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Monuments of the
US Foreign Service
(& Department of State)

A "monument" is a physical & permanent object which symbolicly preserves the memory of an important person, event or idea. This web page displays monuments related to the US Foreign Service (& Department of State) in chronological order. Many monuments related to individual Secretaries of State and US diplomats and presidential museums are not included. Flags relate to physical location. Dates indicate when each monument was dedicated or established (if known).

Click here for peace monuments in Washington, DC. | Click here for monuments related to peace treaties. | Click here for international peace conferences. | Click here for Nobel Peace Prize. | Click here for monuments related to the United Nations.

Click for the following Wikipedia pages: US Foreign Service, US Foreign Service Officer (FSO), List of US Diplomatic Missions, Secretary of State, List of Secretaries of State, webstites of American Embassies & Consulates.

Right click image to enlarge.

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About 1783 - "Peace of Paris, 1783", John Quincy Adams Room, (Top Floor), US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Painting by Benjamin West [1738-1820] of the American delegation at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens [1724-1792] & William Temple Franklin [1760-1823]. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed." (The preliminary articles signed in Paris on November 30, 1782, were only effective when a similar treaty was signed by Britain & France, which French Foreign Minister Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes [1717-1787], quickly negotiated. France signed preliminary articles of peace with Great Britain on January 20, 1783, which were followed by a formal Peace of Paris signed on September 3, 1783.)


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1785-1789 - House of Thomas Jefferson, 92 Champs Elysses, Paris (France). Translation of plaque: "In this place resided Thomas JEFFERSON, Minister of the United States in France 1785-1789, author of the American Declaration of Independence, founder of the University of Virginia. This plaque was placed on April 13, 1919, by the efforts of University of Virginia alumni [who were] soldiers of the World War in commemoration of the centennial anniversary of the foundation of the university."


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July 21, 1789 - "The House of Representatives & Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, & President George Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first Federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State & assigned to it a variety of domestic duties. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson [1743-1826] of Virginia, then Minister to France, to be the first US Secretary of State."

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1790 - La Maison Fenwick, Quai des Chartrons, Bordeaux (France). "First & oldest American Consulate, has occupied this site for most of its history since 1790 in Bordeaux. Photo taken June 2004. The building long ago took the name of the American occupant & chief tenant in 1790, Joseph Fenwick [1762-1849]. He became the first US Consul in 1790 and was from a family with Maryland & South Carolina connections. The marker, in French & English, reads: "Here lived Joseph Fenwick, who became the first American Consul in Bordeaux in 1790. This plaque, unveiled by Mayor Jacques Chaban-Delmas on November 26, 1990, commemorates the Bicentennial of the US Consulate in Bordeaux, the oldest American consulate in the world."
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September 1792 - Plaque, Bristol (England). Text of plaque: "In a house on this site THE FIRST AMERICAN CONSULATE in Great Britain was established in September 1792."

August 24, 1814 - During the War of 1812, the British army burns many public buildings in Washington, DC, including the offices of the Department of State. Clerk Stephen Pleasonton [1776?-1855] gathers the Declaration of Independence, journals of the Continental Congress, correspondence of George Washington & other valuable papers & hides them in the grist mill at Pimmit Run (now in Arlington, Virginia). See historical marker dedicated there on November 15, 2011.


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Circa 1815 - "Peace" (Allegory of the Treaty of Ghent) by John Rubens Smith [1775-1849], Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA). The Treaty of Ghent (now in Belgium) was signed December 24, 1814, and ended the War of 1812 between the USA & Great Britain.


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1821 - Americn Legation Museum, The Medina, Tangier (Morocco). "Houses an art collection & beautifully restored rooms." "Morocco, after being the first country to recognize the new-found USA in 1777, gave the U.S. its first proper embassy abroad ó a villa in the midst of old Tangier, Americaís mission in Morocco from 1821 to 1956. Moroccoís American Legation is the oldest American diplomatic property in the world, and, as the Web site of the US embassy in Morocco (since removed to Rabat) proudly explains, 'the only building on foreign soil that is listed in the US National Register of Historic Places.'"


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1865 "The old state department building in Washington, DC (where the Alaskan Treaty was signed in 1867). Apparentlhy on the site of the Treasury Department's north wing (built in 1867-1869). Left image is from an 1898 publication & shows the building as was in 1865." Right image is a painting by Emanuel Leutze, depicting William H. Seward & Eduard de Stoeckl negotiating the Alaska Purchase. What years did the Department of State occupy this building?

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1869 - Treaty Table, Treaty Room, White House, Washington, DC (USA). Also known as Grant's Cabinet Table. "Pottier & Stymus Manufacturing Co., New York, created a 'table for eight persons' for Andrew Johnson, delivered in 1869, after Johnson had left office. President Grantís Cabinet met around this table every Thursday and Friday. The table has eight locking drawers, so each Cabinet member and the president could keep important papers safe. At the president's end is the remains of a call button system. Except for a time in early 20th century, the table has nearly always been in the White House Treaty Room. Many important agreements have been signed on the table, including the peace treaty that ended the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963, and one of the SALT agreements. Recent presidents have used it in their private White House offices."
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1879 - State, War & Navy Building, Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Next to the White House. Now called Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB). The Navy vacated the building between 1918 & 1921. By 1930, the building was renamed for the Department of State. It has housed 24 Secretaries of State, and Japanese emissaries met there with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. By 1949, it was renamed the Executive Office Building (EOB).
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1879 - Indian Treaty Room, EEOB, Washington, DC (USA). Originally the Navy Department Library & Reception Room. Used for presidential press conferences 1955-1961. Eisenhower held the first televised presidential press conference here in January 1955. The name "Indian Treaty Room" came about sometime during the 1930's, and it is still not clear why, despite extensive research. Some say it's because the War Department stored papers there in the 1930's, including treaties with the American Indian nations. Treaties signed in this room include Bretton Woods (establishing the IMF), peace treaties with Rumania, Italy & Hungary after WW-II, and the UN Charter.


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June 1904 - Statue of Benjamin Rush, Navy Bureau of Medicine & Surgery, across from the entrance to the old Naval Observatory, Foggy Bottom, Washington, DC (USA). Larger-than-life, bronze statue. Honors Benjamin Rush M.D. [1745-1813], Philadelphia physician, medical educator & signer of the Declaration of Independence. Rush proposed a Peace-Office for the USA in 1798.


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April 26, 1910 - Organization of American States (OAS), 17th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "On April 14, 1890, delegates created the International Union of American Republics 'for the prompt collection and distribution of commercial information.' They also established the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics in Washington as the Union's secretariat, with the participation of 18 Western Hemisphere nations, including the USA. In 1910, the Commercial Bureau became the Pan American Union, and American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] donated $5 million to construct a permanent headquarters in Washington, DC, which is today the historic OAS building." Lower image shows interior courtyard.


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April 26, 1910 - Peace Tree, Organization of American States (OAS), 17th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "Prominent among the lush vegetation of the OAS patio. A hybrid of fig and rubber. Planted by President William Howard Taft [1857-1930] during the building's dedication ceremonies in 1910." Right image shows John Barret (Director General), Bishop Harding, Amb. de la Barra (Mťxico), Andrew Carnegie, President Taft, Philander O. Knox (Secretary of State), Senator Elihu Root, James Cardinal Gibbons & Frederick D. Owen. On April 26, 2010, President Barak Obama "planted a new 'Peace Tree' as a symbol of the OASís renewed dedication to its core values of good faith and solidarity for the next 100 years." Left made 01Nov1011 by EWL.


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May 22, 1918 - "US Passports are issued exclusively by the US Department of State. The Travel Control Act of May 22, 1918, permitted the president, when the US was at war, to proclaim a passport requirement, & a proclamation was issued on August 18, 1918. Though WW-I ended on November 11, 1918, the passport requirement lingered until March 3, 1921. There was an absence of a passport requirement under US law between 1921 & 1941. WW-II (1939Ė1945) again led to passport requirements under the Travel Control Act of 1918. The contemporary period of required passports for Americans under US law began on November 29, 1941. A 1978 amendment to the Immigration & Nationality Act of 1952 made it illegal to to enter or depart the US without an issued passport even in peacetime."


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1919 - Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (SFS), Georgetown University, Washington, DC (USA). Oldest & largest school of international affairs in the USA. Jesuit priest Edmund A. Walsh founded SFS, recognizing the need to prepare Americans for roles as diplomats & business professionals in the wake of the US' expanding involvement in the world after World War I. The school predates the US Foreign Service by six years. Today, SFS has approximately 2,100 students from 80 nations. In 2002, the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science & Community Development presented the School of Foreign Service with the resources & space to open a facility in the new Education City in Doha, Qatar. SFS-Qatar opened in 2005; as of 2008, SFS-Q had a student body of 145.


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1924 - Foreign Service Act of 1924. Also called the "Rogers Act of 1924" for its author, Congressman John Jacob Rogers [1881-1925]. The legislation that merged the US Diplomatic & Consular Services into the Foreign Service of the United States. Defined a personnel system under which the US Secretary of State is authorized to assign diplomats abroad.


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April 20, 1925 - A-100 is the colloquial name given to the introductory/orientation training class for incoming Foreign Service Officers (FSO's)... In function, if not name, the A-100 Class dates back to June 7, 1924, when President Coolidge issued Executive Order 4022 establishing a Foreign Service School for the purpose of training newly-hired probationary FSO's. The Foreign Service School's first class was conducted from April 20 - September 1, 1925, & 'graduated' a class of 17. According to tradition, the "100" in A-100 refers to the number of the room in which the course was first conducted. The State Department's 1926 Telephone Directory confirms that the Foreign Service School was located in Room 100 of the State, War & Navy Building. Right image shows a recent A-100 Class in the Diplomatic Reception Rooms (qv).

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March 3, 1933 - First Memorial Plaque, US Department of State, Wshington, DC (USA). "Now at the west end of the diplomatic lobby of the Department of State, was unveiled on March 3, 1933 by Secretary of State Henry Stimson at the entrance of what is now the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB), standing next to the White House, which then housed the State, War & Navy Departments. The inscription on this plaque states: 'Erected by members of the American Foreign Service Association [AFSA] in honor of diplomatic and consular officers of the United States who while on active duty lost their lives under heroic or tragic circumstances.' The establishment of this plaque grew out of efforts in the late 20's and early 30's to establish a 'Roll of Honor' naming those who had died by violence or other causes related to service abroad such as tropical diseases. The first name is that of William Palfrey [1741-1780], chosen by the Continental Congress as Consul General to France, who set sail in 1780 and was never heard from again. Travel by sea was dangerous and often fatal in the early years of our country, and tropical diseases also frequently struck down 19th century American representatives. The first plaque was limited to Foreign Service officers, but after World War II the plaque became open to Foreign Service personnel of all ranks." This info is from AFSA website. Image is from the 2011 Foreign Affairs Day Memorial Plaque Ceremony. See east plaque below.


April 29, 1935 - Rush-Bagot Memorial Tablet, Columbia Residences (former Columbia Hospital for Women), 2425 L Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Marks place where the Rush-Bagot agreement was signed April 18-19, 1817, to bring about the removal of armed vessels from the Great Lakes. Erected by Kiwanis International. Entry #1162 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).


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1941 - New War Department Building, 21st Street at Virginia Avenue, WW-II. From State Magazine, May 2007, page 23: "The 21st Street entrance & lobby reopened January 22, 2007. Visitors entering the building are screened in the new exterior security facility. In the restored travertine and granite lobby & turnstiles, a granite receptionistís desk & surrounding bronze & glass security doors complement the original architecture of the grand monumental lobby... And of course the parking lot is gone in this era of security measures." /// General Leslie Groves [1896-1970] ran the Manhattan Project from the fifth floor of this building. According to Library of Congress, right image shows the 5th floor lobby. What about the mural, statuary & display case shown in this image? See future National Museum of American Diplomacy.


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1941 or 1942 - Mural, US Department of State, 21st Street Entrance, Washington, DC (USA). "Employees & guests are greeted by the 50- foot-by-12-foot historic mural ďAmerica the Mighty,Ē painted by Kindred McLeary [1901-1949] in 1942." /// "There is an awesome mural just inside the entrance by one Kindred McLeary called 'Defense of the Four Freedoms' (1941). Apparently it was covered for years by State officials who considered it too 'warlike.'" /// Left image is mural study at American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution (not currently on public view).

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February 1, 1942 - Voice of America (VOA). "VOA's first live broadcast was to Nazi Germany & called Stimmen aus Amerika (Voices from America). One of VOA's radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a 625-acre (2.53 km2) site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994. Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, Liberia, Costa Rica, and Belize. Currently, the VOA & the IBB continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters & antenna farms at one site in the USA located near Greenville, North Carolina. The International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) also operates a transmission facility on S„o Tomť for the VOA. The VOA currently broadcasts in 44 languages." /// Lower image shows VOA headquarters in Washington, DC.


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1943 - Bronze bust of Cordell Hull, Organization of American States (OAS), Virginia Avnue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Modelled from life in his 72th year. Inscription: "CORDELL HULL, 1874-1955. LET EACH AMERICAN NATION VIE WITH THE OTHER IN THE PRACTICE OF THE POLICY OF THE GOOD NEIGHBOR. 'PEACE MUST BE OUR PASSION.'" /// Cordell Hull [1871-1955] is the longest serving US Secretary of State [1933-1944].
1945 - Bronze bust of Cordell Hull, US Senate, Washington, DC (USA). By George Conlon [1888 - 1980]. Overall measurements: Height: 28.38 inches (72.1 cm), width: 21 inches (53.3 cm) & depth: 13.63 inches (34.6 cm). "It is said that Conlon admired Cordell Hull, & records indicate that, after his return from France, the artist sought a meeting with the secretary of state to gain approval to model his portrait bust. Conlon was subsequently provided space at the Corcoran Gallery of Art for sittings with the secretary. Once the clay model was completed & Secretary Hull had announced his resignation in 1944, the Cumberland (Maryland) Evening & Sunday Times decided to honor Hull by presenting Conlonís bust to the nation. In a joint resolution, adopted on December 4, 1944, Congress authorized the Joint Committee on the Library to accept the newspaperís gift. The bronze bust of Cordell Hull was unveiled in the Senate Reception Room the following year."


June 26, 1945 - War Memorial Building, United Nations Plaza, San Francisco, California (USA). Signing of the United Nations Charter at the United Nations Conference on International Organization by 50 of the 51 original member countries. (Poland signed later). The UN Charter entered into force on October 24, 1945. The auditorium was renamed the Herbst Theatre in 1977. Click here for monuments related to the United Nations.

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August 1, 1946 - "Fulbright Program" signed into law by President Harry S. Truman. Became the largest education exchange program in history. Named for Senator J. William Fulbright [1905-1995] who introduced the law in 1945. The program makes competitive, merit-based grants for international educational exchange by students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists & artists. Fulbright went on to chair the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations 1959-1974. Today, the Fulbright Program is "sponsored" by the US Department of State, Bureau of Educational & Cultural Affairs, & administered by the Institute of International Education (IIE). /// Lower image shows Fulbright Building in Seoul (South Korea).


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March 1947 - Operations Center (S/ES-O), US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "The Secretary of State's & the Department's communications & crisis management center. Working 24 hours a day, the Ops Center monitors world events, prepares briefings for the Secretary & other Department principals, & facilitates communication between the Department & the rest of the world. According to the Office of the Historian, the Department of State established the Executive Secretariat in March 1947 to regulate the flow of information within the highest levels of the Department. Its functions have included such various assignments as Protocol (prior to 1955), management of the Department's Operation Center (since 1962) & preparation of briefing papers about the Department during the transitions between Presidential administrations." Photos by Washington Post in July 2010.

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September 17, 1949 - "The first formal meeting of the North Atlantic Council occurred on 17 September 1949. It was held in the auditorium of the US Department of State in Washington, DC, the same room where the North Atlantic Treaty had been adopted on 4 April 1949. The main purpose of the meeting was to establish an organizational structure for NATO, and at the start of the meeting the US Secretary of State, Mr. Dean Acheson, called for two principles to be observed: 'The machinery should be as simple as possible & the organisation should not be multiplied merely for the purpose of setting up many committees... Secondly, the machinery should be businesslike & should reflect underlying realities.'"


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1953 - US Information Agency (USIA) was an independent foreign affairs agency within the executive branch of the US government from 1953 until 1999. USIA explained & supported American foreign policy and promoted US national interests through a wide range of overseas information programs. The agency promoted mutual understanding between the US & other nations by conducting educational & cultural activities. USIA maintained 190 posts in 142 countries. Overseas, USIA was known as USIS, the US Information Service. Pursuant to the Foreign Affairs Reform & Restructuring Act of 1998, USIA was integrated into the Department of State on October 1, 1999.


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1955 - Great Seal of the United States, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "The seal press in use today was made in 1903 by R. Hoe & Co's chief cabinetmaker Frederick S. Betchley in conjunction with the 1904 die, with the cabinet being made of mahogany. It is marked with the contracted completion date of June 15, 1903, but delays and reworking pushed final delivery into early 1904. From 1945 to 1955, the Great Seal changed quarters almost once a year. In 1955, the seal was put on public display for the first time in a central location in the State Department's main building. In 1961 the Seal became the focus of the new Department Exhibit Hall, where it resides today in a glass enclosure. The enclosure remains locked at all times, even during the sealing of a document." Left image shows Clydia Mae Richardson, who led the effort to put the seal on display, & John Foster Dulles imprinting a document during the 1955 ceremony.


October 14, 1960 - Steps of the Michigan Union building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (USA). Where presidential candidate John F. Kennedy [1917-1963] stood when he announced the idea of the Peace Corps. Photo shows small marker embedding one step to mark the spot. Entry #490 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Visited by EWL.


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1961 - State Department Extension, Washington, DC (USA). "Completed in 1960 and dedicated in 1961. In 2000, the building was renamed in honor of former President Harry S. Truman." Center & right images show Diplomatic Lobby where flags of all nations with whom the US has diplomatic relations are displayed. Left image shows diplomatic entrance on C Street, which was closed to public traffic between 21st & 23rd Streets sometime after 9/11 for security reasons.


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1961 - Loy Henderson Auditorium, Harry S. Truman Building, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). Image shows Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton during the Inaugural Meeting of the Advisory Committee for the 100,000 Strong Initiative on May 10, 2011. This is not the same auditorium used by President Kennedy.

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1961 - Diplomatic Reception Rooms, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Are among the most beautiful rooms in the world. For fifty years, the art of diplomacy has thrived in the Diplomatic Reception Rooms against a stunning backdrop of American art & architecture from the time of our countryís founding & of its formative years. This historically evocative suite (42 rooms) contains a museum-caliber collection of American fine & decorative art (5,000 objects) from the period of 1750-1825. Today, the Secretary of State, Vice President & Members of Cabinet continue to conduct the essential business of diplomacy in the Diplomatic Reception Rooms. In these State Rooms, the United States signs treaties, conducts summit negotiations, hosts swearing-in ceremonies, facilitates trade agreements & promotes peace." Lower image shows Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton swearing in Gary Locke as US Ambassador to the Peopleís Republic of China on August 1, 2011.

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1961-1963 - President John F. Kennedy [1917-1963] held 64 press conferences, most if not all in the State Department Auditorium. "JFK was the first President to hold 'live' televised press conferences. Presidents before had held the conferences with the press in the privacy of their office, and anything said that was 'off the record' was not permitted to be published. JFK's conferences were not 'staged.' That is, he did not know what specific questions would be asked. This allowed him to 'think on his feet,' and often his wit came into play with his answers. The press conferences were always televised." Lower image show Secreatary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton in the same room on a recent "Take Your Child to Work" day.


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1961 - US Agency for International Development (USAID). The US federal government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. President John F. Kennedy created USAID in 1961 by executive order to implement development assistance programs in the areas authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. An independent federal agency, USAID receives overall foreign policy guidance from the US Secretary of State and seeks to "extend a helping hand to those people overseas struggling to make a better life, recover from a disaster or striving to live in a free d democratic country."


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1963 - "Expanding Universe" Fountain, Foreign Service Court, Harry S. Truman Building, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). By Marshall M. Fredericks & commissioned for the US Government by the General Services Administration (GSA). According to Fredericks, the sculpture "represents this age of great interest, exploration and discovery in outer space...[and] the immensity, order & mystery of the universe." Marshall M. Fredericks [1908-1998] sculpted the "Spirit of Detroit," "Peace Arising from the Flames of War" in Cleveland & "Freedom of the Human Spirit" for the 1964 Worlds Fair in New York City & many other works. Saginaw Valley State University maintains the Marshall M. Fredericks Sculpture Museum which includes the plaster model of "Expanding Universe."

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1960's - Relief Globe, Diplomatic Lobby, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). A globe very similar to the Buhl globe occupied a position of honor between the stairs & the flag display for many years. Is it still there? If not, what happened to it?
1970's - Geo-Physical Relief Globe, Western End of the Great Hall, Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Made by Rand McNally. "Moved elsewhere in the building in the 1980's. The Globe was moved to the Carnegie Science Center & displayed on the building's fourth floor for several years. Currently, this globe is in storage. N.B.: Is this one of the relief globes (& continent slices) which one employee produced for many years at the Rand McNally factory in Richmond, Kentucky? Where do other examples of the Rand McNally globe still exist?

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1965 - Home of Silas Deane, Webb-Deane-Stevens Museum, Weathersfield, Connecticut (USA). Silas Deane [1737-1789] was an American merchant, politician & diplomat. Originally a supporter of American independence, Deane served as a delegate to the Continental Congress & then as the first US foreign diplomat when he travelled to France [by June 1776] to lobby the French government for aid. Deane was drawn into a major political row over his actions in Paris & subsequently endorsed Loyalist criticisms of American independence. Deane later lived in the Dutch Republic & Great Britain where he died." /// "Deane built the house in 1766. [In 1958] it was donated to the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in Connecticut, and in 1963-1965 it was restored. It is now a historic house museum & includes original furniture & portraits of Deane & his second wife. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972."

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February 1969 - The Ambassador's Wife. "I [MaDube] stumbled upon an article entitled 'The role of the Ambassadorís wife.' This article was actually published by the Journal of Marriage & Family (Volume. 31 No. 1) in February 1969 and written by a female professor with a PhD in Sociology, from the University of California, Berkeley. Seriously when I looked at this article my thought was 'what in the heavens was she thinking when she wrote this?' In her own words, her thesis sought to explore the role of the ambassadorís wife and in her introduction she stated; 'The role of the ambassadorís wife is largely shaped by her husbandís role and spokesman for the American government. This paper examines the way in which his job affects hers...' [the bold is mine] Yes in 1969 as in many other political and decision-making positions, the position of the Ambassador was predominantly male territory. However I cannot understand how an American professor could publish an academic article of this nature at a time when female ambassadors were not such a strange phenomenon. There might not have been as many female ambassadors as there are now but in my view an article of this nature only served to perpetuate the gender stereotype and the belief that only men could be ambassadors and women the ambassadorís wives. One can not help but develop an image of the ambassador's wife as the socialite, paying attention to the wining and dining of her husbandís guests while he talks politics."

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1972 - Second Memorial Plaque, East End, Diplomatic Lobby, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Erected in 1972 at the east end of the lobby, during the Vietnam War, carried a new inscription 'Erected by the American Foreign Service Association [AFSA] in honor of those Americans who have lost their lives abroad under heroic or other inspirational circumstances while serving the country abroad in foreign affairs.' This phrase was interpreted to comprehend the distinctive dangers, including terrorist acts, of life & work in the Foreign Service. Disease was generally no longer considered after World War II, & terrorism became the chief cause for inscription. In 1982, eligibility was extended to include US Government employees of other agencies serving at embassies, including military personnel. However, in 2005, due to the sharp increase in the number of non-Foreign Service civilians serving abroad from agencies that have their own memorials to fallen employees, the AFSA Governing Board re-instituted the original plaque criterion. In one other change, the AFSA Governing Board in 2001 established an additional criterion of 'in the line of duty' to cover Foreign Service members killed during the official performance of their durites even if not due to terrorist acts. The criteria were revised slightly again in 2011. /// There are 107 names on the west plaque and 128 on the east plaque, for a total of 235, as of May 2011. These Americans died in 63 different foreign countries, as well as at sea. It must be emphasized that the names on these plaques represent only a part of the total number of Americans who die of various causes while serving their country overseas. At the 2011 ceremony, we added one new name: That of Eugene F. Sullivan, a USAID Foreign Service Officer who died of black water fever in Ethiopia in 1972." This info is from AFSA website. Image shows Secretary of State Hillary Clinton at the 2009 ceremony. /// Click here for a "Find a Grave" index to the graves of many names from the two plaques.

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November 6, 1974 - Frank B. Kellogg House, St. Paul, Minnesota (USA). National Historic Landmark. Kellogg's permanent residence from 1889 until his death in 1937. Frank B. Kellogg [1856-1937] was Secretary of State 1925-1929 & received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929.


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April 29, 1975 - Evacuation of the American Embassy, Saigon (Viet-Nam). Left image shows the famous photograph of the Embassy taken by Hubert van Es of UPI during Operation Frequent Wind. Right image shows model of the Embassy (which Wikipedia says is in Ho Chi Minh City Museum and in the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan).

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1975 - Isaiah Wall, Ralph Bunche Park, East 43rd Street & First Avenue, New York City, New York (USA). Quotes Isaiah 2:4: "They shall beat their swords into plowshares." Shadow in image is cast by adjacent monument "Peace Form One" (see below). Entry #718 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Ralph Bunche [1903-1971] was an American diplomat & received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.

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1976 - Ralph Bunche Peace & Heritage Center, South Los Angeles, California (USA). Boyhood home of Ralph Bunche. Declared a Historic-Cultural Monument (HCM #159) in 1976 by the Los Angeles Cutural Heritage Commission & listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Ralph Bunche [1903-1971] was an American diplomat & received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.

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1976 - "United Nations Visit to Nashville" (historical marker), Nashville, Tennessee (USA). Text: "On June 7, 1976, 101 permanent representatives of the UN made a historic & unprecedented group visit to Nashville... [They] attended a forum at nearby Vanberbilt University, a special Tennessee luncheon in Centennial Park, and a special performance of the Grand Ole Opry. UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim [1918-2007] was presented the Cordell Hull Peace award [sic]... Historical Commission of Metropolitan Nashville & Davidson County. No. 70. Erected 1976." Cordell Hull [1871-1955] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. President Roosevelt called Hull the "Father of the UN." Click here for monuments related to all Nobel Peace Prize laureates. Click here for monuments related to the United Nations.

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1979 - Elihu Root House, 101 College Hill Road, Clinton, New York (USA). Purchased by Root as a summer home in 1893 Named to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972, at which time it was still owned by Root's descendants. Located on the campus of Hamilton College, an institution with which Root was affiliated throughout his life. The house was acquired by Hamilton College in 1979. Elihu Root [1845-1937] was the 38th Secretary of State 1905-1909 & received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912.


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November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981 - Iran hostage crisis. A diplomatic crisis between Iran & the USA where 52 Americans were held hostage for 444 days after a group of Islamist students & militants took over the American Embassy in Tehran in support of the Iranian Revolution. The episode reached a climax when, after failed attempts to negotiate a release, the US military attempted a rescue operation, Operation Eagle Claw, on April 24, 1980, which resulted in a failed mission, the destruction of two aircraft & the deaths of eight American servicemen & one Iranian civilian. Left image shows Great Seal of the United States at the former American Embassy in Tehran (Iran) as it appeared in 2004. Right image shows Iranian Embassy on Massaqchusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (seized by the Department of State during the crisis).


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1980 - Ringgold-Marshall Museum, DACOR Bacon House, 1801 F Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). "Features Americana, Asian & Foreign Service artwork, furniture, memorabilia & artifacts. Tours of the museumís two buildings are offered every Monday, Wednesday & Thursday from 2:30 pm to 4:30 pm. Founded in 1952, Diplomats & Consular Officers Retired (DACOR) is "a place to continue fostering interests in foreign affairs, to maintain and renew friendships, to celebrate shared lives in distant places & and to meet younger officers as they begin their careers." Bacon House was built in 1824-25 & donated to DACOR in 1980.

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Date? - AFSA Office Building, 2101 E Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Contains the offices of the American Foreign Service Association (AFSA). At one time, also contained the Foreign Service Club.

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1980 - "Peace Form One", Ralph Bunche Park, East 43rd Street & First Avenue, New York City, New York (USA). Stainless-steel obelisk 50 feet (15 meters) high, honoring Ralph Bunche [1903-1971]. Adjacent to the Isaiah Wall. The sculptor, Daniel Larue Johnson, was a personal friend of Bunche, and dedicated the sculpture to Bunche, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.Entry #731 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Ralph Bunche [1903-1971] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.


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Date? - House Museum & Memorial to Charles G. Dawes, Evanston Historical Society, 225 Greenwood Street, Evanston, Illinois (USA). Dawes lived here from 1909 until his death in 1951. Charles G. Dawes [1865-1951] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 & was US Ambassador to the UK 1929-1932.


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1985 - "Congress created the Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS), headed by the Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security, & the Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), headed by the Director of DSS, who is subordinate to the Assistant Secretary of State for DS. The first several Assistant Secretaries for DS were senior Foreign Service Officers; the last three have been senior law enforcement, brought in from other law enforcement agencies."


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1993 - Foreign Service Institute (FSI), Arlington Hall, Arlington Boulevard (U.S. Route 50) between South Glebe Road (Virginia Route 120) & South George Mason Drive, Arlington, Virginia (USA). On March 13, 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall announced the establishment of FSI. Today FSI is located at the George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center (NFATC), a "7-building campus that includes a conference/dining center, administrative building, diplomatic security building, visitorís center, gymnasium & central mechanical plant." The campus includes the historic main building of the former Arlington Hall Junior College for Women. Right image shows the college in 1942, the same year the US Army took possession under the War Powers Act for use by its Signals Intelligence Service.

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May 5, 1997 - Ralph J. Bunche Library, Room 3239, Harry S. Truman Building, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "The oldest Federal government library, founded by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson in 1789. It was dedicated to & renamed the Ralph J. Bunche Library on May 5, 1997." Ralph Bunche [1903-1971] received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950. Click here for other Ralph Bunche monuments.
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1997 - Cordell Hull Birthplace & Museum State Park, 1300 Cordell Hull Memorial Drive, Byrdstown, Pickett County, Tennessee (USA). Preserves Hull's birthplace, awards & various personal effects Hull donated to the citizens of Pickett County, including his 1945 Nobel Peace Prize. Cordell Hull [1871-1955] was the longest service Secretary of State (1933-1944). President Roosevelt called hime the "Father of the United Nations." Click here for other Cordell Hull monuments.

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October 24, 1998 - J. William Fulbright Peace Fountain, between Old Main & Vol Walker Hall, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas (USA). Designed by E. Fay Jones [1921-2004] & Maurice Jennings. "Honors J. William Fulbright [1905-1995], and his belief that 'education, particularly study abroad, has the power to promote tolerance & understanding among nations.'" Fulbright was president of this university 1939-1941. As US Senator, he chaired the Committee on Foreign Relations 1959-1974 & founded "Fulbright Program" which makes competitive, merit-based grants for international educational exchange by students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists & artists, Click here for webcam. Entry #28 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001).
Date? - Statue of J. William Fulbright, Old Main, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas


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After 1998 - August 7th Memorial Park, Nairobi (Kenya). Memorial at site of American Embassy destroyed by terrorist attack on August 7, 1998. "We went in to the visitors center to look around & read the stories. It was quite interesting to see it all. We also got to watch a half hour long video of exactly what happened. It reinacted the entire day & explained the FBI investigation that eventually led to the arrest of the terrorist. This terrorist attack that took place in 1998 is the largest attack in Africa thus far, and the sad part is it wasn't even against Africa, it was against the US. 218 people were killed in the attack, most of them being Africans." [From blog by Jay & Gina.]

2001 - "New State section of the "New War Building" is renamed the George C. Marshall Wing in 2001. The New War Building was erected under provisions of an act of Congress from 1939-1941 for the War Department. The Department of State moved into the New War Building, renamed New State Building, in 1947, when General George C. Marshall [1880-1959] entered as Secretary of State. In the new building, the Secretary's office was a large two-story room, with a private elevator on the fifth floor overlooking the main entrance on 21st Street. The Department has also dedicated space in the renovated wing for a museum of American diplomacy, a place for learning & inspiration, dedicated to exploring the history, practice & challenges of American diplomacy. It will engage visitors in learning how American diplomacy builds bridges among nations & people, in exploring the vital role it has played in the shaping of our nation & understanding its importance to every person every day. The Museum will bring to life the dramatic & moving stories of the people who have dedicated their lives to American diplomacy." "

November 2004 - "Renovation of the War Department Wing of the Main State Building & restoration of the office of George C. Marshall [1880-1959]. The Marshall Wing is currently being completely renovated to reverse the deteriorating condition of the building by replacing the antiquated building systems, upgrading the building to comply with current building standards & integrating state of the art building technology improvements to last well into the 21st century. Office space is being improved to provide a better quality of work life, while the significant original spaces & materials are retained & rehabilitated to preserve the historic qualities of the building. Restoration of the original two-story office occupied by Secretary Marshall & construction of a new Conference Center, Auditorium & Computer Center highlight the renovation & rehabilitation project."


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October 2005 - "CliffsTestPrep Foreign Service Officer Exam: Preparation for the Written Exam & the Oral Assessment" by Fred N. Grayson, John Wiley & Sons, 304 Pages, Softcover. Four parts about the Written Exam (Job Knowledge Test, English Expression Test, Biographic Information Questionnaire & Written Essay) plus one part about the Oral Assessment.

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May 30, 2006 - First Day of Issue, Distinguished American Diplomats series, Washington, DC (USA). Six stamps honoring Robert D. Murphy [1894-1978], Frances E. Willis [1899-1983], Clifton R. Wharton, Sr. [1899-1990], Hiram Bingham IV [1903-1988], Charles E. Bohlen [1904-1974] & Philip C. Habib [1920-1992]. /// Individuals in lower left photo (left to right): Susan Michaels (daughter of Philip C. Habib), Avis Bohlen (daughter of Charles E. Bohlen), Robert Kim Bingham (son of Hiram Bingham IV), John S. Gardner (Member, Board of Governors, U.S. Postal Service), James C. Miller III (Chairman, Board of Governors, US Postal Service), Honorable Rob Simmons (Member, US House of Representatives), Mildred Pond (daughter of Robert D. Murphy), Dr. Clifton R. Wharton, Jr. (son of Clifton R. Wharton), Sr. Sherene Gravatte (great niece of Frances E. Willis), David Failor (Executive Director, Stamp Services, US Postal Service), Dr. Nicholas Carter (President, American Philatelic Society). /// Lower right image is stamp for Hiram Bingham IV who, as Vice-Consul in Marseille, helped over 2,500 Jews flee France as Nazi forces advanced.

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December 5, 2007 - Plaque marking the office of General Leslie R. Groves, War Department Building (now Department of State, Bureau of Verification, Compliance & Implementation), 21st Street & Virginia Avenne, Washington, DC (USA). Not open to the public. General Groves commanded the Manhattan Project from this small office in Washington, DC, while most Manhattan Project activity took place elsewhere, particularly in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. N.B.: Atomic Heritage Foundation website no longer shows images of the plaque or ceremony on December 5, 2007.


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January 15, 2009 - Ceremony at Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice presents a plaque commemorating the enlargement of NATO to President George W. Bush at an event to celebrate his administration's foreign policy achievements. At the event, President Bush awarded Ambassador Ryan Crocker the Presidential Medal of Freedom." This occured five days before inauguration of Barak Obama. Where is this plaque now? Bush Museum?


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April 12-13, 2010 - Nuclear Security Summit, Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC (USA). Largest gathering of heads of state called by a US president since the San Francisco conference in 1945 (qv). Attended by 38 heads of state or government, 9 other governments, the European Union, the International Atomic Energy Agency & the United Nations. Focused on how to better safeguard weapons-grade plutonium & uranium to prevent nuclear terrorism. Described by The Washington Post as having the greatest concentration of security in Washington since the inauguration of Barack Obama. An area of several city blocks surrounding the site of the Summit was closed to traffic & parking.

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June 18, 2010 - FSI expansion. Christened by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton. "Nearly 100 new classrooms have been built, adding to the instituteís facilities that can now train as many as 60,000 students a year, according to Clinton. 'FSI once trained 3,000 students a year with a focus on orientation and language skills,' she said. 'The curriculum has been widened in order to provide more of the education & training that is called for, including classes in public diplomacy & outreach, crisis response & stabilization, economic governance & democracy building, & preparation for high-stress assignments to the most difficult posts in places like Iraq, Afghanistan & Pakistan... By adding nearly 100 classrooms, we will help ensure that FSI continues to provide the full training curriculum & the training experience. I mean, itís not just what you learn in the classroom. Itís the interactions. Itís the space to be able to spend time & learn from each other, the mentoring that goes on,Ē Clinton added. FSI, whose official name is George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center, was founded in 1947. It replaced the Foreign Service School, which was established in 1924. /// Click here for video.

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2010 - "Inside the State Department." "With a budget of $40 million a year & employees stationed inside over 190 countries around the globe, the US State Department faces a set of daunting challenges in the post-9/11 world. This revealing National Geographic documentary examines the workings of the department under President Obama, as led by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton. Includes coverage of Clinton's first stops in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Jerusalem & Africa. 50 minutes."
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2011 - "Inside a U.S. Embassy: Diplomacy at Work," American Foreign Service Association (AFSA). Third edition (ISBN 13: 978-0-9649488-4-6) edited by Shawn Dorman. "The essential guide to the Foreign Service. * Essential reading for anyone considering a Foreign Service career. * A unique introduction to the Foreign Service, used in colleges & universities nationwide. * A valuable guide for tourists & business travelers who may interact with a US mission overseas. * A primer for military personnel & contractors assigned overseas."

March 2011 - The new US Mission to the United Nations in New York City is named in memory of US Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown [1941-1966]. Speakers are President Obama, former President Clinton & US representative to the UN Ambassador Susan Rice. Brown & 34 others were killed when their US Air Force plane crashed approximately 3 kilometers north of the Dubrovnik Airport (Croatia).

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March 16, 2011 - Ambassador Richard Holbrooke Memorial Bridge, Salem Avenue, Dayton, Ohio (USA). "The Dayton City Commission unanimously agreed to honorarily name the Salem Avenue Bridge as Ambassador Richard Holbrooke Memorial Bridge in honor of [Richard Holbrooke [1941-2010],] the deceased [American] diplomat who negotiated the Dayton [Peace] Accords at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in 1995." In November 2005, Holbrooke accepted the Dayton Peace Prize but donated its cash award to the Dayton International Peace Museum. He died in December 2010."

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March 22, 2011 - Amsary Peace Dove, US Institute of Peace (USIP), Constitution Avenue at 23rd Street, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Within sight of the Department of State. White roof evokes the wings of a dove, but visible as a dove only from above. World's largest peace dove? The structure has been named after Hushang Ansary, the [Iranian-American] philanthropist & business leader from Houston, Texas." By coincidence, the monument was inaugurated by President George HW Bush at exactly the time US warplanes had started bombing Libya on orders from the incumbent Barack Obama. At a ceremony the following night, all four former presidents still living were present. The guests might have remembered that, in one way or another, all four had been involved in wars. In fact, all 44 men who have served as US president so far have been involved in at least one war." Is this true?


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September 27, 2011 - "We Meant Well: How I helped lose the battle for the hearts and minds of the Iraqi people" by Foreign Service Officer Peter Van Buren. Described the author's service in Iraq as leader of an embedded Provincial Reconstruction Team (ePRT). According to Robert Kaplan in the Atlantic, PRT's are "smoke and mirrors operations.... As a concept, they have been successfully sold to the outside world, but they have yet to be sufficiently staffed and bureaucrtically developed. They provide useful fodder for pep talks to the media, but on the ground, they run the risk of irrelevance."

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November 15, 2011 - Historical Marker, Pimmit Run at Chain Bridge, Arlington, Virginia (USA). At trailhead for Pimmit Run trail under the GW Parkway Bridge, where it crosses over Glebe Road at Chain Bridge Road. "During the War of 1812, State Department clerk Stephen Pleasonton gathered the Declaration of Independence, journals of the Continental Congress, correspondence of George Washington & other valuable papers & placed them in bags which he hid in the grist mill at Pimmit Run. The documents were later moved to Leesburg for safekeeping until they could be safely returned to the federal city." Marker dedication attended by Perri Green, AFSA Special Awards & Outreach Coordinator. Click here to read the marker.
1855 - Grave of Stephen Pleasonton [1776?-1855], Congressional Cemetery, Washington, DC (USA).


January 2012 - This website is named SITE OF THE MONTH by the Foreign Service Journal, vol. 89, no. 1, page 10 (published by American Foreign Service Association, Washington, DC, (USA). "...One section is devoted to monuments to the U.S. Foreign Service. In effect, this page is an illustated history of the Service, apparently the first time such a compilation has ever been attempted online. Among many other features, it includes photos of 36 American embassies and consulates from around the world."



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December 2012? - Global Peacebuilding Center (GPC), US Institute of Peace (USIP), 23rd Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC (USA). Formerly called Public Education Center (PEC). Official ground breaking for new USIP headquarters building took place June 5, 2008 -- 24 years after the creation of USIP. Building opened in 2011. It includes a training center for professional conflict managers, conference space for public & private meetings & office space for USIP staff. But 20,000 square free space for PEC remains empty (as seen in lower two images made Nov. 1, 2011). Entry #1169 in the "Peace Movement Directory" by James Richard Bennett (2001). Discussed by Tom Flores (2008). Click here for the Wikipedia article.


United States
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Future - Foreign Service Memorial Markers. "AFSA expects to launch a Foreign Service Memorial Marker Program in the near future. The marker, which is five inches in diameter, is made of architectural bronze and etched with a simiplified Great Seal of the Unites States and the words 'United States Foreign Service.' Our aim is to provide a grave marker, similar to those used by the branches of the military, that will memorialize & celebrate the service of Foreign Service personnel and their spouses and partners." [AFSA Newsletter, September 2011, page 6.]

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Future - National Museum of American Diplomacy, George C. Marshall Wing, US Department of State, Washington, DC (USA). "Plans are nearing their final stages, & designers went crazy in drawing up the interior display panels for the new US Diplomacy Center: Renderings show Richard Serra-like display panels for Hall I. According to the project narrative, these 'U-shaped enclosures [will] receive visitors to the Department & the world of diplomacy.' It's like soft power in museum form! According to a pre-solicitation just posted by the GSA, the whole shebang is budgeted somewhere between $18 & $24 million." [Washington City Paper, May. 17, 2011] /// "There arenít many things that unite every living former Secretary of State, pundits & academics, Republicans & Democrats, as well as AFSA & State Department management. One thing that does is the 'United States Diplomacy Center,' the museum of American diplomacy that currently has a staff of seven working on plans, over $1.0 million in dedicated private funding sitting in the bank & 20,000 square feet of vacant prime space in the newly renovated east wing of the Main State building, all just waiting to be used. And waiting, and waiting, and waiting..." [Anthony Holmes, Foreign Service Journal (FSJ), American Foreign Service Association (AFSA), May 2007] /// "The diplomatic museum concept has been around for at least 12 years, yet very little has happened. In the meantime, the Marine Corps built a snazzy museum at Quantico and, I hear, the Army is about to break ground on a new museum at Fort Belvoir. What is it that prevents the State Department from making this happen? A museum at State is a great idea and long overdue..." [Douglas R. Keene, Foreign Service Journal (FSJ), American Foreign Service Association (AFSA), July-August 2007] /// "We are working with management to increase public awareness of our profession, such as fuller use of the oral history project & projects related to the creation of a Foreign Service museum." [Daniel Hirsch, Foreign Service Journal (FSJ), American Foreign Service Association (AFSA), June 2011] /// Bottom image shows site as of November 1, 2011, with no evidence of any museum construction.

A Sample of American Embassies & Consulates


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