: The Agiprop Murals of Mike Alewitz," book by "labor muralist" Mike Alewitz, pp. 160.
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January 2003 "Philadelphia Murals and the Stories They Tell," book by Jane Golden, Robin Rice & Monica Yant Kinney, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, pp. 160. With photographs by David Graham & Jack Ramsdale. Click here for an excerpt from chapter 1. Sequel also available.

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August 21, 2003 - Monument to Rachel Corrie, Rafah?, Gaza Strip (Palestine). Painted by "labor muralist" Mike Alewitz. Rachel Corrie [1979-2003] was an American member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) who was crushed to death on March 16, 2003, by an Israel Defence Forces (IDF) bulldozer while trying to prevent the destuction of a Palestinian home near the Rafah refugee camp. "Alewitz was the founder & chairman of the Kent Student Mobilization Committee Against the War in Vietnam (SMC) the largest anti-war group at Kent State University prior to the May 4, 1970, massacre. He has remained a prominent anti-war and social justice activist. Alewitz has created murals on themes of peace & solidarity in Nicaragua, Chernobyl, Mexico City, Northern Ireland, Baghdad & the Occupied Territories."
November 2003 - Peace Mural, Art, War & Peace Museum, 1620 Washington Avenue, Miami, Florida (USA). By Vietnamese artist Houng. "In its entirety, over 800 feet in length & 8 feet tall, comprised of nearly 2000 paintings that capture highly evocative images and concepts of war and related themes, including the effects of war on women and children, veterans, refugees, torture, and displacement." Gallery moved from Jensen Beach to Miami in November 2007.
January 9, 2004 - Human Rights Mural, Coral Springs Museum of Art (Csmart), Coral Springs, Florida (USA). By artist Yuri Gevorgian Yuroz. "Commissioned by the United Nations. Joined an already running show on the artist called 'The Narrative Culture of Cubism.'" What's its permanent location?
Date? - "Tree of Life" mural, 18th Street at 5th Avenue, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York City, New York (USA). Artist & date unknown.
March 28, 2004 - Ulm (Germany). Ulmer PACE-Zaun für den Frieden / Ulm PACE Fence for Peace, Bauzaun/Münsterplatz-Neue Strasse / Cathedral Square-New Road, Ulm (Germany). "A permanent location at the Meeting House of Ulm in the Open Court "firmly united with nature." Thanks to the team of the Meeting House for the loving care and care there!" Related to the Internationale Ärzte für die Verhütung des Atomkrieges / International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW).

About 2004 - Peace Wall, Main Street, Castle Rock, Tombstone Canyon, Bisbee, Arizona (USA). "Castle Rock is an imposing hunk of rock on the side of Tombstone Canyon in Bisbee, Arizona. British-born artist Rose Johnson [1961-2009] was commissioned by the city of Bisbee to paint a mural dedicated to world peace on a concrete wall that abuts Castle Rock." /// By photographer Larry Elkins: "IN THE LATE SIXTIES, IN MY HOME TOWN OF BISBEE, ONE OR MORE TEENAGERS PAINTED A PEACE SIGN AND THE WORD PEACE ON AN OLD RETAINING WALL. REMARKABLY, THE IMAGE REMAINED FOR DECADES. THE WALL BECAME KNOWN UNOFFICIALLY AS THE PEACE WALL. A FEW YEARS AGO, THE CITY ADMINISTRATION DECREED THAT THE GRAFFITI WOULD HAVE TO BE PAINTED OVER. HOWEVER, INSTEAD OF SIMPLY SPRAY PAINTING OVER THE GRAFFITI IMAGE, THE CITY COMMISSIONED RENOWNED MURALIST ROSE JOHNSON TO CREATE AN IMAGE DEPICTING PEACE TO REPLACE THE GRAFFITI. THE RESULT WAS THIS BEAUTIFUL PEACE WALL. UNFORTUNATELY, THE ARTIST, ROSE JOHNSON, A DEAR FRIEND OF MINE, DIED IN BALI LAST YEAR AFTER DRINKING LIQUOR THAT TURNED OUT TO HAVE BEEN LACED WITH WOOD ALCOHOL. THE WORLD WILL SORELY MISS THIS CARING AND TALENTED LADY. REST IN PEACE, SWEET ENGLISH ROSE."

July 30, 2004 - Peace Mural, Bogside, Londonderry (Northern Ireland). In 2007, brothers Tom and William Kelly and their friend Kevin Hasson from Derry, collectively known as the 'Bogside Artists', recreated their famous 'Peace' mural on the Mall in Washington, DC (USA). The original depicts a dove of peace. Click here for distant view.

April 2005 - "Building Communities of Peace for All," Chiang Mei (Thailand). By Artists Ugatiahi Collective.
2005 - "A Season for Change," public court, near West 65th Street & Detroit Avenue, Cleveland Ohio (USA). Commissioned by Cleveland Public Theater.
2005 - "Peace Not War" Mural, Highways Art Center, Olympic & 18th Street, Santa Monica, California (USA).
2005 - "Builders of Peace, Heart, Community," west wall of the Good Earth Grocery, Fairfax, Marin County, California (USA). Mural sponsored by Marin Center for Peace & Justice.

2005 - "Faith in Women," Intermedia Arts, 2822 Lyndale Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Mural by Lady Pink of New York City. "Depicts anti-war symbolism and the horrors of war experienced by the innocent. Painted for the 2005 b-girl be Summit."


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August 2005 & Ongoing - Peace Grafitti on the Israeli Separation Wall, Bethlehem (Palestine). "A silhouette of children riding an escalator up and over the wall is one of many pieces of artwork painted on the barrier wall between Bethlehem and Jerusalem." "In August 2005, [anonymous British grafitti artist] Banksy painted nine images, including an image of a ladder going up and over the wall and an image of children digging a hole through the wall." /// "Some locals found [the donkey mural] offensive and painted over it [in December 2007]. 'We're humans here, not donkeys. This is insulting. I'm glad it was painted over,' said restaurant owner Nasri Canavati. 'Comparing someone to a donkey in Palestinian society is like calling them an idiot.'"

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November 12, 2005 - "VREDE IS COOL," reception hall, IKV/Pax Christi, Hoog Catharijne Shopping Centre, Godebaldkwartier 74, Utrecht (Netherlands). Has sayings about peace, e.g. "Vrede is vliegen / Peace is flying," "Vrede is verbondenheid / Peace is connectedness." Painted by 7 young refugees from Utrecht Asylum Seekers Centre tutored by artist Senad Alic from Serbia-Montenegro & theatre designer Majid Hassan from Sudan, working for the National Foundation for the Promotion of Happiness in Amsterdam. Information & image courtesy of Gerard Lössbroek. IKV (Interchurch Peace Council) established in 1966 by 9 churches.

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December 27, 2005 "Walls and Pieces", by Banksy, Random House, pp. 192. "The collected works of Britain’s most wanted artist. Artistic genius, political activist, painter & decorator, mythic legend or notorious graffiti artist? The work of Banksy is unmistakable (except maybe when it’s squatting in the New York’s Metropolitan Museum or Museum of Modern Art.) Banksy is responsible for decorating the streets, walls, bridges and zoos of towns and cites throughout the world."
May 2006 - "Plant Peace" Mural, Leahi Millennium Peace Garden, Diamond Head, Honolulu, Hawaii (USA). "Garden was created in 2000 by teens from around the globe to promote peace and cultural understanding and now stands as a symbol of solidarity and hope. In 2006 seniors from the Visual Arts Academy (VAA) of Oakland, California, partnered with Hawaiian youth to provide general garden maintenance and paint the mural, positive imagery representing peace and capturing the essence of ALOHA."
October 2006 - "All Join Hands: The Visions of Peace," Benjamin Franklin High School, Broad & Spring Garden Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By muralist Donald Gensler.
February 24, 2007 - "City of Peace," Tucson, Arizona (USA). "6’x 12’ Mobile Mural project as part of the Season of Nonviolence. Community members were invited to paint the mobile mural during the annual Tucson Peace Fair held in Reid Park. About 45 people of all ages participated throughout the day. Arranged by Michael B. Schwartz." Notice world with South Pole at top.
Mother's Day 2007 - "Peace Fence," Ashland, Oregon (USA). Jean Bakewell's idea to transform an unsightly chain link fence that runs along railroad tracks. The panels express each contributor's vision about the human spirit and hopes for peace. There are intricate quilts and beautifully sewn works, oil paintings on canvas, collages, batik and tie-died works, hand painted signs and statements... In the summer of 2008, the entire Peace Fence was destroyed by vandals. But the Peace Fence is neither gone nor forgotten." See the Peace Wall.
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2007 - Edward Said Mural, Cesar Chavez Student Union, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California (USA). By Fayeq Oweis & Susan Greene. Edward Said [1935-2003] "was a Palestinian-American literary theorist, advocate for Palestinian rights, Prof. of English & Comparative Literature at Columbia University & a founding figure in postcolonialism. Robert Fisk said he was the Palestinians' 'most powerful political voice.'"
Summer 2007 - "Peaces of Chico," Camellia Substation, downtown Chico, California (USA). "One of the most prominently featured murals in Chico. Painted by artist Greg Payne in partnership with local high school students."
Date? -"Rest in Peace" Mural, Los Angeles, California (USA).

September 30, 2007 - Mount Shasta Community Peace Mural, Visitor's Bureau Park, Mount Shasta, California (USA). 8 feet by 20 feet mural depicts what various community members see as their "Vision of Peace." Sponsored by the Siskiyou Arts Council (SAC).
2008 - "Independence Starts Here," Hahnemann University Hospital, Broad & Race Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). By muralist Donald Gensler. "About 12,000 square feet. Seven stories tall. Within the design people with disabilities stand as monuments symbolizing different actors within a diverse and extraordinary community. These people are all from Philadelphia and of different races, genders, and backgrounds."
2009 - "Peace Wall," Ashand Public Library, Ashland Oregon (USA). Successor to the vandalized Peace Fence (qv). "Artist Kay Cutter is transferring photographic images of every Peace Fence panel (over 200 of them) onto ceramic tiles."
2009? - "Let Peace Blossom," Konawaena High School, Kealakekua, Hawaii (USA). "Celebrating the inaugural of President Obama, student painted a peace mural, 12ft x 5ft." Contains peace symbol, waves, flowers, music dance & other Hawaiian themes. Words on left side: PEACE, LOVE, JOY, KINDNESS, HOPE, HARMONY, LAUGHTER, FRIENDSHIP, FUN, FREEDOM, UNITY, FAITH, HAPPINESS, TRUST, SERENITY, ALOHA.
October 21, 2009 - "Stop the Violence. Another Way is Possible," Houston Street & Avenue B, Lower East Side (LES), New York City, New York (USA). "The legendary LES artist retired to Florida earlier this year. But Chico [Antonio Garcia] is back, thanks to the Lower East Side Girls Club and the anti-violence organization Power of Peace (POP)."
December 10, 2009 - Obama Nobel Peace Mural, Miami Art Palace, 7900 SW 77 Avenue, Miami, Florida (USA). Measures 200 feet long by 8 feet tall. Made of 700 original paintings devoted to one subject, USA Transformation. Unveiled the same day that President Obama travels to Oslo (Norway) to accept his Nobel Peace Prize. Presented by the Peace Mural Foundation. The artist Huong says, "I was in Washington, DC, on Inauguration Day, with 1.8 million others... These panels reflect what I saw and felt on that day and what I have been seeing and hearing in the months since... As the Nobel Committee noted, in Obama’s America, 'Dialogue and negotiations are preferred as instruments for resolving even the most difficult international conflicts.' So stop for a moment. See what dialogue looks like, and hear the many voices. YES, WE CAN hear each other with respect. It’s the path to peace."
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May 8, 2010 - Olympia-Rafah Solidarity Mural, 119-1/2 Capitol Way North, Olympia, Washington (USA). By mural artist Susan Greene. The Olympia-Rafah Soldarity Mural Project (ORSMP) "furthers Rachel Corrie's dream of building a sister city relationship between Rafah, Gaza Strip (Palestine), where she was killed in 2003, and Olympia, Washington, USA, where she grew up and attended The Evergreen State College." See video.

September 12, 2010 - Two Robert F. Kennedy Murals, Paul Schrade Library Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools, Los Angeles, California (USA). By Professor Judy Baca. Named "Tiny Ripples of Hope" & "See Through Others Eyes" (RFK with Caesar Chavez [1927-1993]). "The schools are a K-12 complex located on the site of the Ambassador Hotel where Senator Robert F. Kennedy [1925-1968] was assassinated on June 5, 1968. Schools in the RFK Network embody Kennedy's social justice legacy." Paul Schrade was wounded in the same shooting.

May 12, 2011 - Peace Mural, Integrity House (Broad Street façade), Newark, New Jersey (USA). "The largest community-based public artwork in the history of the City of Newark. Unveiled by the Barat Foundation & the Newark Interfaith Coalition for Hope & Peace at the Newark Peace Education Summit to welcome Nobel Laureates His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, Dr. Shirin Ebadi & Jody Williams... The 50ft x 35ft Peace Mural was completed over the course of 45 days by more than 500 Newark youth & numerous volunteers working with the mural's designer, Dan Fenelon, mural facilitator Sue Daly & a team of artists in residence."

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Summer 2011 - "Wonder Wheel of Peace," Helsinki (Finland). One of a number of street murals painted as a result of an initiative by "Multicoloured Dreams" (MCD). Theme for summer 2011 was "peace & peacemaking." Click here for a gallery of other 2011 murals. Artworks can be seen on the construction site walls on Kamppi Narinkkatori square, in Töölönlahti area & next to the Parliament House.
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August 22, 2012 - Wall for Peace 2011, Concourse A/B, Washington Dulles International Airport, Chantilly, Virginia (USA). By Anil Revri. "7 feet long, 6 ½ feet high, free-standing rectangular sculpture that features a four-sided LED screen that displays English translations of scriptures related to peace from Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism. Rays of light emanating from the unit are projected onto the viewers as they walk around the work... On display until March 2013." Still there as of August 2014. Information courtesy of Sharron King.

Future - "Pieces for Peace mosaic." "An Israeli-Palestinian art-dialogue project for children. More than 150 Palestinian & Israeli youth have met over the last 3 years to create 330 square feet of mosaic. This work of art is being painstakingly created from thousands of mosaic tiles. The finished mosaic project will be placed in a park on the Israel-Palestine border. The mosaic promises a fear-free future, and we hope it will be a meeting place for the peoples of the region and the world."
Future? - "Building Peace One Piece at a Time", Studio of David Fichter, 20 Worcester Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA). Project by students of muralist David Fichter. Intended for permanent installation?

World Wall for Peace (WWFP):

- Carolyna Marks [1942-2011] was an artist, teacher & peace activist. She founded World Wall for Peace in 1983.
There are about 20 World Walls for Peace in 5 states (CA, GA, MI, NY & TN) & 4 other countries (Japan, Palestine, Russia & South Africa),
Click here for website of World Wall for Peace (WWFP), Berkeley, Calfornia (USA).
Click here for information about Marks' book "Creativity in the Lions Den: Releasing Our Children from Violence, A Peace Empowerment Process for the Artist in Everyone."


1988 - 1st World Wall for Peace (WWFP), Martin Luther King Park , Berkeley, California (USA). Same as Civic Center Park? "The founder of WWFP, Carolyna Marks, had seen a sign painted on a fence in her neighborhood in huge letters: 'DO SOMETHING TODAY FOR PEACE.' Challenged by that sign, she set out to create the first peace wall. It took 5 years, but she and a core of dedicated volunteers eventually completed the first segment, consisting of 3000 hand-painted tiles, in 1988."
April 7, 1989 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Park, Berkeley, California (USA). Dedicated by Rev. Jesse Jackson. Entry #52 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Willard Middle School, 2425 Stuart Street, Berkeley, California (USA). Not certain if image matches this location.
1989 - Chabot Elementary School, Oakland, California (USA). 644 tiles. Entry #98 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Cafeteria, Merritt College, Oakland, California (USA). 1000 tiles. Entry #98 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
November 1990 - Arbat Quarter ("12th century mall near the Kremlin"), Moscow (Russia). Over one city block long & 8 feet high. "This famous Moscow landmark symbolizes a new beginning that took place with Perestroika and collapse of the Berlin wall. Since we have an international child, I only thought it was appropriate I have an image of my son [right image], who’s half Russian, half American, in my collection in front of the wall. Carolyna Marks was invited in 1989 by the Center for Creative Initiative and the Vocational Schools in Moscow to go as their guest for a year to work with Soviet youth to build a Peace Wall. In the course of the year, a Peace Wall Core of ten translators – four adults and six teenagers – and Carolyna worked with 7,000 children, ages ten to eighteen. This is where the Peace Empowerment Process [PEP] was first conceived. The Moscow Peace Wall was completed in November 1990, less than a year after the Berlin Wall fell, and is prominently located." See YouTube.
1994 - Fruitvale Rapid Transit Station (BART), Oakland California (USA). 3500 tiles. Entry #98 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
1995 - Jack London Square, Oakland, California (USA). Three sections added in July 1997 & January 1999. 3000 tiles. Click here for more photos. Entry #98 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).

Date? - Unity Center of Walnut Creek, Walnut Creek, California (USA).
Date? - Detroit, Michigan (USA). Where is this wall?
About 1995 - Between Plassman & Hennepin Hall, Siena College, Loudenville, New York (USA). "Recreated" on September 21, 2010. Image (showing Martin Luther King, Jr., & the words "I have a dream that one day...") is only a few tiles of a much larger mural.
July 18, 1996 - Little Five Points, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). A project of Partnerships in Peace (PIP). Created just in time for the Centennial Olympic Games. Photo includes the PIP "Peace Mobile." Featured on Atlanta Peace Trails (APT) developed by Tourism For Peace (TFP) & Partnerships In Peace (PIP). Click here to download the APT booklet (PDF format). Click here for Atlanta: City of Peace.
Date? - Sevier Park Community Center, 12th Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee (USA).
November 1996 - Chapin Park, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (USA).

December 20, 1998 - Ashkenaz Music & Dance Community Center,Berkeley, California (USA). Inscribed "Ashkenaz, David Nadel Peoples, Park, San Pablo Ave. Peace Makers."
1999 - Fruitvale Elementary School, Oakland, California (USA). 2000 tiles. Entry #98 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
July 17, 2001 - "World Wall for Peace" (WWFP), Community Center, Al-Khader, near Bethlehem (Occupied West Bank). "In a new building funded by Italians, a community center where it will be seen by the whole community, children & adults. The Palestinian community in Al-Khader plans to paint tiles in Arabic that will form the title panel of the wall. Thank you tiles in Arabic will be painted for George Rishmawi [co-founder of the Siraj Center for Holy Land Studies & International Solicarity Movement], Hasam Jobranus, the tilesetter, leader of the boys & girls club & the community. A grant of $5,000 from the Anderson Family Foundation almost fully supported the project, with the balances paid out of pocket as contributions by Tom Esposito & Carolyna Marks."
June 2003 - Ennerdale High School, near Johannesburg (South Africa).
Future - Hiroshima (Japan). "Tiles painted in Berkeley, California, for inclusion in a Peace Wall in Hiroshima...are currently on display in the International Room of the Hiroshima Museum, and are awaiting a site where they can be permanently installed."

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